© 2018 B. L. Freeborn
In the previous section the idea that Earth’s magnetic field is solely the result of the moving liquid core was reviewed.
There is another way to view the process. It is proposed that the magnetic properties of Earth are primarily held within the solid core and solid outer shell. The resultant magnetism is the sum of both the properties of the solid materials themselves and the magnetism induced over extensive periods of time into the composite structure by a consistent flow of convective materials in the liquid core. The orientation is held in the solid materials and need not be constantly generated by the randomly moving liquid.
Continuing along this line, the Earth is obviously not a completely coherent object. A single magnet has absolute coherence regardless of size and strength. An arrangement of an infinite number of magnets in any material that does not exhibit magnetic properties as a whole occurs because the magnets are not a coherent system. As coherency develops in the system magnetic properties are exhibited. This is how magnetism is induced in a needle simply by stroking it. Coherency can be induced in more than one way to ‘create’ or ‘induce’ magnetism. The Earth must have enough coherence, although a conglomerate, since it exhibits a dominant dipole system which we call its magnetic poles.
Applying the idea of a quadrupolar field model (see previous section) requires that Earth (a predominately solid 3-D sphere) become so disorganized that it loses a great deal of its coherence. Since the bulk of Earth on the exterior is dense rock, and additionally, it has a large solid core, making it lose its coherence so that it loses its dominant magnetic dipole field becomes literally a shattering of the planet which obviously has not happened in a very long time. In contrast, if we are to believe the Pétrélis article, referenced in the previous section, then the flow within the liquid core is strong enough to create a magnetic dipole at anytime that can overcome the sum magnetic fields laid down over time in the remaining 65% of the solid planet.
Above is a video by magnetism guru Ken Wheeler showing how magnets affect a mixture of iron filings in fluid. Many other videos can be found on youtube.
By maintaining the magnetic orientation in the solid structures the fluctuations caused by the moving liquid core are dampened. The moving liquid core is agitated during large comet impacts which must occur more frequently then modern scientists will allow. The liquid core must also move in response to the attraction/repelling of particles between the two magnetized structures it resides between in addition to convection. (See Ferro-Fluid video above.) The system must run down (become incoherent and stationary) and thus lose its magnetic nature over time without periodic inputs of energy as would be supplied by large comet impacts. Indeed, the interior of the planet itself would cool perhaps solidifying this liquid core without such inputs of energy. As discussed in “A Planet Most Miraculous” the Earth is well suited to absorbing large impacts.
By assuming that the dipole of magnetism we experience as the North and South poles is primarily held in the exterior layer some 1800 miles thick or 45% of the diameter of the planet which can move relatively freely around on the inner liquid core explains several observed phenomena. The core is considered to be solid iron which is one of the most ‘magnetizable materials’ in existence. It comprises 20% of the diameter of the planet. In addition, it is at the center of a large gravitational body and what is gravity but magnetism under a different name. By assuming that this inner core of the planet is another magnetic structure with its own orientation which tends to remain fixed in the True North-True South position explains other observed phenomena. These two structures account for 65% of the diameter and provide ample storage for the Earth’s magnetism.
As explained in “A Planet Most Miraculous: The Mechanics of Earth’s Rotating Crust” the entire outer structure of the planet can be acted upon which will cause the exterior magnetic poles to shift to a different position with respect to the ecliptic plane but remain in the same position with respect to its physical location on Earth. The magnetic dipole field we observe, measure and live by is largely a function of this programmed magnetically coherent conglomerate outer bulk. This is a very important point so it will be explained further.
Let us say that very recently (5000 to 13000 years ago) True North and Magnetic North coincided at the True North Pole. The physical location was in the midst of Hudson Bay at the lowest large arc. But! – Hudson Bay existed not as it is but as a mountainous ice field at the True North Pole. It was many miles high. (The highest mountain in Antarctica is three miles.) A large comet strikes the north pole into this mountainous icy region. It bores a deep hole which gives it a leverage point in which to catch. Combining this with its velocity and mass it is able to transfer its momentum to the structure of Earth. It shifts the outer mantle and crust entirely just like a wheel moves on an inner bearing and it stops at latitude 56.5 degrees north and goes no further. (Why it stops here is discussed in later sections.) The heat of the comet and its velocity allow it to break through the ice. Its fragments ricochet to form the Great Lakes. Large volumes of ice also ricochet to form other structures such as the Carolina Bays. The ice mountains have been transformed into the three arcs of Hudson Bay. This is an area some 400 miles wide and a 1000 miles long once covered by three miles or more of ice or 1.2 million cubic miles of ice. It was instantly melted and so the legend of the Deluge begins.
Afterwards magnetic north lies at 56.5 degrees north. It has shifted 33.5 degrees. In this location it remained for a few thousand years until the magnetic pole gradually shifted northwards. It has moved rapidly over the last 400 years or so to take up its present position. Now it will slowly circle the True North Pole in a clockwise direction. This will be discussed again later in more detail but for the time being understand the following. If the dominant magnetic field of Earth was not essentially within the outer 45% of the planet, it would not have shifted during the impact. There would never have been a two pole (True-Magnetic) system. The stable configuration has now been achieved in the North again and the Southern Poles are slowly moving into realignment. This will hopefully be a good long superchron until the planet is hit again and the process starts all over.
The fact that the magnetic poles are realigning to true north-south suggests that the solid inner core’s magnetic field is the more stable part of this system. This is logical from the standpoint that the very dense core, as an inner spherical magnet made of iron, throws its field entirely through the outer layers especially the liquid outer core. The reverse cannot be said of a hollow sphere magnet (the outer crust which is a conglomerate), nor can it be said of the liquid core. This throwing outwards through the liquid core gives scientists the impression that the liquid core has a substantially stronger field (50 times more powerful) than the solid core or outer crust. But remember, the field of a magnet is thrown outwards, hence the liquid core is substantially under the influence of the solid core.
Recall that a magnet draws material to it and a strong magnet is able to highly compact its ‘atoms’ into a lattice structure. (Chemists successfully use the atomic model to understand the process although it is has its limits.) Two things occur as a magnet becomes more powerful. There is more sharing of electrons and the crystal structure becomes more dense. It is the magnetic properties of the individual atoms (magnetic moment of electron spin) that confers magnetism on the sum of the material. When working in unison the magnetic properties of the individual atoms grows exponentially as resonance develops. (1) With this understanding we realize then that the solid core is 50 times more magnetic than the liquid core. Not the reverse as commonly understood.
Overtime the inner iron core programs the outer crust and they become in-sync. The longer it is stable the more in-sync they become and the magnetic field of Earth appears to become stronger. During a large comet impact this bulk retains its magnetic orientation as it is shifted away and it dominates until the solid inner core reprograms it. (As we are experiencing now). What Pétrélis and others see as a quadrupole is actually a ‘broken magnet.’ (To be discussed in a later section.)
Other observed phenomena will be discussed going forward.
More to come…. in the next section. Back to previous section. Back to Index and beginning.
(1) Nebergall, William, Schmidt, Frederic, Holtzclaw, Henry, “General Chemistry”, Lexington, Ma.: D.C. Heath and Co.,1976, pg. 771 -788.