B.L. Freeborn © December 2022        (PDF version here.)

Shugborough Inscription beneath Anson’s Version of Poussin’s Et In Arcadia Ego – From Wikipedia

The Shugborough Inscription is a sequence of letters ‘OUOSVAVV’ on the first line and ‘DM’ spaced far apart on the second line. It is on a monument built between 1748 and1756 commissioned by Thomas Anson. Above it is a relief by sculptor Peter Scheemakers which is a variation of the Poussin painting Et in Arcadia ego. The famous painting by Nicolas Poussin displays this inscription on a tomb. It translates from Latin as ‘I am also in Arcadia.’ This inscription has eleven letters on top and three on bottom. The Poussin painting was done in 1637-1638. He did an earlier version in 1627. Previous to this, Guercino painted a similar but different version in 1618-1622. The original inspiration is a poem by Roman poet Virgil known as Ecologues. In this poem from 40 BC the inscription on the tomb of Daphnis is described. The tomb is in ‘Arcades.’ Daphnis was a shepherd in ancient Greek mythology.

Although the number of shepherds changes from two to three as the work progresses they all include a tomb. At some point in time the full phrase ‘Et in Arcadia ego’ was developed. The fact that Anson invokes this phrase and adds several elements to it suggests there is more to it besides his still undeciphered cipher some 270 years later.

It would seem he saw something in Et in Arcadia ego that others had not and added the lower inscription as a clue to revealing what is in the original phrase which is most definitely a cipher as well.

Indeed, his efforts resulted in creating a perplexing mystery. The solution to Anson’s ‘OUOSVAVV’ and to the riddle concealed in Et in Arcadia ego follow.


Image Details

Et in Arcadia Ego, relief of painting by Poussin at Shugborough – From Wikipedia

Before solving it, note what the image gives us:
• A woman on the left stands tall but looks down.
• The sky is tumultuous. On the upper coffin is a round wreath.
• Her right arm is bent and rests on her hip. It forms an arc.
• There are 3 shepherds each of whom has a staff. One leans to the left by the woman. The other two lean to the right. Two of the staffs seem to join at the bottom in a very large V.
• Two of the shepherds gesture at the inscription. Their thumbs are out creating V’s. It is said they are pointing at the N and R but in fact they frame the letter A.
• The third shepherd rests his arm on the tomb with 3 fingers together. This also appears in the Poussin version.
• Their arms form two arcs. The Poussin uses a shadow to depict a third arm /arc.
• While the other three look at the inscription, the shepherd on the left looks directly at the observer with a smile on his face.

Is he laughing because this is a riddle? With those images in mind, the solutions move forward.

Cipher #1: O U O S V I V V – D M

For background purposes:
Many alphabets have numerical equivalents for their letters called gematria. Hebrew, Greek and Futhork are three which have gematria. Hebrew and Greek gematria are still in use today. Then to complicate matters, just slightly, do not forget there are also Roman Numerals which are letters as well. The solution requires the Hebrew gematria – first.

The gematria used by Anson is:

  • O is A or 70.    U is Vav or 6.    S is S or 60.
  • D is D or 4.   M is M or 40. 
  • The I is both 10 and /or Roman numeral 1. 
  • V is Vav or 6, but then again it is also a 5 as in a Roman V.

The O and U are reversed. There is only one S. The I is in the correct position but there is no N. However, there is an M just below. In Hebrew gematria M has value 40 and N has value 50.
There are two V’s where there should be an N. Two Roman V’s equal 10 and 40 + 10 = 50 ⇒ N. Missing N found. ✓

It is convenient that the UO is reversed because then by putting the D in front the word DUO can be spelled. An S follows. Perhaps he meant a DUO of S’s. Missing S found. ✓

The first letter is O and as stated previously it has value 70. The P in Hebrew has value 80. Once again add two V’s or 10 and find 70 + 10 = 80 ⇒ P. ✓

Notice that the DO creates the word ‘do’ which refers to Poussin. He did it. Similarly, if the V’s are replaced by N the last two letters spell NM which sounds remarkably like ‘name.’

The inscription then simply reads: DO POUSSIN NaMe. – – One mystery solved. ✓

By creating this exercise, Anson has shown us several clues to resolve the riddle in the original inscription. Note that it required two numeric systems to solve it (Hint #1) and more importantly, fixed the value of the O’s at 70 (Hint #2).

Before going further, see this puzzle in a new way – as an image. It has 3 V’s. (This is similar to the V’s and three formed by the shepherds’ hands.) It has a pattern OUO. Recall this used Hebrew gematria and the name of god in Hebrew is Yahweh spelled יהוה. It portrays the same alternating pattern. The numbers in Yahweh are 565 10.

We must pause for a moment for a bit of seemingly irrelevant information. In drafting, when drawing an image of an object, two versions are often shown: the plan view – as if one is looking down; and the side view – as if one is looking at the side. Now – in your minds eye – look at the O’ and U’s as if they are plan and side views of an object. This will be called Anson’s Big Hint.

These -3- letters are followed by an S. Recall S often represents the word South. This idea will repeat later.

Cipher #1 Numbers

This requires numbers for a while…distasteful to many… lovely to others.

  • Yahweh or יהוה or 565 10 can be seen in the last four letters. The V is 5 and then VI is 6. Two V’s is 10. In the fifth and sixth position from the left is V and I. This is 5th and 6th then 5 and 6.

Fully substituting now for the phrase but using only Hebrew gematria it equates to:

70 6 70 60 6 10 6 6
     4 40

  • Find 76 twice at the start. And it repeats again with 70 60. It repeats again with 60,6,10.
  • If the last four are seen as Roman numerals 5 1 5 5 = 16 and 60. Together 16+60 = 76.
  • The last four as shown sum to 28. The pattern of the layout is 2 letters and 8 letters or 28. The product of 4 (on line two) and 70 is 280.
  • The 4 repeats in the 40. They sum to 44. The top line sums to 234.
  • If the I is seen as a Roman 1, then the top line sum is 225 and 4 x 225 is 900.
  • If the I is seen as a Roman 1, the sum from 60 right becomes 79. The remaining numbers sum to 190. See this as a series 79,190…..or…. 7919.
  • There are four 6’s or 24.

Let’s give some of these meaning.

  • The period of Halley’s comet is 76 years.
  • There are 24 hours in a day and 24 hours of longitude mark the planet.
  • Each hour has 60 minutes.
  • The number of seconds of longitude is 86400. This is also the number of seconds in a day. Half of this is 432,000 or 432 for short. Reverse this number and find 234.
  • The 900 reminds one the pole lies at 90̊.
  • The diameter of the planet is 7920 miles.
  • The 28 is repeated twice so it must be important. Indeed, a 40 is present and a square of sides 40 has a diagonal of 56.56 which is a number similar to that just seen above.

All but two of the numbers reference time and/or longitude. One reference is to God and the other is to a comet.

How many of these numbers will repeat in that first phrase ET IN ARCADIA – EGO?


To continue, we convert these lines to their numeric equivalent in Hebrew.

  • Each line begins with 79. (70+9) and (70+3+6). T to A (9+10+50+10) is also 79 and it is followed by 200. This is 79200.
  • Sum of top line (376) minus second line (79) is 297. A jumbled 792.
  • IN (10+50) provides 60.
  • NA (50+1) provides 51.
  • I to R (10+50+10+200) provides 270.
  • N and O (50+6) provides 56. The number of letters on the first line is 11 and on the second is 3 so together as 113 it is twice 56.5.
  • From C to A (20+1+4+10+1) is 36.

This much shorter list gives us 51, 36, 376 and 270 that are new.

  • There are 360̊ in a circle.
  • Due west is at 270̊.
  • The Greenwich Meridian is at latitude 51.51̊.
  • 3 76 should be seen as 3 and 76. We have seen the 3 in the Big Hint OUO.

Evidently then, these numbers do relate to longitude and latitude.

The following important note is made. Normally E should equal 1 and A should equal 70. If this arrangement is chosen, nothing is found. Anson did the same manipulation in his riddle. ‘O’ normally has value 6 but he changed it to 70.

The original phrase Virgil used in his poem was only ‘Arcades.’ Someone in turn added the ET IN and EGO with the latter on the second line and changed ‘Arcades’ to ‘Arcadia.’ Presumably this was done in the same manner we say American for someone from America. The endings are just a change in suffix.

Let’s make it worse. After all, Hint #1 suggests two gematrias may be in play here. Having tried Latin and found nothing, the next one attempted was Futhork. This alphabet is used primarily only by the most northern peoples. This inscription is very reminiscent of their style of runic riddles except in Latin letters. Since positioning is of great importance to runic riddles, it is likely the E was aligned under or almost under the I when this was first written. Furthermore, since it is in Latin and Hebrew gematria provides numbers of interest, it is likely the writer was extremely well educated. So, we proceed by using the Younger Futhork. (E and I share value 9. See chart at end.)

This seems random except the 5 and 6 follow each other. So we begin there:

  • RC is 56.
  • NGO is 864.
  • Sum from R to end is 43.
  • Sum of phrase ‘In Arcadia’ is 70. There are two 9’s one above the other and to the left is (9+12) or 21 so…70, 9,21 or… 7921.
    The letters IN provide 98 which reminds one 89 x 89 = 7920.
  • Sum from first I to last I is 60.
  • Sum from first I to R is 32. Sum of ADIA is 32.
  • Sum from first I to D is 51.
  • Sum from C to last I is 28.
  • Sum of A above O is 14.
  • 9+9 = 18.
  • Sum of the top line is 91 and of the second is 19. Note 91 in reverse is 19.

A few of these are new but actually repeat the same ideas.

  • 14 is half of 28 which is half of 56.
  • 32 is 5.65 x 5.65.
  • There are 180̊ degrees of latitude.
  • There are 19 lines in the Easter table. (See below.)

Evidently, it is far from random! Indeed, it can be summed as follows to find something else of great interest.

When was ‘he’ in Arcadia

This is a date. All the runic riddles, as shown by Alf Mongé (1967), are dated via the Easter Tables. This form of calendar was invented in 525 AD by Dionysius Exiguus but was in use in other forms since 390 AD. In the Easter Tables (used to place Easter – a moveable holiday) each year is identified by three numbers: Line #, Golden Number (GN) and Day Letter (DL). There are 19 lines for 532 years and then the calendar recycles. Each line represents 28 years by GN and DL. Each DL tells what day of the week the year started. (The period of years during which these runic riddles were being written is covered by the appended chart.)

‘Vinland: 1011’ As seen Spirit Pond Map Stone

Above we see how a year date is implied by the riddle master. The date should appear twice. Once literally and once at least by confirmation with Line #, GN and DL. One must proceed somewhat by trial and error. Notice the 15. If this is a Line #, it begins with year 1000. Numbers 1010, 1011 and 1012 are present. The first, 1010 has GN 4, DL 1 which is indicated by the 4 next to the 15. Year 1011 and year 1012 are indicated by GN’s 5 and 6 which appear just above them. They have DL’s 7 and 5,6 (leap year) respectively. The DL’s for 1012 are just above. There is no 7 or sum to 7. This gives a span of years from 1010 to 1012 which is very significant. The Spirit Pond runestone SP-3 from Maine dates itself to 1010 and 1011. Also part of the same collection, the amulet stone clearly states Vin 1010; and the Map Stone states Vinland 1011. It can be said then there is support for this interpretation. But it gets better….

Who Wrote It

We know Virgil wrote the original phrase ‘Arcades’ about the year 40 BC. The age of Rome and widespread Paganism. We know Poussin and Guercino both immortalized it around 1630 in its present form. The era of the Pilgrams and witch trials. The above dating suggests that before or in the year 1010 ‘someone’ added the Et In /Ego to the phrase. The era when northern kings of Norway, Denmark and Sweden chose Christianity and began to oppress Paganism earnestly. Anson added his own two lines to those words around 1750. The age when freedom of religion was beginning to take shape. Who then added those three words during the era of Pagan oppression in the north?

Fortunately, many of these encrypted riddles do include the name of the author. Often it is concealed in the telestic/acrostic lines. These are the end letters running down or up the left and right sides of the inscription. In this case EE/AO reveals nothing. Now one should check the letters from both ends as noted by the word count for each line. In this case there are three words on the first line and one on the second. The third letters in, on the first line, are I and D. The first letters on the second are E and O. This is IE from the left and DO from the right.

The letters tell us two things. Anson also found this since he repeated the same ‘DO’ in his riddle. The name of the writer is then IE. But, this is a problem. It is not a name but the Latin phrase ‘ie.’ which is still in use. It essentially means ‘to restate’ or ‘as stated.’ The name then is obvious. ??? It turns out EGO is a male name of Swedish/ Danish/ Norwegian origin. But the text also uses the word ET which means in Latin ‘and.’ Interestingly, another name is also apparent at the same point in the inscription: IN and below it GE – Inge. So it reads:

INGE ET EGO DO – IN ARCADIA – 1010 – 1012

Inge and Ego wrote this – who were in Arcadia in 1010 to 1012

Another mystery appears. Where was Arcadia of the myths and was it a real place in 1010?

Conceal and Anagram

It has become blatantly obvious something else is concealed here. As it happens often in these riddles when an acrostic or telestic requires a letter in a certain position something will be misspelled or words will be compressed together. Let us look at it again. Perhaps if the D is used twice and EGO becomes AGO then it reads:


Now note: ET spells ‘eat’and AD means ‘fire’ in Old English. It means ‘hell’ in Russian. DI can be taken to mean ‘die’ and ago means ‘in the past.’ Now the phrase becomes: Eat in arc, fire, die, A – a long time ago.

It was eaten in an arc. By fire died A – a long time ago.

The letter framed by the shepherds hands was A. This then is a tomb in memory of ‘A.’ Sound strange? It is about to get even stranger.

We have just assumed the word spacing was compressed. What if this contains anagrams? What words do we see? Die, eat, go, roc(k), net, near, gore, dare, tear, gear, care, gone, ran. And then there is that Big Hint Anson gave…cup or was it a can?

Perhaps this says: ET I I CANADA GORE

No? We can be relatively certain this is the intended meaning by looking at the gematria in Hebrew:

ET I I CANADA       70 9 10 10 20 1 50 1 4 1

GORE                        3 6 200 70

These are found: 7920, 40, 60, 51, 51, 56, 77, 141 and 36, 270, 279. All of which were seen above. But again we have compressed CANADA into one word. Should it be CAN 141? Or CAN AD A? Either way, the whole thing becomes strange. Were Ego and Inge actually in Canada in 1010? Was it even called Canada then?

Virgil used the word ‘Arcades’ and it was where ‘Daphnis’ the shepherd was from. In Latin: ‘arc’ is arc, ‘cade’ is fall, ‘ad’ is to, and ‘caed’ is kill (the root of cadaver). It ends in S. Together it is: arc-fall to death-S. Whereas, Daphnis is not quite so obvious. It is four words together as well: hid-pan-I-S or hid-pan-eye-S. The ending ‘nis’ is remarkably close to ‘N is S’ and English ‘ness’ seen in other runic riddles. A study of many of the names Virgil used are like this. Perhaps the common theme here is Paganism.

It was eaten in an arc. By fire died A – a long time ago.

Inge and Ego wrote this – who were in Canada in 1010 to 1012

Remember – history is written by the victor.

The remainder of the secret is now easy to grasp, if the mind is willing.

Image at Virgil’s Tomb is reminiscent of Ragnarok.


Previous Post          Next Post

From Wikipedia

Similar Articles by the Same Author

** For numeric background see:

**Freeborn, B.L., Validating North American Runic Inscriptions,, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Deciphering the Spirit Pond, Nomans Land and Narragansett Runic Inscriptions,, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Nomans Land – Leif Eriksson Inscription,, December 2022. (An excerpt from the above.)

Freeborn, B.L., Et in Arcadia Ego – OUOSVAVV DM – Deciphered,, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Kensington Stone’s Secret Lairs,, February 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Lifting the Veil of Time off the Rökstone of Sweden,, April 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Runic Riddles: Time Capsules,, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Runic Riddles: Younger Futhork,, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Narragansett Inscription: A Translation with its Date of Dedication, Author and Inscriber,, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Newport Tower: Finding the Date of Dedication, its Designer and Builder,, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Vinland Map – Encoded Riddle,, February 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Ancient Riddles to Test Our Wits: The Secret Chamber,, January 2016. (Two parts: post and page)


Gordon, Cyrus, Riddles in History, Crown Publishers, Inc. New York, 1974.

Landsverk, O.G., Runic Records of the Norsemen in America, Erik J. Friis, Publisher, Rushford, MN, 1974.

Mongé, Alf & O.G. Landsverk, Norse Medieval Cryptography in Runic Carvings, Norseman Press, Glendale, California, 1967.

Derogatory article by Aslak Liestol of Alf Mongé’s work:  and…. Landsverk responded to these comments in Ancient Norse Messages pg. 126-129; and often in Runic Records of the Norsemen in America.

Wikipedia articles on: Guercino ‘Et in Arcadia Ego’ ; Virgil ; Poussin ‘Et in Arcadia Ego’ ; Shugborough Inscription ; and many others.

Previous Post          Next Post

The Mighty Religion of….? Baal?

Sketch of Wilmington Tablet

Sketch of Wilmington Tablet from J. Ralston Skinner’s 1885 article.

© 2018 B. L. Freeborn

In prior posts the idea that ancient art describes the events of a great comet impact and an associated crustal displacement was discussed. The search for further support from ancient records then turned to language and in particular to one possible and pervasive religion that spread ideas and thereby its language.

This religion has to have existed over a broad span of time and a vast distance encompassing many peoples and environments. There is no reason to expect that the name of this religion was one and the same for all places in all times, just as Christianity presents under such vastly different names as Catholic, Anglican, Protestant, Baptist, Episcopal, Methodist, Church of Christ, etc. One might expect that this religion will also appear under different names.

Baal, a Statute from Ugarit.14th to 12th BC. Louvre, Wikipedia,

Baal, a Statute from Ugarit.14th to 12th BC. Louvre, Wikipedia,

It is proposed here that the religion was that of Baal. Baalism has been touched upon many times in prior posts. It is very poorly understood today, if at all, and often attributed to only a small geographical region in the vicinity of Canaanite, particularly Ugarit.

However, place names suggest otherwise. Baalbek; Baltic Sea; Temple of Bel in Syria; Belluton, England; the Baltic States and region; Bel (Celtic god); Bel (Babylonian god); Bel, Iran; Bel, Romania; Baal described in the Old Testament; Baal, Netherlands; Baal, Belgium; Babylon of old, ……etc.

There are religious references such as Beltane in the British Isles, The Tower of Babel, and the Bible (when pronounced bi-baal). So, there is ample evidence that, whoever or whatever Baal was, belief in it was widely dispersed across time and place which makes it an ideal candidate.

Previous to Christianity there was Judaism. The Old Testament, which is a Judaic document, describes in I Kings 18 the killing of 450 priests of Baal, so Judaism did not develop in a vacuum. Baalism was evidently pervasive there and in other places. The art that has been reviewed throughout these posts was from a variety of cultures so it is impossible to affix one name to the religion. The religion shall be defined here as ‘Baalism’ simply because Baal seems to be a prevalent word.

Logically, the next goal will be a study of the Indo-European Language to see what can be learned. However! People have been doing that for 400 years. So, the path taken here will be an entirely different approach than has ever been tried before.

The next post ………….. will jump knee-deep into the unknown we know so very well!

Back to previous post

Back to start of article

Earth’s Magnetism has Gone to Ground

© 2018 B. L. Freeborn

In the previous section the idea that Earth’s magnetic field is solely the result of the moving liquid core was reviewed.

There is another way to view the process. It is proposed that the magnetic properties of Earth are primarily held within the solid core and solid outer shell. The resultant magnetism is the sum of both the properties of the solid materials themselves and the magnetism induced over extensive periods of time into the composite structure by a consistent flow of convective materials in the liquid core. The orientation is held in the solid materials and need not be constantly generated by the randomly moving liquid.

Continuing along this line, the Earth is obviously not a completely coherent object. A single magnet has absolute coherence regardless of size and strength. An arrangement of an infinite number of magnets in any material that does not exhibit magnetic properties as a whole occurs because the magnets are not a coherent system. As coherency develops in the system magnetic properties are exhibited. This is how magnetism is induced in a needle simply by stroking it. Coherency can be induced in more than one way to ‘create’ or ‘induce’ magnetism. The Earth must have enough coherence, although a conglomerate, since it exhibits a dominant dipole system which we call its magnetic poles.

Applying the idea of a quadrupolar field model (see previous section) requires that Earth (a predominately solid 3-D sphere) become so disorganized that it loses a great deal of its coherence. Since the bulk of Earth on the exterior is dense rock, and additionally, it has a large solid core, making it lose its coherence so that it loses its dominant magnetic dipole field becomes literally a shattering of the planet which obviously has not happened in a very long time. In contrast, if we are to believe the Pétrélis article, referenced in the previous section, then the flow within the liquid core is strong enough to create a magnetic dipole at anytime that can overcome the sum magnetic fields laid down over time in the remaining 65% of the solid planet.

Above is a video by magnetism guru Ken Wheeler showing how magnets affect a mixture of iron filings in fluid. Many other videos can be found on youtube.

By maintaining the magnetic orientation in the solid structures the fluctuations caused by the moving liquid core are dampened. The moving liquid core is agitated during large comet impacts which must occur more frequently then modern scientists will allow. The liquid core must also move in response to the attraction/repelling of particles between the two magnetized structures it resides between in addition to convection. (See Ferro-Fluid video above.) The system must run down (become incoherent and stationary) and thus lose its magnetic nature over time without periodic inputs of energy as would be supplied by large comet impacts. Indeed, the interior of the planet itself would cool perhaps solidifying this liquid core without such inputs of energy. As discussed in “A Planet Most Miraculous” the Earth is well suited to absorbing large impacts.

By assuming that the dipole of magnetism we experience as the North and South poles is primarily held in the exterior layer some 1800 miles thick or 45% of the diameter of the planet which can move relatively freely around on the inner liquid core explains several observed phenomena. The core is considered to be solid iron which is one of the most ‘magnetizable materials’ in existence. It comprises 20% of the diameter of the planet. In addition, it is at the center of a large gravitational body and what is gravity but magnetism under a different name. By assuming that this inner core of the planet is another magnetic structure with its own orientation which tends to remain fixed in the True North-True South position explains other observed phenomena. These two structures account for 65% of the diameter and provide ample storage for the Earth’s magnetism.

As explained in “A Planet Most Miraculous: The Mechanics of Earth’s Rotating Crust” the entire outer structure of the planet can be acted upon which will cause the exterior magnetic poles to shift to a different position with respect to the ecliptic plane but remain in the same position with respect to its physical location on Earth. The magnetic dipole field we observe, measure and live by is largely a function of this programmed magnetically coherent conglomerate outer bulk. This is a very important point so it will be explained further.

Let us say that very recently (5000 to 13000 years ago) True North and Magnetic North coincided at the True North Pole. The physical location was in the midst of Hudson Bay at the lowest large arc. But! – Hudson Bay existed not as it is but as a mountainous ice field at the True North Pole. It was many miles high. (The highest mountain in Antarctica is three miles.) A large comet strikes the north pole into this mountainous icy region. It bores a deep hole which gives it a leverage point in which to catch. Combining this with its velocity and mass it is able to transfer its momentum to the structure of Earth. It shifts the outer mantle and crust entirely just like a wheel moves on an inner bearing and it stops at latitude 56.5 degrees north and goes no further. (Why it stops here is discussed in later sections.) The heat of the comet and its velocity allow it to break through the ice. Its fragments ricochet to form the Great Lakes. Large volumes of ice also ricochet to form other structures such as the Carolina Bays. The ice mountains have been transformed into the three arcs of Hudson Bay. This is an area some 400 miles wide and a 1000 miles long once covered by three miles or more of ice or 1.2 million cubic miles of ice. It was instantly melted and so the legend of the Deluge begins.

Afterwards magnetic north lies at 56.5 degrees north. It has shifted 33.5 degrees. In this location it remained for a few thousand years until the magnetic pole gradually shifted northwards. It has moved rapidly over the last 400 years or so to take up its present position. Now it will slowly circle the True North Pole in a clockwise direction. This will be discussed again later in more detail but for the time being understand the following. If the dominant magnetic field of Earth was not essentially within the outer 45% of the planet, it would not have shifted during the impact. There would never have been a two pole (True-Magnetic) system. The stable configuration has now been achieved in the North again and the Southern Poles are slowly moving into realignment. This will hopefully be a good long superchron until the planet is hit again and the process starts all over.

The fact that the magnetic poles are realigning to true north-south suggests that the solid inner core’s magnetic field is the more stable part of this system. This is logical from the standpoint that the very dense core, as an inner spherical magnet made of iron, throws its field entirely through the outer layers especially the liquid outer core. The reverse cannot be said of a hollow sphere magnet (the outer crust which is a conglomerate), nor can it be said of the liquid core. This throwing outwards through the liquid core gives scientists the impression that the liquid core has a substantially stronger field (50 times more powerful) than the solid core or outer crust. But remember, the field of a magnet is thrown outwards, hence the liquid core is substantially under the influence of the solid core.

Recall that a magnet draws material to it and a strong magnet is able to highly compact its ‘atoms’ into a lattice structure. (Chemists successfully use the atomic model to understand the process although it is has its limits.) Two things occur as a magnet becomes more powerful. There is more sharing of electrons and the crystal structure becomes more dense. It is the magnetic properties of the individual atoms (magnetic moment of electron spin) that confers magnetism on the sum of the material. When working in unison the magnetic properties of the individual atoms grows exponentially as resonance develops. (1) With this understanding we realize then that the solid core is 50 times more magnetic than the liquid core. Not the reverse as commonly understood.

Overtime the inner iron core programs the outer crust and they become in-sync. The longer it is stable the more in-sync they become and the magnetic field of Earth appears to become stronger. During a large comet impact this bulk retains its magnetic orientation as it is shifted away and it dominates until the solid inner core reprograms it.  (As we are experiencing now). What Pétrélis and others see as a quadrupole is actually a ‘broken magnet.’ (To be discussed in a later section.)

Other observed phenomena will be discussed going forward.

More to come…. in the next section. Back to previous section. Back to Index and beginning.


(1) Nebergall, William,  Schmidt, Frederic, Holtzclaw, Henry,  “General Chemistry”,  Lexington, Ma.: D.C. Heath and Co.,1976, pg. 771 -788.

The Greatest Mystery of all Time: Earth’s Magnetism

© 2017 B. L. Freeborn

Understanding what happens during large comet impacts requires some knowledge of Earth’s magnetic nature and magnetism in general. Two problems present immediately. The first is magnetism is poorly understood in and of itself. The second is that a closer look at the ‘facts’ we are being told about Earth’s magnetic field suggests that they may not be facts. The purpose of the next series of articles is to examine some of these existing beliefs and propose new theories.

The basic understanding today of the earth’s magnetic field is as follows:

“Earth’s polarity is not a constant. Unlike a classic bar magnet, or the decorative magnets on your refrigerator, the matter governing Earth’s magnetic field moves around. Geophysicists are pretty sure that the reason Earth has a magnetic field is because its solid iron core is surrounded by a fluid ocean of hot, liquid metal. This process can also be modeled with supercomputers. Ours is, without hyperbole, a dynamic planet. The flow of liquid iron in Earth’s core creates electric currents, which in turn create the magnetic field.” – NASA, Nov. 2011

We are also told that the direction and strength of Earth’s previous magnetic fields are recorded in the lava that flows out from below the crust as the ocean floor spreads at the mid-Atlantic rift. It forms measurable bands that reverse direction periodically. Research ships have detected and recorded this data for later compilation. Both computer and actual modeling has filled in the blanks in understanding. This is how theories such as we see above about Earth’s magnetic field were developed.


Magnetic stripes on ocean floor.

(Caption for the above reads: “A survey of the Earth’s magnetic field in the vicinity of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge south of Iceland shows magnetic anomalies aligned as paired stripes in the direction of the ridge. The youngest material is found at the ridge axis. A change in color indicates a reversal of polarity in the magnetic field. Different color indicates different age since rock formation, age increasing away from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The 100 m and 1000 m depth contours are also shown.”

There are however many scientists with dissenting opinions as we see in the two quotes here:

(1) “The intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field over the Atlantic Ocean has been measured on a number of flights organized by the Department of Mines and Technical Surveys of Canada and also under Project Magnet (U.S. Hydrographic Office). Some of these flights passed over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the magnetic observations show that there are large anomalies associated with the crest of the Ridge in some crossings, but not in all.” – Magnetic Anomalies over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, M. J. Keen,

(2) “I would claim that the models are very far from being realistic, and therefore the inferences we draw from them about the Earth are going to be questionable,” says geophysics professor Bruce Buffett of UC Berkeley’s Department of Earth and Planetary Science. Planetary magnetic fields: The hunt for better models, November 25, 2010 by Monica Friedlander, ScienceMatters@Berkeley
Read more at:

There are other scientists whose research supports NASA’s statement:

(3a) “The quadrupolar field (it is likely to be a quadrupole but another structure could be possible) is also generated by the flow of the liquid core of the Earth, exactly like the dipolar field,” explained the researchers. “Most of the time, we observe a dipolar field because it is more easily generated by the flow, but in other conditions a quadrupolar field could be maintained, and this occurs in a temporary manner during a reversal.” Reversals of Earth’s Magnetic Field Explained by Small Core Fluctuations, April 23, 2009 by Lisa Zyga who quotes from Pétrélis, François; Fauve, Stéphan; Dormy, Emmanuel; and Valet, Jean-Pierre. “Simple Mechanism for Reversals of Earth’s Magnetic Field.” Physical Review Letters, 102, 144503 (2009).
Read more at:

The authors (Pétrélis et al.) above speak of fields. For clarity, there is no such thing as a quadrupolar magnet. A magnet will always have just two opposite ends on its one pole (a dipole), and that magnet will always exhibit at the midpoint a Bloch Wall or Dielectric Plane. One can arrange individual magnets in an infinite number of ways to create anything from quadrupoles to infinite-poles but one still has individual magnets so arranged. The reference to a quadrupolar field presumably suggests the intersection of two magnetic fields which are not always acting coherently so as to reinforce each other, may be of unequal strength, and may act to cancel each other out in certain areas to the extent no magnetic properties are observed.

Pétrélis et al. (quote 3a) suggest the liquid core forms the quadrupolar field presumably as it shifts about via convection then the orientation of the poles flip and it regenerates itself as the opposing dipole dominates. The system can then become harmonious again until it just isn’t and the cycle repeats. Or, the opposing pole vanishes and the process is aborted until it begins again somehow.

One finds this additional statement at the end of the Pétrélis article:

(3b) “Although little is known about the actual flow inside the Earth’s core, recent observations have shown that the ends of superchrons are often followed by major flood basalt eruptions, which are likely to produce equatorial symmetry breaking of convection at the core-mantle boundary, in support of the scientists’ model.”

This statement is a loop. The end is followed by the cause which drives the system. The flood basalt (large cooled volcanic) eruptions result in disturbances in the core-mantle boundary which drive the quadrupolar process. Are they proposing the process described is a mechanism in true perpetual motion? Where does the energy come from? Or is there a clue in the statement “superchrons are often followed by major flood basalt eruptions”?

If Earth’s magnetism is solely the result of the fluid core’s movement, eventually it must wind down to a near standstill which would result in the dissipation of the magnetic field. But this is not what is seen recorded in the rock. Something is required to get it moving again and keep it moving especially after superchrons (long stable periods). That something must supply a large quantity of energy yet not destroy the system which brings us back to the idea of comet impacts.

Lines of Force around a magnet. Wikipedia.

There are other ridiculous constructs we just have to let go of if we are to move forward and really understand the Earth and magnetism. Observe these often repeated images.

Earth’s Magnetic Field

What is wrong with these images? Think about your experience with magnets. Both images show lines pointing inwards on one end and outwards on the other end. Are magnets little motor boats motoring though the universe? Is the Earth sucking in at the top and shooting out at the bottom some force?

So perhaps there is more to think about and discuss.

More to come…. in the next section. Back to Index and beginning.

Mayans, Magnetism and Upending World Views

Mayan Calendar

Photo by El Comandante CC-By-SA 3.0 IMAGE National Museum of Anthropology, Mexico City

© 2017 B. L. Freeborn

For sometime we have been looking at riddles hidden in ancient art. Continuing along that line we look at the Mayan Calendar and upend it to see what it might be hiding.

Upend it and find the following….

Not in the East, nor in the West, nor in the South but …
To the North came the two beaked birds
like flying snakes, Quetzalcoatl they may be…
They came like lovers ready to kiss…
The two comets went into their craters with their tails …
They put out the eye of Earth…
They made the high brows…
They flattened the nose at the center of the world…
And it went in at this angle…
The icebergs flew into the waters at the mouth of the world….
There were two huge craters…
It was surrounded by mighty planks,
remnants of what the icy headlands had been…
All around was dabbled with craters…..
It was surrounded by waves and flames….
The cities and temples were overcome by waves like claws…
It carved a new world order into stone as it pushed north south…
It turned it all over…
So began the world.

Recall that some time ago the paper “A Planet Most Miraculous: The Mechanics of Earth’s Rotating Crust” was published here. In this post we saw what the Mayan Calendar might be trying to show us by turning it over. In the same way we will overturn the world view of magnetism and learn how it played a role in saving the Earth.

Back to Previous Post…………..Ahead to Next Post

Ancient Riddles to Test Our Wits: The Great Pyramids

© 2017 B. L. Freeborn

Aerial view of Giza Pyramids and Sphinx complex.

Why were the Great Pyramids built? Egyptologists will probably tell you they were built as tombs despite all indications to the contrary. Another lot will tell you they were built to re-enact the Pharaoh’s symbolic death and resurrection. And yet another lot will tell you that the ground plan was to remind us of the Orion constellation. There are other diverse theories.

The ground plan does resemble the three stars of Orion’s Belt as proposed by Robert Bauval in 1984. But was it necessary to build such massive structures to depict them? And why do so?

Then again the resurrection connection has strong merit. Resurrection of god is an enduring myth found in many cultures with various gods playing the role. So, perhaps there is some truth to this as well.

Use diagonal of pyramids to size and place circles. Mark Sphinx location.

What if there is another reason that ties all three of these together? What if it requires a broader knowledge of the world to understand it which has only recently become available to the masses?

Let’s pause for a moment to consider some unrelated ideas:

  • Recall the phrase… ‘As above so below.’  The resemblance to Orion’s belt brings the heavens to mind and what lies in them besides just planets and stars.
  • The ancients loved the ‘squaring of a circle.’
  • The western and eastern cemeteries at the site appear as small rectangles next to the massive structures. They are clearly visible in satellite images as if they are grids and intentionally put there to give the whole complex true scale.
  • Many of the ancient works of art studied in prior posts suggested turning.
  • Many of the ancient works of art depicted a point up triangle in association with a point down triangle. This is evident in more recent works such as Da Vinci’s Last Supper.
  • The letter N in the Latin alphabet is nearly identical to the aleph of the Hebrew alphabet and this similarity was used in the Sator Rotas Square. The ‘N’ is actually a combination of both point up and point down triangles.

Flip the pyramids over and rotate 45 degrees clockwise.

Any ideas come to mind?

Let’s add another clue. The name which most of the world uses to identify this nation is Egypt. Stephen Mehler tells us at his website that the name is derived from the Greek: Hi-Gi-Ptos and pronounced Aegyptos. It was derived from the ancient term Het-Ka-Ptah. The repetition of the ptos and ptah is obvious. The first two syllables are not so apparent. Let us assume that the Greeks were close enough in time to have a true inkling of what the pyramids were all about. Aegyp is easily and oddly enough translated into both Old and Modern English. ‘Aegype’ means without skill. The ‘aeg’ means awe or terror. The ‘gype’ means gap or gaping. The ‘pt’ of ptos and ptah can also be translated into both Old and Modern English. We spell it as ‘pit’ today. Mehler tells us the phrase means “the physical projection of the soul” which is much more glamorous and mysterious then my dismal translation: awesome gaping pit.

Complete the circles.

How about one more clue…..

If you were to fly from the Giza Pyramids in a direction of 32.11 degrees west of north for 2466 miles where would you end up? (Towards the former magnetic north.)

(Another way to think of that 32.11 is 5.66 squared. And by golly!, 32.11 is almost the coefficient of gravity which is 32.17 ft/sec/sec.)

Your final bearing upon arriving will be 56.55 degrees west of North!!  And your latitude will be 56.5 degrees North!!! which is where magnetic north used to be. (Gravity is just another form of magnetism.)

Need yet another clue?

Perhaps the similarity to Orion’s belt is meant to remind us that at one point in time three objects came from the heavens and left their mark on the planet. The scale of these ‘marks’ is as great as the pyramids are to the grids of graves in the cemeteries.

  • Now let us ‘square the circle’ in reverse. Recreate each square pyramid as a circle. Take the diagonal of each and use it to swing an arc from the center of each pyramid. Do not forget the Sphinx! In the images the Sphinx’s body is a small line and the two dots are the paws.  (See images.)
  • Flip the pyramids. Instead of seeing them as up pyramids … see them as  down pyramids.
  • The shape of the pyramids suggest a 45 degree angle. Now rotate the image 45 degrees clockwise. And you then have…..?

The pyramids as circles, flipped and rotated 45 degrees overlaid on Hudson Bay,

Is this not the layout for Hudson Bay? Are these not awesome gaping pits which were once in a two mile deep ice blanket? Does this not explain the sheer massiveness of the pyramids?

And the position of the Sphinx quite nicely suggests the location of the double comet craters at Clearwater Lakes, Quebec, Canada which are 20 and 14 miles in diameter.

Now we might be able to deduce exactly what was resurrected after a miserable death and why its symbolic tombs are so large and empty!

Previous Post – – –Next Post



Robert Bauval, Adrian Gilbert, The Orion Mystery: Unlocking The Secrets of the Pyramids (London: Heinemann, 1984). ISBN 0-434-00074-4

Hudson Bay as a Comet Crater

© 2016 B. L. Freeborn

This is an excerpt from the full article: “A Planet Most Miraculous: The Mechanic’s of Earth’s Rotating Crust.”

Hudson Bay showing the arcs of the bay.

Hudson Bay showing the arcs of the bay.

It is possible to draw four large round circles in Hudson Bay. The largest scales to a diameter of 400 miles. The second largest scales to 230 miles. Hudson Bay is very shallow. Yet it was once compressed down 900 feet deeper than it is by the mass of the former ice sheet. The large appendage to the bay in the south is extremely shallow. References differ on the bay’s depth from 111 feet deep in the east to 768 to the northwest. Variations aside, this is a very shallow body of water when the size of it is considered.

This causes a problem if one wants to prove these are large craters. They are just not deep enough to be craters of this diametrical proportion. For example, Barringer Crater, Arizona is 4000 feet wide and 570 feet deep. Look at the other contraindications. Besides its shallowness, there is no impact ejecta. There may be central uplift in the bay as islands but for the size of it, and the age as required to have brought about the end of the “ice age”, there is no deep basin. There is no high well delineated edge as can be seen in the Pingualuit crater which is supposed to be vastly old by comparison. It does not seem possible that this is a crater. Yet it can be argued that it is.

Delving a bit further, it is known that there is a “large region of below-average gravity” in the area. The anomaly has not been explained. Suggested theories include the weight of the Laurentide Ice Sheet has influenced the area. Another theory suggests that convection in the underlying mantle may be a contributing factor. The 230 mile diameter arc to the southeast is known as the Nastapoka Arc of the bay. The geologists’ consensus explanation calls it an “arcuate boundary of tectonic origin.” In other words they think that millions of years ago the Earth folded in a perfect arc. Another theory, less popular, allows a Precambrian extraterrestrial impact. However, geologists do not feel there is any credible evidence for such an impact crater. There is no evidence from regional magnetic, Bouguer gravity, or geologic studies. That statement directly contradicts the “large region of below-average gravity” with which the paragraph started. (Wikipedia)

Hudson Bay crater formation, 14,000 years BP.

Formation of a crater within the two mile thick ice sheet that once overlaid Canada which resulted in Hudson Bay.

So, how does one explain Hudson Bay is a very recent comet crater 1000 miles by 300 to 400 miles across? Once again, let us just look at what we have. We have a nearly perfect arc in an area that is on average 330 feet deep. This same area was once overlain by an ice sheet two miles thick in certain parts. Two miles thick is 10,560 feet of hard frozen, compacted, heavy ice. This means that if we took a cross section of Hudson Bay when the ice sheet was there and scooped a crater out of it that only dips into the ground 330 feet, the crater was theoretically 10,890 feet deep with little imagination.  The bottom of the crater only remains then as the Nastapoka Arc which implies the upper rim, now long melted, was substantially larger in diameter. The ejecta was simply ice, and billions of tons of it which was spewed as far as Siberia to engulf herds of grazing mammoths. It was thrown as far as Scandinavia to leave glaciers there. There was no dust cloud that enveloped the Earth for decades, because water does not create dust. It creates rain. The elongated shape from the northwest to southeast then is either the sideways impact of a comet striking the surface at an angle or the successive impact of several portions of one comet. A sideways impact will add more torque to the reaction of the Earth and aid in turning the outer layers of the planet. The enumerable other craters that dot the northern latitudes may have occurred at the same time or during later events which totally negates their vast ages.

Successive crater formation as comet strikes Ice Sheet (future bay area) and blast material ricochets to form other impact sites.

Successive crater formation as comet strikes Ice Sheet (future bay area) and blast material ricochet to form other impact sites.

The picture becomes clearer when we comprehend the velocity with which these mammoth projectiles struck the planet. They could not just strike and stick like an arrow in a target. They shattered on impact and bounced in very much the same manner as a stone skips across a lake, except in this case their velocity was unimaginably high. We see directly below Hudson Bay the five great lakes and upon close inspection we see several sections of each lake exhibit the same round cut out pattern as the Nastapoka Arc of Hudson Bay. Once impacting and forming the Great Lakes the debris shattered even further.  A rebound impact could not entirely expend the comets’ energy. The debris kept moving albeit at a slower yet still extremely high velocity. It fanned out to the west, southwest, south, east and southeast blanketing and smashing millions of square miles. The impacting debris formed what are called Carolina Bays. The name originates from the thousands of long elliptical, shallow structures that appear throughout the Carolinas. As Kelly and Dachille explained in 1953, they were formed by massive melting icebergs. In other words, they were debris from the shattered ice cap.

Overlapping polar circles creates a vesica shape where the thickest ice on the planet is found.

Overlapping polar circles creates a vesica shape where the thickest ice on the planet is found.

Indeed, almost the entire old polar ice cap was displaced from the bitter cold of the Arctic Circle. The ice that was outside the first circle was now -outside of the arctic circle- and prone to melting. We call these areas glaciers and their melting is what we call the ‘End of the Ice Age.’ It is proposed that the glaciers extended into Ohio, not because the weather patterns had changed allowing the Earth to cool but because this area was within the Arctic Circle when the ice formed. During this same period of time, half of Antarctica was dry land and ice free because it was outside the Antarctic Circle. The Earth had gone through a long period of stability and created these extremely large and thick ice layers at the then poles within the first circle. The sea level had dropped and man had happily moved out onto the vast plains left behind by the receding ocean. It was safe. It was beautiful and they were blessed, for a long while.

Continue reading …..full article posted here.

Possible remnants of the comet are seen in the next post.

See the Ancient Map of Hudson Bay in the Previous post

Ancient Riddles to Test Our Wits: Crespi’s Prince

Gold Tile from Crespi Collection

Partial view of gold tile from Crespi Collection

Darker view of gold tile from Crespi Collection

Darker view of gold tile from Crespi Collection

Close up of lettering at feet on Crespi tile

Close up of lettering at feet on tile from Crespi Collection

© 2016 B. L. Freeborn

In this piece from the Crespi Collection find the words in italic:

The two falling worms did warm and split asunder

the great ice-ice mountains of Isis.

They bore two holes through and carved a great dip in the tiles.

The crater, melted deep and mighty, makes a crown for the head of the two footed Earth.

The two feet, magnetic and north, lay the tiles which spell the story.

X marks the tie at the pole. This O of a crater marks the center.

What is left is the curve of the crater. It is the rightful whose cover dropped low.

The point struck at the neck and the face did turn.

This then is how the Earth was clothed.


Compare the above to this Egyptian work of art depicting Horus.


Egyptian God Horus wearing a similar hat as depicted in the Crespi Gold Plate from Ecuador. The X and O on the belt appear as the ankh mid-image.

Read more about Father Crespi and see more art:

“The Crespi Ancient Artifact Collection of Cuenca Ecuador”

Previous Post  —–  Next Post

The Hopewell Shaman Bear

© 2015 B. L. Freeborn

Ohio Shaman Bear - Art from ancient Ohio found in Newark Earthworks

Ohio Shaman Bear – Art from ancient Ohio found in Newark Earthworks

The Hopewell Shaman Bear is located in the Ohio History Museum in Columbus, Ohio. This magnificent piece of art was found in Newark, Ohio in the extensive earthworks there. The Newark Decalogue Stone was found seven miles south under a massive stone mound. The Newark Stone is inscribed with a form of Jewish letters and considered to be a fraud by academics. A full description and discussion about this stone can be found in the paper – Newark Decalogue Stone and Earthworks: An Unraveling Mystery or at this post. The Newark Stone is so unlike the Shaman Bear that it is easy to accept the academics’ viewpoint. However, despite their apparent and obvious differences they depict a similar story. The Newark Stone was found in a stone carved case that forms a rock shape when closed. Both statues are carved stones. Both are about the same size.

Both have one arm bent at the waist and the second arm pointed up. Compare the arm positions to the statue from Ugarit that is said to describe Baal. It has one hand pointed up at the hat which is a round ball with a conical tail.

Baal, a Statute from Ugarit.14th to 12th BC. Louvre, Wikipedia,

Baal, a Statute from Ugarit.14th to 12th BC. Louvre, Wikipedia,

Front Face of Newark Decalogue Stone

Front Face of Newark Decalogue Stone

Concentrating now on the Shaman Stone we find it has three heads. One is upside down in the lap of the man with the hair splayed downwards. The sitting man is wearing a bear head creating a double head. So we find one head below and two above or it can be said one becomes two. The caul of the bear covers the man and keeps him from being bare. It is suggested that the stone is referring to the old North Pole with its caul of ice that is thought of as the Laurentide Ice Sheet. From it bearings were taken. Hence, we find three forms of the word bear is depicted by this stone: bear- animal, bare – uncovered, and bear – direction. The head in the lap depicts the head (of the Earth) forced down. It lies on a lap which makes a pun of the man’s lap to indicate that it lies on an important lap of longitude. Notice the ear of this upside down head is not quite right. There is a little comet for the ear with a u – cup shape above it almost in the hairline. The hair becomes the meteorites following the comet. This idea is seen in the Ugarit Statue with the cone below the round ball. The legs of the man become arms for the upside down man who is exclaiming as we saw in other Adena stones. Men crying out in horror is part of the story.

Close up of head in lap showing comet and crater.

Close up of head in lap showing comet and crater.

The small comet is directed towards the man’s hand. His fingers clearly depict the numbers 2 and 3. The other hand has 5 straight fingers The Arctic Circle ends at 23.5 degrees. The sitting man has two bold round earrings. These are the double comet craters of Baal indicated on the other tablets.

The statue is designed to sit with a 90 degree -or so- posture, yet since the feet are bent out at an angle there is a tendency to think they should be dropped down at a 90 degree angle. In other words the angle is bent or turned as the other stones studied in previous posts have depicted.

Right hand shows two and three with fingers.

Right hand shows two and three with fingers.

Looking for other numbers, note the right hand as 23 can also be 32 and this gives the square of 5.65. There are 5 eyes, 3 ears (2 bear and 1 human), 3 round donut comet craters, and the toes are 3 on each side making 33. The approximate angle between the pole positions is 33 to 35 degrees. The 5 and 3 suggests 53 and 5.3 is the square root of 28 which is half of 56.

Left hand showing five fingers.

Left hand showing five fingers.

The words that form the meaningful puns -lap and bear- are Old English words which may not really be indicated but considering the Anglo words found in the Adena Tablets previously, there is probably no coincidence.

Apparently the three statues have more in common then first thought. They all describe Baal and its collision with Earth. This collision changed the position of the pole and bared it of its caul. It was beheaded and at the lap it lies.

Shaman Bear

Shaman Bear

The next adventure into the minds of the ancients continues with the Bat Creek Stone.

Back to the very beginning of series on Adena Tablets

Previous Post on the Adena Pipe

Posts on: Numbers and their Meaning, Ramey Peet Tablet, Gridley Stone

McKensie and Bainbridge Tablets, Cincinnati Tablet,

Egyptian Art Comparison, Wilmington Tablet, Lakin A Tablet,

The Gaitskill Clay Tablet, Allen Tablet, Grave Creek,

The Kiefer Tablet, Wright, Lakin B and Meigs Tablets,

Berlin Tablet, Gaitskill Stone Tablet, The Low Tablet,

The Waverly Tablet, Metcalf Stone, and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

(updated Nov. 2018)