The Spirit Pond Rune Stones – Validating and Deciphering

B. L. Freeborn © November 2022

This an excerpt from: Deciphering the Spirit Pond, Nomans Land and Narragansett Runic Inscriptions –  Full article PDF version.

Map Stone – Front. Photo Scott Wolter ©2009. Used with permission.


Introduction ⇓⇓

SP-3, Inscription stone ⇓⇓

Amulet ⇓⇓

SP-1, Map stone ⇓⇓

Short SP-2 ⇓⇓

Similar Articles by the same author ⇓⇓

References ⇓⇓


Map stone – obverse. Photo Scott Wolter ©2009. Used with permission.


In the paper entitled “Validating North American Runic Inscriptions” (PDF), by this author, the Spirit Pond Rune stones were discussed briefly. It became apparent that there was too much information on the long inscription stone known as SP-3 to include it all there. This paper repeats the information stated in the aforementioned with respect to the Spirit Pond rune stones and considerably more on the SP-3 and SP-2 that may be too much for the average reader. It then delves into the Leif Erikson (PDF and Post) inscription from Nomans Land and since Narragansett (PDF and Post) is a short distance from where that was found, it is included as well. These six represent the best runic inscriptions found on the east coast of North America.

Apologies are given in advance. This is end to end numbers which makes for poor reading. Do not let the number work deter one from discovering what lays within the inscriptions. The essence can be grasped regardless of the level of interest in the math.

Reading the first paper (PDF) is essential to understanding the importance of the numeric information that is given here and followed by ✓ marks. The ciphers in SP-3 are extensive. The Nomans Land/Leif Erickson stone is a work of genius and the Narragansett is a masterpiece. This is the most thorough study of these inscriptions to date. It follows the work of others who began this study many decades ago. It completes it except for the preservation of the original works. It is up to the reader to motivate those who can.

There are four stones from Spirit Pond, Maine that Scott Wolter discusses in The Hooked X: Key to the Secret History of North America. Cyrus Gordon discusses them in Riddles in History. O.G. Landsverk discusses Alf Mongé’s study of them in his books. The amulet is a small wearable piece. The naming of the other stones here will be consistent with Gordon’s. SP-1 is the Map Stone. Its reverse has ten pictograms. SP-2 has the two line script only on one side. SP-3, the Inscription stone, has ten lines on the front and on the back there are 5 full lines with the start of a 6th. And thus it begins 56.✓

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Inscription stone – obverse. Photo Scott Wolter ©2009. Used with permission.

SP-3 Inscription Stone

Baal found three times.

Three of the inscriptions use the hooked X. SP-3 as the longest uses it a surprising 33 times on the front and 17 times on the back. 33 + 17 is 50 and 33.50 is the complementary angle to 56.5.✓ Similarly, there are 9 H’s with value 7 on the back and 11 more on the front for a total of 20 or 7, 9, 20 ⇒792.✓

One need not study SP-3 in great detail to see it is a cryptogram about Baal. On line six Baal is spelled out clearly and it can be found in four other places. Further, one should notice that on lines five and six in front of this word are four distinct dots in a vertical column (the word dividers). This places four X’s in a square pattern. Their sum then is 40 which implies 56. ✓ This arrangement uses lines 5 and 6.✓

Further still, the word on the sixth line containing Baal has a total of 5 X’s in it so 56.✓ To it’s left there is a 6th X so 56 again.✓

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Inscription stone – front. Photo Scott Wolter ©2009. Used with permission.

Transliteration of Inscription Stone, SP-3

3. HUM : AHR : 1010 : [UU] ULISA SUITNK :
4. 12 : RISI : UIST : 12 : NOR : 10 : SAKAM[LI]
8. UM : AHR : 1011: SMUALAL[LI][OO]SA :
11. RI:
13. MB : UINA : SHIB : UIDH :

Over lined runes are in bold. Bindrunes are underlined or in [ ].
This transliteration was checked against Gordon’s (pg. 138-140). In line 8 he has SK vs. SM here.

Transliteration of Spirit Pond Inscription Stone- Letter placement is maintained creating the uneven depiction. -B.L. Freeborn


Transliteration of Spirit Pond Inscription Stone- Letter placement is maintained creating the uneven depiction. -B.L. Freeborn

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What else might this text have to say? Mongé found the name Henricus several times in the Spirit Pond rune stones. (Gordon, pgs 142-143.) This example Gordon gives is from the first two lines of text. Below it is transliterated retaining letter placement. (Bold letters are over lined runes on the stone and this rune master used D for Th.)

Remove the bold letters: I,T,Th and form HINRIKUS with AMO remaining. In Latin ‘amo’ is ‘love.’ Bishop Henricus (aka Eirikr Gnupson) was believed to be the first bishop in Vinland, America. He was sent by Pope Paschal II (AD 1099-1118). (Gordon, pg. 93) This dating and Mongé’s finding of the name Henricus can be filled out further by the text in the vicinity of the name. Notice the 17. If this implies 1117, then it is within this time period. Instead of reading DID (or ThITh) as ‘dead’, as most translators do, read it as ‘did.’ Then one finds it says: Amo Henricus in 17 did he lead.

Inscription Stone with runes traced in white and yellow. Yellow runes are over lined runes.

To where did he lead? The remainder of the two lines has the anagram for sailed twice which implies something hidden. It reads as if it says ‘kill, sa, sail, mi(ghty) bane both.’ A ‘sa’ is a bucket. This suggests they sailed to the place called ‘kill-sa’ or perhaps ‘crater’; and ‘both were mighty and bane.’ This place should be confirmed by the numbers. (They are below for convenience. See table at end for rune number equivalents.) The sum of KILSA is 51 and this is a clue. This 51 when doubled as 51.51̊ gives the latitude of a particularly important place. It is left to the reader to locate it. The next word as an anagram for sail is 11(15+9) 10. Take the 15+9 as 159 then add the 11 and 10. Find the sum 180. There are 180 ̊ of latitude and longitude starts and ends at 180 ̊ .

If one reads HIR as if it means ‘here’, then perhaps the answer is found. Note that H, I are 7,9 while the sum is 21 or 7921.✓

The first word on the next line is HUM implying home. It is actually a continuation of the word from the previous line so it might complete the sentence or it begins a new thought since everything here is well placed. The next word is year spelled (AHR), as it was on the Kensington Rune Stone, and then it is followed by 1010. Since Henricus is mentioned and he lived long after 1010 this can only be a commemoration date. Home implies the settlement of Hoop began in that year. The mention of a date suggests one should be found here. Year (AHR) is mentioned again in line 8 and on the reverse in line 6. There they both state the year as 1011. Oddly though, the last 1011 is spelled with a runic M for Roman M or 1000. Even more oddly, there is a rune just after the date 1010 (line 3) that looks like an M -or- it is a bindrune of 2 U’s followed by another U. The word containing these runes is clearly in two parts without a word divider so something is to be found here. The first part sums to 51✓ (using a bindrune of 2 U’s or 4) which was seen just above and the last part to 48.

During the years 1010 and 1011, Thorfinn Karlsefini reportedly attempted to colonize Vinland. The last place he stopped he called Hop. Here there are stones in a place called Hoop that mention those years. Mongé believed Henricus created the Spirit Pond stones since his name can be found in ciphers on them. However, would Henricus also embed ‘amo’ with his own name? This suggests someone else wrote at least SP-3.

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Front Side Date

Returning to the idea of a date, note that there are two 17’s, one on the front and one on the rear. There are two 12’s. Both in the fourth line. There is a single 10 in this same line with word dividers on both sides. Between the two 12’s are two words with 4 runes each that each sum to 34.✓ Their total sum then is 68. The word between the 17 and 10 (NOR) sums to 17 as well. For clarity the numbers on this line are:

#12 : 34 : 34 : #12 : 17 : #10 : 51+24

Note sums:  34+34 = 68  and 51+24 = 75

The 68th day from the end of the Norse year (see Easter Tables) is October 17th. This is repeated by the 17 sum and #10 that follow it. This then confirms the dedication date.

Looking for the year is more confusing. After much trial and error it seems to be plainly stated by the repeating numerals or year 1217. To confirm this the GN is 2 and the DL is 1. Both of which must have been difficult to embed and even more difficult to identify. The single #10 follows the date (digit sum is 1) and it has word dividers on each side so that it clearly stands out. If this implies GN 1 then a two should be near by. The single word above is divided into two with one empty space between. The left half of the word has 3 U’s (each are a 2) and two of them are joined. There are 2 X’s below, 2 X’s below that and two in succession above. There is a risk here of seeing what is not there. Another confirmation is that this date is five years after the date found on SP-1 the Map Stone. It is also 100 years after the suggested date Henricus arrived, as if it was meant to commemorate his arrival. Further confirmation of his arrival in 1117 is found by reviewing SP-1. A dedication day of November 17th was found which is 11-17. This stone then is dated to 1217.

The years 1117 and 1217 are further confirmed by a vertical line on the front side. It begins at the bottom at the H I and then straight up as TABL – KS to the 1 space that breaks 2 words. This must refer to the Easter Tables. Examining this further find: HI (7,9) is 16 and the GN for 1117. The sum of KS (6,11) is 17 or the year. The H is 7 or the DL. At the other end of TABL is the space and two words. For year 1217 GN is 2 and DL is 1. Both then are confirmed.✓

While here notice two other points of interest on line ten. The HI (7,9) is followed by BI (13,9) or 22 so that the series 7922 is formed.✓  The line also begins with SIKLA which is an anagram for KILSA and also ‘a – skill .’ SIKL is (11,9,6,15) and sums to 41 with the A it is 51. The remainder of the line sums to 49. So, that the total sum is 100. The sums of the two words confirming 1217 just above are 51 and 48 as previously mentioned. These numbers will be of use later.

Running next to TABL is another vertical line. It spells out BHLAAOA SU INB A which is an anagram of: BAAL SU BAIN HOLA … or … Baal sow baneful hole.

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Rear Side Date

Noteworthy numbers on the reverse:

The date 1117 is found and confirmed again on the reverse. The numbers #17 and #11 here imply 1117. This year has GN 16 and DL 7. The GN is found by observing M11 is 14+1+1 = 16. This phrase is found on Line 16. Line 13 sums to 117.

On Line 14 the numbers following #17 are: 5 4, 9 7 3 or 9, 19. Year 1117 is on Calendar Line #19. ✓ For that year the DL is 7. Continuing within that word the next rune/numbers are 7 10 7 4. There are three 7’s in this word. The numbers around each 7 sum to 17. The 10 and 7 sum to 17. The 7, 10 sum to 17. The 7,3,7 to 17. The last two (7,4) to 11. Clearly 1117 is indicated here. The end of the word is 9 6 2 = 17 and A(10). In addition, the two runes above the #17 are UI or 11 which repeats 1117. There are 16 runes on Line 14 which is another confirmation of the GN 16. This date is confirmed.

The sum of the letters preceding the over lined X on line 16 is 76 or the period of Halley’s Comet.✓ The sum of the entire word is 112 or 2 x 56.✓

The following is deduced from this: 1010 to 1011 is the year Hoop was settled by Karlsefini. Year 1117 was when Henricus arrived at the settlement after being sent by the Pope. Year 1217 is the year this was written to memorialize these dates.

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Center Pictogram

There is more of interest besides dates hidden here. There is a pictogram in the center of the front. It runs through the center of all ten lines. View each rune as a picture instead of the rune and find it begins with the ‘two’ dots. Below is a ‘star’ suggesting two stars. The stars fall, as the legs of the letter M show. They strike and strike. (The N’s form skewed X’s.) Then it says it went up (an arrow and line) and fanned out the way the runes are shaped like trees. It ends at an enlarged X.

Line 1: – : –  Rune to the right is K(6).

Line 2: H (7) Rune above is 6 or 7..6… 76.✓ See below.

Line 3: U+U or M, (2+ 2) or (M = 14) and next U(2)…. 14 x 2 = 28✓

Line 4: N (8) Two 2’s from bindrune just above and 8 twice or 2…8 ⇒28✓

Line 5: N (8) ⇒ 28✓ (Two from bindrune above. Used second time.)

Line 6: T (12) Sum 8 + 8 + 12 = 28✓

Line 7: I (9) Letters to each side are R I K or R|K …5|6✓

Line 8: M (14)

Line 9: M (14) Sum 14 + 14 = 28

                Sum to here is (7,4,8,8,12,9,14,14) = 76.✓

Line 10: A (10) Total sum is 86.✓

The arrow and line (TI) in a vertical line in this manner appears on the Kensington rune stone and the Rök Runestone in Sweden. In Elder Futhark it is 17 and 11 which is 28.✓

Some words can be made out in this vertical list. Hu sounds like ‘how.’ The double N could be ‘none.’ Tie has been seen before. Ma is ‘more’ and it ends with the hooked X which looks like two darts heading into a peak or mountain. There is much to ponder here. Surely though, it was set up to repeat 28’s (half of 56).✓ The repetition of 76 at the top and in the sum suggest the period of Halley’s comet. The rune master infers two comets struck by using that number/time period and the depiction.

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Anagrams of a Sort

Lines eight and nine provide interesting anagrams. Line nine has two over lined runes (in bold). The eleven rune word beginning line nine reads: BAMAR[OO]RMAT. ⇒ ROM or ROOM as ‘room’ is obvious. Take the over lined (bold) as a hint and remove those as AR or ‘are’ or perhaps ARA as ‘area’ and what remains is BMAOT. One can see A TOMB remains so that it might read: Area a room, tomb.✓ This is another typical Baalist statement. The sum of the word is 79+22 or 79 AT.

The long ‘word’ in line eight is SMUALAL[LI][OO]SA. This is Baalist in nature as well. To read it several other lines are included:

Find: RSRSA, RIM, NU, AN, XXX, LI, BAAL, LI, ╢╢, BAIN, SA, SA, 3, HIT, A and HATI which forms 7,10,12,9 or 7922.✓ This might read: Raze, raze, rim, now, An, XXX, lie, eye, Baal, lie, net, bane, bucket, bucket, 3, hit, A. It also can be read as five word anagram: AS MU I ALL LOOSA.

It was razed and razed until it is a rim now. Upon An were the three strikes by Baal. It lies in the net at the baneful buckets from the three hits on A. As it mowed the eye all was loosened.

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The Author and Inscriber

Because this author also designed SP-1, The Map Stone, it is easy to spot his name. On the rear, left side, Line 4 find AKI. Perfectly lined up beneath is MK for ‘make’ and just to the right is another I. So it is: I make, Aki. Just above Aki is an M and above this is an N or NM for ‘name’ which clarifies Aki is a name.

My name is Aki and I made this.


Acrostic and Telestic

Typically there are ciphers that run along the outside edges called the acrostic and telestic. Part of one was found above when the inscriber’s name was located. This works easily on the reverse. The number of words on each line is counted. Then from the left or right count in that many runes. Here the first line is RI, one word, and count from the right 1 to find I. Similarly the next line has one word (count :’s) and find A. Repeating this from the right for all lines reveals: I A U K H 1. This reads in both directions alternating: AK1⇒ ⇐HUI or I how Aki… which clearly means he designed it as well:

I Aki – how made.

Do the same from the right and find: RAIIIB. Read it by alternating in both directions. It reveals: RI I BI A or 56 I Bi-A or … At 56 is the eye and the bisected A. This is typical of Baalist statements which is very unsatisfying to us because it seems like nonsense.

Reading the front in the same manner produces nothing. However, reading it in reverse acrostic-telestic is productive. This means the word count from the first line is used on the last etc. in a reverse manner. Example: #number of words in line one is three. In the last line, front side, count from the right and left to find K and I.

Again these are typical Baalist statements that tell of a double comet striking the mighty hill of An and in ire it wanders as the eye was hacked. It made a crater in the south. – This describes the details of the apocalypse. The root words of which are the same: a- poc-collapse or at ‘a’ there is a (poc)crater which caused the collapse. Further study of runes, ancient riddles and words will reveal to the reader whether this is accurate.

No doubt Mongé in his extensive study of this inscription found these same lines but ignored them as gibberish. He did obtain a readable acrostic (from the left end) by ignoring the lines with numbers. He also continued working until he found a brilliant substitution cipher using the over lined runes which contains Henricus which follows. (Landsverk, pg. 205-206)

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Over Lined Rune Ciphers

There are 9 over lined runes on the front. (I,T,D,A,A,K,A,R,A). There are 7 on the reverse (B,N,S,A,A,K,A). 79 ✓ The sum of the seven is 68 or 86 in reverse. ✓ The sum of the 9 runes on the front is 75 or 24+ 51. Recall there are 24 hours of longitude and the reader was directed to find 51.51̊ earlier. Notice that the first three (I T D) when read in reverse (Th/D is 3) are ‘3 TI’ or ‘3 at the Tie.’ Two of the A’s (X’s) are next to a B and bindrune (I+L). It is easy to arrange BAAL I or ‘Baal eye’ out of this. The remaining are A ARK or perhaps ‘ark at X.’

On the reverse. AKA appears. Aka can also be taken as AGA which may be ‘āga’⇒ own;‘ege’⇒ terror; ‘oga’⇒ ogre; ‘aga’ ⇒go away. So, perhaps it is ‘The eye of Baal lies where it owned it.’ The other over lined letters on the back: BN SA suggests ‘bane bucket.’ Or perhaps:

The eye of Baal lies in 3 arks at the tie where it owned it. The baneful craters are horrifying.

Mongé’s ciphers are repeated here with a few corrections. He did not use the two letter RI in his acrostic and failed to find any meaning in the four runes SAII and so reported them as numbers. In the second substitution cipher Mongé only found the name Henricus. He assumed the other runes were to be converted to numbers. He also missed one over lined rune. Finding the cipher at all though lies with him. It was a brilliant start. Both are repeated below with the corrections noted.

The second cipher Mongé found is a substitution cipher. Again with corrections it is repeated here. This table requires further explanation. Each word with an over lined rune falls within a group or word. The number of runes in that group except for the over lined is counted. That is listed as the ‘number of letters in group.’ The rune associated with that number is then listed. From line 14 down Mongé found the name Henricus and found no meaning in the remaining first five and listed those as numbers. Here they are filled out.

  • Two of the word groups have more than one over lined rune but counted as if they had one.
  • I is assumed to also stand for E.

Monge found Henricus in the * runes which leaves five unused. For those he substituted numbers and summed them with the five unused from the first acrostic to find 68. Mongé believed 68 was important because he found it often and it confirmed his date of 10/6/1123. Both have digit sums of 14. It is in fact 34 doubled and 34 is the complement to 56. So 68, in and of itself, was not important except that 68 in reverse is 86.✓

The same series is repeated below. Note the name Karlsefini is also -almost- present.
I* F* Th T N* R* K* S* N U H I* I* – L*
A and L are missing. An L can be found if one considers there are a total of 16 over lined runes. ⇒
⇒ In the same manner 16 – 1 = 15 or L. But A is still missing.

It is surprising Mongé did not search for Leif Erikson in this series.
I* F* Th T N* R* K* S* N U* H I* I* – L*
It spells the name: LIIF IRIKSUN. The name Leif is easily seen. U must be used for the Æ /O and I reused then Erikson is found. This leaves four unused.

Thorfinn was Karlsefini’s actual name. The same letters are used as follows:
I* F* Th* T N* R* K S N* U* H I I – L
This leaves six unused. (U was used for O).

The reader may choose which name was intended by the substitution cipher. All things considered Thorfinn, Henricus and Erikson were probably meant to be found. Karlsefini is most likely hidden somewhere else.

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Rhode Island

In that complicated line #14 which was where all the 17’s were found hides something else of interest. The line reads ‘AKI : 17 : ROIHDHAHOIKUA:’. The name AKI on the left was found above as the author. The long word appears to be a four word anagram. Remove the following letters from the long word: I, AKI, HU and what remains is ROHDAHO. ‘OH’ means ‘island’ so remove that ⇒ ROHDA?…. RHODA OH ……… ⇒ I, Aki how in Rhode Island.

On the reverse there is another phrase that is very clear. Begin on the right side third line down reading in a straight line is:
HKHR which ends at the ‘r’ in year (AHR).⇒ ⇒ hack here year…
Next column: UAM (2,10,14) or 1214. ⇒⇒ 1214
Next column: AL-11 or 25-11.⇒⇒ 25th day before year end, in November.
Remaining five runes: ADHIR (10,3,7,9,5) or 29 and 5. Day and day letter. ⇒ On the 29th; R ⇒ 5 the last number/rune is the DL. (Similarly, it could be the 25th, 29 days to end of year!)

Indeed, the full word was HALADHIR or ‘He led here.’ And where is here? It is also includes two anagrams with L as a divider. Find: HA – ADHIR ⇒ Rhadi Ah ⇒ Rhode Oh ⇒ Rhode Island. It repeats! (Recall there are 50 X’s in this. Some o’s and æ’s must have been sacrificed to achieve that number. I can be either e or I.)

So, Aki cut this piece actually on:

29 November, 1214 in anticipation of the 100 year anniversary
of Henricus’ arrival at Rhode Island where he led.

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Longitude and Latitude

Finding the longitude and latitude hidden in these inscriptions requires knowing it in advance. It cannot just be read off. The text gave us the clue Rhode Island so we shall have some area to work with, assuming it is the same Rhode Island we know of today. The location of Newport Tower is 41.48̊N and 71.31̊W and the location of nearby Narragansett is 41.45̊N and 71.45̊W with respect to the Greenwich Meridian

Interspersed through the text is Pentadic numbers such as seen on line two and three. A listing of these in order with the words North and West as they appear in the text follows. There are four tens and they are all the circle and stick shape. The M in the final date is excluded since it is not Pentadic:

17, 10, 10, 12, West, 12, Nor, 10, West, 10, 11,………reverse side: 17, 11 Total sum = 120.

Sum from beginning to just after Nor (17+10+10+12+12+10) is 71.
Sum from the end to just before Nor (11+17+11+10+10+12) is 71 ⇒ 71 North 71

Sum of numbers excluding 10’s to just after West is (17+12+12) is 41.
Sum of remaining numbers excluding 10’s is (11+17+11) is 39.

Sum of numbers from beginning to first West is (17+10+10+12) is 49.
Sum of numbers from second West to end is (10+11+11+17) is 49.
Sum of numbers on reverse side is 28.
Additionally, numbers 17 and 12 are lined up over each other on the left so 29.

Line three reads – UUULISA SUINK which is 41 A 48.
Line four reads – 12 : RISI : UIST : 12 : NOR : 10 : SAKAM[LI] as all numbers this is…
12 : 34 : 34 : 12 : 17 : 10 : 75
The sum of just the numbers 12, 12 and 10 on this line is 34. Two words sum to 34.

Line ten summed to 41 A 49. (See above.)

The text clearly indicates 41.49 / 41.48 and 71.34. These coordinates bring one to just north of Fort Adams (at 41.48̊N and 71.34̊W) and west of Newport in the bay area off Aquidneck Island in Rhode Island. It would seem Aki did mean to indicate the Fort Adams / Newport area where stands the Newport Tower. Its apparent accuracy suggests they were using the Greenwich Meridian as opposed to other available meridians. (See Post: The Newport Tower: Finding the Date of Dedication, its Designer and Builder.)

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Founding Family

There is another section of the text that is of interest. Line five ends with: HAAKON : FAN . Gordon (pg. 142) felt this meant ‘Haakon found.’ Haakon is a common name. A closer look at the text reveals more. As before this requires several lines not just one. Running vertically from FAN is FAN so it forms a square:
Now one can find KAM, NAM and FAMLI in the square implying ‘Haakon (name) came and is the founding family.’ But there is more here. Notice the LOK at a diagonal and the AT both pointing to the same place or ‘look at.’ What then is in this odd word SUITNK? AKI the author’s name can also be found with the A below. Removing AKI what is left is SUTN which suggests NUT … ‘not’ and/or SUN … ‘son’ or ‘is not Aki.’

Perhaps, we are close to it. KINK/G or KUNK/G is here with the K below. King Haakon IV of Norway began his rule as a child in 1204. Removing these from SUITNK leaves SUT or SIT which seems to imply ‘sit.’ King Haakon IV was ‘sitting’ then but this entire inscription suggests the settlement is much older. Newport can be dated to at least 1116 by the Newport Tower (Freeborn, 2022). This is a hundred years prior to Haakon IV. The text offers another possibility. To the left is the name (UU/M) U -LISA with (D)THIR just above as if it says MUTHIR LISA or ‘mother Lisa.’ SUITNK is also an anagram of Kitsun. Just below the IT is K which repeats Kit. So it is: KITSUN KAM 10. Year 1010 is the date stated in the plain text. Perhaps, the founder of Rhode Island then was:

Haakon, son of Lisa and Kit, was the founding family in 1010.

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A Full Translation

By now we have seen many subjects touched on in this inscription. The first was Baal followed by Henricus in 1117; Thorfinn and the founding family of Haakon Kitson in 1010; Rhode Island and its location; and its author, Aki, in 1214. However, there are many words as yet not discussed. After reviewing each line and looking at the remaining words a summary translation that is not so jumbled will be made. The transliterated image retains letter placement to facilitate reading of the text.


The first word was found to be a partial anagram for Henricus and ‘amo’ which means ‘love.’ SIKATUMODIN includes the A, R below the M. This is an anagram of several words: SIT KAM MAR U ODIN or site, came, mar, U, Odin ⇒ At the site of Odin it came. It is a mar, a cup, an O den. KILSA describes the place again: where it killed is a bucket. KILSA is also an anagram for ‘a skill.’ The last word is an anagram for ‘sail.’


17 was used to calculate the longitude/latitude and the years 1117 and 1217. DID is ‘did,’ and HALADHIR was seen to be both ‘he led here’ and ‘Rhode Island.’ MIBAINBAD-HUM appears to be plain text joined words: My baneful bad home. Note that BAD is directly above the SUITNK which was found to include ‘not king.’ So it is ‘Haakon is not the bad king.’

Running vertically under the ‘did’ is AIKI or I, Aki, did.

Line #3 : HUM : AHR : 1010 : [UU] ULISA SUITNK :

HUM is ‘home.’ AHR is both ‘year’ and an anagram of HAR or ‘here.’ 1010 is the year. [UU]U is part of the center pictogram and suggests ‘three cups.’ [UU] is also a Latin M so that MU with the R just below and a TH (D) just above as if it says MOThR LISA or ‘mother Lisa.’ SUITNK with the K below was ‘not sit King.’ It was otherwise an anagram of ‘Kitson.’

Line #4 : 12 : RISI : UIST : 12 : NOR : 10 : SAKAM[LI] – UNK

The numbers refer to the years 1217 and 1010. They were also used to calculate the longitude/latitude. UIST and NOR are ‘North’, ‘west’ or ‘waste.’ Above the NOR is RU or ‘row north.’ RISI with the M and A above form RIM and SAI or ‘rim’ and ‘sea.’ RISI with the A above forms ‘Æsir.’ The Æsir were the primary gods ruled by Odin. The line ends with SAKAM[LI]. SAK is either ‘sack’ or ‘sag’. It can also be SA KAM LI. ‘Sa’ is a bucket in Old English so it becomes ‘bucket came lie.’ The AMLI was part of the words ‘family’ and ‘fan.’ The K has I above and N below so ‘kin.’ If this is an anagram SAM KIN FAN FAMLI or ‘same kin founding family’ certainly makes sense. The word continues onto the next line. The LIUNK is UNKLE or ‘uncle.’ This Haakon Kitson is then uncle to the bad King Haakon.


The first word UNK is KNO ⇒‘know.’ SKIKHILMAN is ‘skill hill hike man.’ Then follows the founders actual name spelled out, Haakon, with fan repeated both horizontally and vertically which seems to imply ‘founder.’


The first word is an anagram of Henricus using the U and S above. This leaves ‘in.’ Above KIN is another K suggesting ‘king’ again and also ‘kin.’ The ‘in’ is followed by AT or ‘at.’ This ‘in at’ sounds redundant, however AT in Hebrew gematria is 79. HR[IN]IKIN is also HIR NI KIN or hire nigh kin of king.

The H with U above and S below suggests SHU ⇒ ‘show.’

Then follows UIST or ‘west’ or ‘waste.’ Baal follows three times in different directions as shown above. LAAKA is ‘lake’ spelled with three A’s repeating the idea of 3.


SILKA as before is both ‘Kilsa’ and also ‘a skill.’ KIʀSLRIKN seems unintelligible which it should since it is an anagram for ‘Skrilingʀ’ ⇒ ‘scræling’ or foreign person. The last word, ‘my baneful bad home,’ was discussed before. It repeats three times as the refrain of the piece. Mongé felt Kilsa was the year 1124. (See below at Map Stone.)

Line #8 : UM : AHR : 1011: SMUALAL[LI][OO]SA :

This was discussed above. It was: It was razed and razed until it is a rim now. Upon An were the three strikes by Baal. It lies in the net at the baneful buckets from the three hits on A. As it mowed the eye, all was loosened.

This additional comment is added. The vertical runes running through the S might also include the A on the bottom line so that it becomes: ARSRSA of ‘Aesir, Aesir.’

Line #9 : BAMAR[OO]RMAT : THAT :

This was also discussed above. It was: ‘Area a room, tomb.’ THAT is ‘that’ and also was part of the end line anagram HATI or ‘hit A.’

Line #10 : SIKLASHIBI :

SIKLASHIBI appears complicated. It reads better with the M above the A included and the AT above the last I so that it says: ‘I am skil at ship’ ⇒ ‘I am skilled at ship’ which suggests he is either a skilled builder of ships or sailor.

Line #11 : RI :

RI is both 51 and 56. It appears on the Kensington rune stone on the side at the far right; and on the Rok rune stone in Sweden on the top at the far right.

Line #12 : NAIK[IL]AKTA : BAA

NAIK[IL]AKTA with the M below at the start of the line and the IN below the K reads: MANI KIL KIN ATAK ⇒ many kin killed in attack. The BAA is with the B below and DO is ‘ababod.’ This is Old English ‘æbebod’ which means an ‘edict of law.’

Line #13 : MB : UINA : SHIB : UIDH :

MB : UINA : SHIB : UIDH is almost straightforward plain text: move Vine ship with ⇒ moved to Vineland on a ship with…. Also find DOA running down with another A below and to the side N,M which implies …Doa (name). The runes in the square UID /HO spell out: HU I DO ⇒ how I do. The last H begins the ‘hack here Rhode Island 1214’ found previously which runs vertically to the right.

VINA has an R below the A which creates VINAR or an anagram for Vanir. The Vanir are another group of gods in Norse Mythology.

Line #14 : AKI : 17 : ROIHDHAHOIKUA :

The first word is the author’s name, Aki, and as discussed before the acrostic says: I Aki (name) make. The long word, also discussed above, is: I, Aki how in Rhode Island.


The first two words are new. KOISAKANK is an anagram for I KO AS KANK ⇒ I go as King. KANK is directly over BAD so once again he states the King is bad.

BANINA is combined with the AB above the N so that it clearly says BAN, BAN. The U below the N creates ‘now.’ There is an M below the INA so that it is MANI or ‘many.’

Line #16 : MIBAINBADHUM : AHR : M11

MIBAINBADHUM was My baneful bad home. The H is part of another restatement of HAAKON. It moves up and to the left as HKON and up to the right as HAA. One of those A’s is part of BANINA and the M below it forms the word ‘name’ which confirms that it was intentional.

The remaining letters of AHR : M11 were a part of the vertical lines discussed above.

Vertical lines :

Vertical lines included the center pictogram, the Table Date line, and the line next to it which gave: Baal sow baneful hole.

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Summary Translation

In order to summarize these jumbled ideas, their positioning in the inscription and topic will be taken into account. For example: ‘know, skill hike man’ are part of the Henricus anagram so presumably this refers to him. With that said, it translates more or less to: ………

51 / 56
Rhode Island was founded in 1010. Haakon Kitson, son of Lisa and Kit, was the founding family. He was uncle and kin to the sitting bad King Haakon at my baneful bad home.

Beloved Henricus in 1117 did he lead here in Rhode Island. He was a skilled sailor. Henricus was a knowledgeable man and a skilled outdoors man. Henricus hired nigh the kin of the King of the Scrælings to go west to the Baal lakes and show him. He rowed north and sailed with the scrælings in 1124.

I, Aki, made and designed this. I am a skilled sailor. Many of my kin were killed in an attack because of an edict of law at my baneful bad home. I go as the bad King Haakon banned now my many gods. I moved to Vineland on a ship with Doa. This is how I came. For 1217, I, Aki, cut this and designed it in Rhode Island.

He banned my gods Vanir, Odin, and Æsir, Æsir!

At the site of Odin it came. It is a mar, a cup, an O den.
It was killed at the bucket. The home of the three cups from Baal is here.

It wasted the north and it became a rimmed sea.
It was sacked as it sagged to where the bucket came to lie.
Baal, Baal, Baal!
There are 3 lakes. Baneful and bad was its home.

Two comets struck the eye which is the tie. It flew up as it was struck.
It was razed and razed until it is a rim now.
Upon An were the three strikes by Baal. It lies in the net at the baneful buckets.
As it mowed the eye all was loosened. In ire it wandered south as the eye was hacked.
The area is a room, a tomb. That is where it hit.

The eye hill at the eye is where many struck.
At 56 is the eye and the bisected A. It made the craters.

The eye of Baal lies in three arks at the tie where it owned it.
The baneful craters are horrifying.
Baal sowed a baneful hole.

I, Aki, made this on 29 November, 1214 in anticipation of the 100 year anniversary of Henricus’ arrival at Rhode Island, 41.48̊N and 71.34̊W, where he led.

End Translation
It would take a miracle to read this inscription as plain text!

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Spirit Pond Amulet. Image Lenik, 2009.


The amulet stone, which is designed to be worn, is part of the Spirit Pond Stones. On the front side is the number 1010 which is presumably the year. The question remains whether it is a commemorative year or the year it was originally devised. Either way the 10’s are composed of a line and a circle which repeats the idea of the Ankh. Above the date are three runic letters, VIN, assumed to represent Vinland. There are then 5 runic figures on this side. The 6th is a hatched symbol for 5 so 56.5 repeats.✓

The runes in the center stand for V I N with numbers 2, 9 and 8. Their sum as 19 is of no interest. But if one sees it as a 2 ̸ 8 then 28 is found.✓ (See Rune chart at end for number equivalents.)

The sum of the 5, 19 and 20 is 44 which interestingly is the latitude of Spirit Pond.

Then by summing 5 and 2, a 7 can be found which provides 7 9 and 20 or 7920.✓

Easy enough, but this leaves no apparent use for the 8 except that 89 x 89 is 7921?!✓ And a square of sides 5.65 has a diagonal of 8.✓

Lastly, here there are 3 letter runes and 2 numbers or 32.✓

The Cross below the circle (string hole) may repeat the idea of the Ankh again. The cross suggests this person had converted to Christianity or wanted to appear Christian despite the Pagan message on the other side.

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Map Stone Front. Runes traced in black.

SP-1, Map Stone, Front

This leaves SP-1 or the map stone to be looked at. This is a sheer pleasure. It transliterates easily as:

The sum of HOOB(P) is 28.✓ The sum of TKA is 28.✓ The sum of TUA is 24.

Very similar to the Kensington and the Kingigtorssuaq Inscription, the first letter, H, has value 7 and there is a 2 and 9 on the following line or 792.✓ The next numbers (8,15,10, 8,2) sum to 43.✓ The last two are 8 and 2 or 28 in reverse.✓ On the left there are 3 word groups on 2 lines or 32.✓ On the right there are 4 word groups on 3 lines or 43.✓

Mongé dates this to 6 October 1123 using the phrase (I+L) A K . (He used L= 14.) He presumes it is an anagram for SIKLA (sailed). Anagrams of SIKLA are also used on SP-2 and SP-3. He dated all the inscriptions then to that date. The associated numbers are (23)10 6. Note the S or 11 is missing. There is a hint in the two lines above it which use 11 runes. If Mongé is correct and L= 14 then the sum is 39 but the 11 (S) is missing. Take the hint and subtract an 11 from 39 and find 28.✓ He uses the rune count of 3 and 7 on line one to prove the GN and DL. Furthermore, the riddle master no doubt assumed the solver would find the date 6 October in the remaining numbers of (I+L)AK. The DN table (See Easter Tables) indicates this is 79 days to the end of the year. 79 and 23 from the joined runes creates 7923 and this is a very clever 792✓ which makes it an unlikely date.

If L = 15 then the sum of (I+L)AK is 40.✓ By similar reasoning the year becomes 1124.

The GN for year 1124 is 4. The DL is 6. Both 4 and 6 repeat in the text. This makes 1124 a plausible year as well. As a date, it is likely the year when Henricus sailed to ‘Kilsa’ or left the settlement for other duties elsewhere as implied by the Vinland map. The GN for the stated year 1011 is 5 and the DL is 7. The Line/Rati is #15. Although there are two 7’s there are no 5’s making it unlikely this is the date of the inscription.

*All of the words in the right word group are either misspelled or anagrams which suggests there is something hidden here. This group is usually taken to mean two days travel by sea since there is an arrow. Two days to the north is Nova Scotia. Two days to the south is Narragansett Bay where lies another rune stone (once at the shoreline). It is as if there were other settlements along the coast.

A closer look at these runes is warranted. Note the riddle master gives a hint. They refer to time (day). It is likely then that this group is where the date is embedded.

The right side numbers: 

Note the repeating 12’s and that 10,6 and 6,10 are in a group and sum to 16. The 10,6 repeats in the last word. The 2 and 10 sum to 12. The GN for 1212 is 16. Moreover, the DL is 7 which is to the right of the 10,6. There are 7 runes on the top line and 3 on the bottom. The Rati is 3. Compare this to year 1216 with GN 1 and DL 2 neither of which is found. Checking year 1006, the GN is 19, DL is 6 which is also unsatisfactory. The likely year then is 1212.

If one studies Mongé’s steps closely for determining the date, another implied dedication day becomes apparent. The sum of the digits in 1011 equals 3. There are seven runes on the line. Using the DN table the 37th day to the end of the year is 17 November. The first two runes of HOOP sum to 11 and the last two to 17 which seems to confirm the date as 17 November, 1212. In the Inscription stone 1117 was the implied date of Henricus’ arrival.

The stone implies the Hoop settlement began in 1011 and was still active in 1212. Archeological dating suggests it was active in the 1400’s. (Wolter, pg. 80) The area is still known as Hoop.

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Map Stone Obverse. Runes and pictograms traced in black.

SP-1, Map Stone, Back

The stone has a significant shape which can be seen from this side. It is shaped like an axe. The left upper corner is shaped like a crater. Both of these ideas are important to the story of Baal.

The back of the stone has eight✓ runes centered at the top between two pictures which immediately suggests 28.✓ There are two pictures on the top line and eight below in the group or 28.✓ The symbol Wolter suggested (X with hoop) meant 40 degrees latitude is present next to a hatch mark symbol. The 40 implies 56.✓ To its right the hatches can be counted two ways evidently. As he did and find 44 which is the latitude of Spirit Pond; and as others do, find 48 which is the latitude of Newfoundland Island.

The runes at the top center are transcribed as M I L T I A K I and correspondingly the numbers are: 14 9 15 12 9 10 6 9.

The sum is a sad and useless 84. However, the sum from 14 to 10 is 69 which is repeated by the last two numbers 6 and 9. This is essentially the longitude of Spirit Pond. The correct modern coordinates are 43.75 ̊ N, 69.81 ̊ W. The location of Newfoundland is 48 ̊ N, 56.5 ̊ W.✓ Imagine that.

The translation of the runes on SP-1 reverse has certainly not satisfied anyone. It appears it can be broken up as follows: MIL TI (A) KI. This is in simple Old English…mill tie (56) key. From this Mongé derived the message: LIT A MIK or seen by me. Or perhaps it is actually stating who wrote and inscribed (let) this stone. Read in both directions: ⇒ Me let…I Aki…… I tell ⇐. Altogether it says:

Mill tie (56) key seen by me. I Aki designed and carved.

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Short SP-2: Photo Scott Wolter ©2009. Used with permission.

The Short SP-2

This is the last of the Spirit Pond stones to discuss. Its inscription is short having 8 runes on the top line and 4 on the second line with 3 on the left and 1 on the right. One rune on each line is a bindrune positioned directly over each other.

There are 3 words on 2 lines for 32.✓ The sum of the top line is 74. The sum of the second line is 51.✓ The total sum is 125. The first number is 8 and the second bindrune is 9. Recall 89 x 89 = 7921.✓ The sum from 15 to the last 6 is 40.✓ The first number is 8 and the last number on either line is 6 suggesting 86.✓ The sum on the left bottom is 45. The sum between the 6’s is 45. Add a 6 from either side and obtain 51 again.✓ The R and K adjoining each other provide 56.✓

The : is directly under 15 and it is followed by 4 and 15. Year 1002 is on line 15 of the Easter table. It has GN 15 and DL 4. This date follows the discovery of Vinland by Leif Erickson by a year, so it is possible. The commemoration date on the others was 1010.

Assuming the day of dedication is suggested by the nearby 6’s both the 6th of October and 11th of June must be checked. The first is 79 days before the end of the Norse year. But 79 suggests 792.✓ The 11th of June is 196 days before the year end but only 125 days before October 14th, the first day of the Norse winter. The sum of the first line was 125! This can then be dated to either day. It is the reader’s choice. Once the date is plainly stated then one can see it in the text 10 : or 10 0 2!

As far as what it says…it reads like it is straight Baalist – strange but true. The second line is an anagram for KILSA which was seen on the other Spirit Pond stones. Taking it bit by bit find:

N over S. North went south.

(ÆRIL) ⇒RÆL I ⇒ roll eye.

KS over A. ⇒ SAK ⇒ sack or sagged.

The L over two dots. ⇒ two suggests a missing letter U so this becomes LU or low.

Then it is ÆL over K ⇒ cull. The last two in reverse KL ⇒ kill.

Kilsa was a place or ‘a skill.’

North went south as the eye rolled and sagged. It is low at Kilsa. It culled and killed skillfully.

This sounds like he is describing the apocalypse or perhaps some element of Ragnarök. His devotion to Baal seems complete but what of his name?

It might be helpful to see the Æ as O. Now notice there are two anagrams for ‘look’ spelled LÆK or LOK. So we should do as directed and look. Mongé points out this implies a shift cipher. If a shift cipher is applied (shift each to the preceding) find:

N (Æ+R)KS L Æ L K ⇒ H (Th Æ) R A B Th B R 

S (I+L) A : K ⇒             A ( N B) I : R

which is not productive. But if you make a mistake and substitute M for B (the following rune) then…

H (Th Æ) R A M Th M R 

 A ( N M) I : R

then one can read: hath name thar (there) I am thr (there)? This suggests it is a forward/reverse cipher. After a some struggle one finds that only the bindrunes are used.

Lother inscribed this stone 11th of June 1002.

That then concludes the Spirit Pond stones but there is another stone from the same period somewhat south which also provides …… a runic riddle. (Continues with The Nomans Land – Leif Eriksson Inscription – which was this previous post and the Narragansett Inscription here.)

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Previous… Newport Tower Post          Next … Shawnee Runestone

Younger Futhark Runic Alphabet

From Wikipedia

Similar Articles by the Same Author

*Easter Tables

** For numeric background see:

**Freeborn, B.L., Validating North American Runic Inscriptions,, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Ancient Riddles to Test Our Wits: The Secret Chamber,, January 2016. (Post)

Freeborn, B.L., Deciphering the Spirit Pond, Nomans Land and Narragansett Runic Inscriptions,, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Et in Arcadia Ego – OUOSVAVV DM – Deciphered,, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Kensington Rune Stone: A New Translation,, February 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Runic Riddles: Time Capsules,, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L. The Long Debated Bourne Stone,, January 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., The Nomans Land – Leif Eriksson Inscription,, December 2022. 

Freeborn, B.L., The Narragansett Inscription: A Translation with its Date of Dedication, Author and Inscriber,, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Newport Tower: Finding the Date of Dedication, its Designer and Builder,, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Runic Riddles: Younger Futhork,, December 2022.


Firestone, Richard; West, Allen; Warwick-Smith, Simon; The Cycle of Cosmic Catastrophes: Flood, Fire, and Famine in the History of Civilization, Bear & Company, Rochester, VT., 2006.

Gordon, Cyrus, Riddles in History, Crown Publishers, Inc. New York, 1974.

Landsverk, O.G., Runic Records of the Norsemen in America, Erik J. Friis, Publisher, Rushford, MN, 1974.

Landsverk, O.G., Ancient Norse Messages, Norseman Press, Glendale, California, 1969.

Lenik, Edward J., Making Pictures in Stone: American Indian Rock Art of the Northeast, 2009.

Mongé, Alf & O.G. Landsverk, Norse Medieval Cryptography in Runic Carvings, Norseman Press, Glendale, California, 1967.

Syversen, Earl, Norse Runic Inscriptions: with their Long-forgotten Cryptography, The Vine Hill Press, Sebastopol, California, 1979.

Wolter, Scott F, The Hooked X: Key to the Secret History of North America, North Star Press of St. Cloud, Inc., St. Cloud, Minnesota 2009.

Derogatory article by Aslak Liestol of Alf Mongé’s work:  and….

…Landsverk responded to these comments in Ancient Norse Messages pg. 126-129; and often in Runic Records of the Norsemen in America.

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The Newport Tower: Finding the Year of Dedication, its Designer and Builder

B.L. Freeborn © October 30, 2022        (PDF version here.)

Who built the Newport Tower is a long standing question. It has been well proven by James Eagan that the tower is used for keeping time as the celestial bodies align with its numerous small windows. Eagan also noticed that certain letters formed with stones appear in the arches of the structure. Most notable and hard to miss is the >OI<. He found the Delta and P (shown as R). He also thought the h was a Greek η. From there he determined, probably correctly, it spells out Rode as in Rhode Island. His theory states John Dee had the tower built in 1583 in connection with a colonization attempt which failed.

The tower is shown on the “Woods Map 1635’ by William Woods a colonist in Providence, RI (Syverson, pg.32) The map notes it as Old Plymouth. This is the earliest known record and predates Benedict Arnold senior’s ownership. Evidently Arnold knew what it was and probably who built it, but because of the possibility of these prior claims resurfacing he referred to it as an old windmill knowing very well only a fool would believe that.

After studying Eagan’s discovery, the other letters shown above were identified. There are eight arches. Three of which have one letter displayed and five display two each. There is also a round stone on the interior opposite the >OI< stone on the northwest side. This makes fourteen altogether. To complicate the picture there is a runic inscription found over the southwest pillar (see images below). It was translated by Mongé (1967) and it reads Henricus 1116. This refers to Eirik Gnupsson, a Bishop from Greenland that was sent to Vinland. Other theories as to the tower’s origin abound. The Henricus theory is at least supported by an inscription imbedded into the tower itself in the manner of a corner stone.

This paper is a study of the inscription and stone letters. It is also an addendum to Validating North American Runic Inscriptions (PDF). The translation is given here and the study with its numeric work follows. The aforementioned paper will be helpful in understanding it.


The round stone on a peg in the NW arch is as indicative of Baal as a cross is to Christ. (The >OI< stones.) Furthermore, it would seem the stone letters spell out Baal. This leads to studying the ‘inscription’ as if it is of Baalist origin and if so, certain numbers must be present. Validating North American Runic Inscriptions describes how certain numbers are embedded in Baalist inscriptions. One should recall that the Catholic Church went to great lengths to stamp out Paganism in the time preceding, during and after Henricus’ tenure as Bishop. Apparently, Baal was central to that religion which is why there are so many references to it hidden in runic riddles. The dedication to Baal at Newport tower is unmistakable. The stone letters are repeated here:
Reading in a clockwise manner – b O O L T I h Δ I O >I< P/R O
These are transliterated as:           B A A L T I h D I A I R O

Note that the P in some languages is R. The O’s can be either O or A.
Reading from the top clockwise find: RO, BAAL, TI, HI, HID, DI, O, >I<
Also find: HIT, I TOOL, O LO, BOR, ROB, POL, RODE or RHODE and OH.

The first line suggests: Row, Baal, Tie, die, high, hide, eye, two strikes at I.
The second adds: hit, I tool Rob, hole low, bore, pole; rod, red or road; and oh. We may conclude:

R.O.B. designed and built.
Baal at the high tie hit. It hit twice at the eye in rows.
The hole is low where it bored the eye of the pole.
Rhode Island

These are typical Baalist statements except for the last one. The words are easily found in the inscription. Rhode Island perhaps requires an explanation. RHODE appears to be a combined anagram for Rod (or Red) and Oh (meaning island). A rod is a measuring length of 16.5 feet. The clay on the shores of Rhode Island is notably red so it might also refer to red. This suggests the name, Rhode Island, is much older than cited by modern authorities. The name Rob or R.O.B. is the name or initials of the designer. The H represents his pseudonym, Henricus.

Then Comes Henricus

Above the southwest pillar of the tower is a runic inscription. Harek Williams examines it in a video with James Eagan and confirms it is human carved and nothing more. A much better source for proving it is an authentic runic carving is Alf Mongé. Why the latter? Harek Williams reads plain text runes from that period. He does not delve into runic puzzles or dated riddles. Alf Mongé was a cryptologist. He deciphered the deep scratch marks into runic letters and decoded them. He found it reads: Henricus 1116. This gives a lower limit to the age of the tower. Based on other runic inscriptions found along the east coast and the Narragansett inscription nearby this seems plausible.

The rapidity with which the tower is giving away to nature demands that it must be under constant care. This requires that, regardless of when it was built, it must have been periodically repaired. It has been nine hundred years since Bishop Henricus visited (circa 1116) as stated in the Vinland map legend. The Spirit Pond stones are dated to 1214-1217. (Freeborn, Deciphering.., 2022) They commemorate his visit. The Kensington Stone’s date is 1362. It states the travelers came from Rhode Island. In 1525 Verazzanno explored the coast but did not mention the tower. In 1583 John Dee sent an expedition to the area. By the 1600’s it was settled by colonists and it came under the care of Benedict Arnold senior. This could mean it received periodic maintenance since the time of its construction, on or after 1116, until Arnold’s ownership five hundred years later.

The date and builder need not be total speculation. The aforementioned inlaid letters tell the story of Baal. If they were chosen in the manner of a runic riddle they may reveal more. Since Henricus was a master at runic riddles, and if this was built by him or in honor of him, then the symbols should contain further information. These riddles often contained a date.

As far as John Dee being the designer, that is possible as well. However, and it is a very big however, he was a devoted Christian and this tower is clearly a dedication to Baal. A study of Dee’s mathematics does not display the numbers so prevalent in Baalist inscriptions which suggests he is not the creator. The two are not mutually exclusive since Henricus was a Bishop of the church, but he lived at the point in time when Paganism, through genocide, was actively being stamped out. To continue their religion and live, they were forced underground or in this case, off the European continent. It is possible he was of both beliefs.

After a mathematical study (which follows) of the letters’ number equivalents more information was derived. As seen, it was erected to commemorate the great story of Baal. It also commemorates Henricus’ visit in 1116 and again in 1153, thirty years after his supposed death. In keeping with his humor, or some might say his ego, he designed and oversaw the construction himself.

LOCATED at 41.48̊N, 71.3̊W

Number Work and Proof of Transliteration

Certain numbers** appear when the letters in any Baalist inscription is converted to their numerical equivalent (gematria). The Newport Tower’s hidden letter/numbers are studied here. Numbers that are typically found are noted by a ✓ check mark. Simply put, if the numbers are not found, it is -not- a true Baalist inscription -or- the letters have been misinterpreted. Once the correct letters are proven via their gematria then the message about Baal can be read and also, possibly who wrote it and when. The result of this study is as noted above.

The proposed transcription of symbols imbedded in the arches of the Newport Tower is shown below. The numbers are studied for repetitions and pertinent numbers.

Norse Runic Gematria

Sum from T and around to first A = 79. From the same A to L is 23. So that it is 79,23.✓
Total sum is 98 or 89 in reverse which reminds one 89 x 89 = 7921.✓
The sum from the Δ around again to the 7 is 89. ✓ The 79 is also imbedded in the text.✓
Even more notable the 9,3,9 sum to 21 so it becomes 7921.✓
The sum from the first A to first I is 51.✓ The sum from H to the right and around to L is 86.✓
The 28 appears twice which is half of 56.✓ The sum from B to the left around to the I (by H) is 56.✓
The sum from first I to the last O is 43.✓
Note the 12’s at T, ID, DI. Note the 13 at AI just following the 12.
Note the 14 at IR. Lastly, note 7 and 9 sum to 16.
By summing adjoining numbers find: 13,17, 19, 15, 19,12, 16, 12, 12, 13, 13, 14, 9, 17…
On either side of the 16 is a 12, then 12, 12, 13, 13, 14.

Years 1112,1113, 1114, 1115,1116 and 1117 are all implied by the series. These numbers coincide with the period of time Henricus was believed to be in Vineland. In dated runic riddles the Golden Number (GN), Day Letter (DL) and Line # are used to denote a year since every year has specific values that can be found in Easter Tables (a calendar device created in 525 AD). The main legend on the Vineland Map has the phrase: ‘anno p. ss. nrj.’. This uses a 1, 2, 3 sequence and if it is Line #1, Golden Number (GN) 2 and Day Letter (DL) 3 then 1160 is indicated. This date repeats the idea of 16. For reasons seen below in the arch count study, this date is preferred. Without this corroborating interpretation, the other dates would remain as possibilities. This continues below.

The location can also be found in some runic gematria riddles. One cannot just ‘read’ the location. It is just a bit of bragging by the inscriber that he knew the correct coordinates. Hence, one must know the location beforehand! The values are: 41.48̊N, 71.3̊W. The sum from H to the last I is 41. The sum from B to T is 48. This suggests 41.48.✓

Similarly, 71 runs from the H to the end and around to the T. From the R back around and including the second A is 30. So 71.30.✓ It would seem the inscriber did know the correct coordinates.

The tower also spells out RHODI or Rhode. These letters have values: 5,7,4,3,9 = 28.✓

The Structure Contributes

The structure is set up to provide numbers as well. There are 8 pillars and 10 symbols that appear on five arches (two each). One symbol (the red stone) is in the inside and three arches have only one symbol for a total of 14 symbols. 4 x 14 = 56.✓ There are five arches with two symbols each or 10. There are three with one each for 3. Total 13.
There is a single round red stone on the interior. So 1. 1 and 13 ➟ 113 = 56.5 x 2.✓
There are 8 pillars and of course, 8 arches. A square of sides 5.656 has a diagonal of 8.✓
There are double symbols in 5 arches and single symbols in 3.
If the first arch with B is #1, then the arches with two symbols are found on: 3, 5, 6, 7,8. The ever present 3 is represented, then 56 and 7 x 8 is 56 again.✓ Similarly, if B is #1, then it is 1 symbol, then 1 symbol, then 2 symbols; or 112 which is twice 56.✓

One may again conclude after finding so many numbers typically found in Baalist documents that the transliteration is correct. The set of numbers is then 5,3,2,2,2,2,2,1,1,1 and 10. Let us view this another way. There are 3 arches with only 1 symbol. This is part of the story of Baal. There are 3 arcs.✓ The repeating 2’s suggest there were 2 Baals ✓ and two trips by Henricus. This leaves 2,2,2 which is 6 and with the 5, it is 56.✓ Another important number is 792. It can be found by adding.

Also note the number 532. This is the number of years in the Easter Table before the table starts to repeat. Its presence infers a date. The 1,2,3 suggests year 1160 as seen above. The date 1153 is also easily found here. The sum of the digits in 1153 is 10.✓ It is suggested that Henricus began his journey or the structure in 1153, and the tower was completed on or before 1160. This accounts for some of the confusion in the Vinland Map that says, ‘He remained a long time summer and winter and later returned toward Greenland.’ He was presumed dead in 1123 but reappears thirty years later.

Further information is here about Henricus. If the letter sequence is viewed using the Elder Futhark gematria we find:
18 4 4 21 17 9 11 23 11 4 11 5 24 …18
B  A A L  T H  I   D   I  A I R O… B ⇒… repeats..

It is believed Henricus died in 1123 because a new Bishop of Greenland was consecrated in 1124.

Find: I, DI, H 1123…… I die 1123 as Henricus.
I HID 1123 ……… I hide 1123.
I R O B …. I R.O.B …or… Born O.R. I. or I Rob.

This still leaves us plenty of mystery but the time period has narrowed to a window beginning in 1116 to around 1160.

Runic Inscription Study

This is a summary of Mongé’s decipherment. It is a group of five runes and two are joined runes: (HE) N (IK) R S or Henricus. There is an arrow to the right. The arrow is another feature common on Baalist inscriptions.** Using runic gematria, the year 1116 is found. The (HE) is 16. The S is 11. The R is 16. The (IK) is 15. The line number on the Easter Table is 15. The date 1116 is confirmed by the grouping 4 then 1 for GN 4 and DL 1. It is worth reading Mongé’s study (Mongé, pgs 128-129).


The Newport Tower’s embedded letters when converted to gematria reveal numbers typical to Baalist documents. Their transliteration and subsequent translation educate us in a long lost religion. That this tower displays these features severely narrows the field of possible builders. It also strongly suggests that the northern peoples, Norse and others, inhabited this region known as Rhode Island for some time and built an elegant edifice by the year 1160. The study implies that it was Bishop Henricus who designed and oversaw the construction. He apparently hid for thirty years. His Pagan / Baalist beliefs are apparent in the design of the structure. It would seem the Church Fathers discovered he was not as devout as presumed. Henricus also went by Eirikr Gnupsson. He could also have been known by R.O.B., or Rob. The first name is documented by records in Greenland. Indeed, he may have used other names. His skill as an architect is apparent to this day.

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*Easter Table PDF

Similar Articles by the Same Author

** For numeric background see:

**Freeborn, B.L., Validating North American Runic Inscriptions,, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Ancient Riddles to Test Our Wits: The Secret Chamber,, January 2016. (Post)

Freeborn, B.L., Deciphering the Spirit Pond, Nomans Land and Narragansett Runic Inscriptions,, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Et in Arcadia Ego – OUOSVAVV DM – Deciphered,, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Kensington Rune Stone: A New Translation,, February 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Runic Riddles: Time Capsules,, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L. The Long Debated Bourne Stone,, January 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., The Nomans Land – Leif Eriksson Inscription,, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Narragansett Inscription: A Translation with its Date of Dedication, Author and Inscriber,, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Newport Tower: Finding the Date of Dedication, its Designer and Builder,, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Runic Riddles: Younger Futhork,, December 2022.


Creedon, Marc, Runologist Henrik Williams Examines the Newport Tower, Youtube, April 2015.

Eagan, James Alan, Elizabethan America: The John Dee Tower of 1583/ A Renaissance horologium in Newport, Rhode Island, Cosmopolite Press, Newport, Rhode Island, 2011.

*Monge, Alf & O.G. Landsverk, Norse Medieval Cryptography in Runic Carvings, Norseman Press, Glendale, California, 1967.

Syversen, Earl, Norse Runic Inscriptions with Their Long-forgotten Cryptography, The Vine Hill Press, Sebastopol, California, 1979.

Derogatory article by Aslak Liestol of Alf Mongé’s work:  and….

…Landsverk responded to these comments in Ancient Norse Messages pg. 126-129; and often in Runic Records of the Norsemen in America.


B.L. Freeborn © December 2022        (PDF version here.)

Shugborough Inscription beneath Anson’s Version of Poussin’s Et In Arcadia Ego – From Wikipedia

The Shugborough Inscription is a sequence of letters ‘OUOSVAVV’ on the first line and ‘DM’ spaced far apart on the second line. It is on a monument built between 1748 and1756 commissioned by Thomas Anson. Above it is a relief by sculptor Peter Scheemakers which is a variation of the Poussin painting Et in Arcadia ego. The famous painting by Nicolas Poussin displays this inscription on a tomb. It translates from Latin as ‘I am also in Arcadia.’ This inscription has eleven letters on top and three on bottom. The Poussin painting was done in 1637-1638. He did an earlier version in 1627. Previous to this, Guercino painted a similar but different version in 1618-1622. The original inspiration is a poem by Roman poet Virgil known as Ecologues. In this poem from 40 BC the inscription on the tomb of Daphnis is described. The tomb is in ‘Arcades.’ Daphnis was a shepherd in ancient Greek mythology.

Although the number of shepherds changes from two to three as the work progresses they all include a tomb. At some point in time the full phrase ‘Et in Arcadia ego’ was developed. The fact that Anson invokes this phrase and adds several elements to it suggests there is more to it besides his still undeciphered cipher some 270 years later.

It would seem he saw something in Et in Arcadia ego that others had not and added the lower inscription as a clue to revealing what is in the original phrase which is most definitely a cipher as well.

Indeed, his efforts resulted in creating a perplexing mystery. The solution to Anson’s ‘OUOSVAVV’ and to the riddle concealed in Et in Arcadia ego follow.


Image Details

Et in Arcadia Ego, relief of painting by Poussin at Shugborough – From Wikipedia

Before solving it, note what the image gives us:
• A woman on the left stands tall but looks down.
• The sky is tumultuous. On the upper coffin is a round wreath.
• Her right arm is bent and rests on her hip. It forms an arc.
• There are 3 shepherds each of whom has a staff. One leans to the left by the woman. The other two lean to the right. Two of the staffs seem to join at the bottom in a very large V.
• Two of the shepherds gesture at the inscription. Their thumbs are out creating V’s. It is said they are pointing at the N and R but in fact they frame the letter A.
• The third shepherd rests his arm on the tomb with 3 fingers together. This also appears in the Poussin version.
• Their arms form two arcs. The Poussin uses a shadow to depict a third arm /arc.
• While the other three look at the inscription, the shepherd on the left looks directly at the observer with a smile on his face.

Is he laughing because this is a riddle? With those images in mind, the solutions move forward.

Cipher #1: O U O S V I V V – D M

For background purposes:
Many alphabets have numerical equivalents for their letters called gematria. Hebrew, Greek and Futhork are three which have gematria. Hebrew and Greek gematria are still in use today. Then to complicate matters, just slightly, do not forget there are also Roman Numerals which are letters as well. The solution requires the Hebrew gematria – first.

The gematria used by Anson is:

  • O is A or 70.    U is Vav or 6.    S is S or 60.
  • D is D or 4.   M is M or 40. 
  • The I is both 10 and /or Roman numeral 1. 
  • V is Vav or 6, but then again it is also a 5 as in a Roman V.

The O and U are reversed. There is only one S. The I is in the correct position but there is no N. However, there is an M just below. In Hebrew gematria M has value 40 and N has value 50.
There are two V’s where there should be an N. Two Roman V’s equal 10 and 40 + 10 = 50 ⇒ N. Missing N found. ✓

It is convenient that the UO is reversed because then by putting the D in front the word DUO can be spelled. An S follows. Perhaps he meant a DUO of S’s. Missing S found. ✓

The first letter is O and as stated previously it has value 70. The P in Hebrew has value 80. Once again add two V’s or 10 and find 70 + 10 = 80 ⇒ P. ✓

Notice that the DO creates the word ‘do’ which refers to Poussin. He did it. Similarly, if the V’s are replaced by N the last two letters spell NM which sounds remarkably like ‘name.’

The inscription then simply reads: DO POUSSIN NaMe. – – One mystery solved. ✓

By creating this exercise, Anson has shown us several clues to resolve the riddle in the original inscription. Note that it required two numeric systems to solve it (Hint #1) and more importantly, fixed the value of the O’s at 70 (Hint #2).

Before going further, see this puzzle in a new way – as an image. It has 3 V’s. (This is similar to the V’s and three formed by the shepherds’ hands.) It has a pattern OUO. Recall this used Hebrew gematria and the name of god in Hebrew is Yahweh spelled יהוה. It portrays the same alternating pattern. The numbers in Yahweh are 565 10.

We must pause for a moment for a bit of seemingly irrelevant information. In drafting, when drawing an image of an object, two versions are often shown: the plan view – as if one is looking down; and the side view – as if one is looking at the side. Now – in your minds eye – look at the O’ and U’s as if they are plan and side views of an object. This will be called Anson’s Big Hint.

These -3- letters are followed by an S. Recall S often represents the word South. This idea will repeat later.

Cipher #1 Numbers

This requires numbers for a while…distasteful to many… lovely to others.

  • Yahweh or יהוה or 565 10 can be seen in the last four letters. The V is 5 and then VI is 6. Two V’s is 10. In the fifth and sixth position from the left is V and I. This is 5th and 6th then 5 and 6.

Fully substituting now for the phrase but using only Hebrew gematria it equates to:

70 6 70 60 6 10 6 6
     4 40

  • Find 76 twice at the start. And it repeats again with 70 60. It repeats again with 60,6,10.
  • If the last four are seen as Roman numerals 5 1 5 5 = 16 and 60. Together 16+60 = 76.
  • The last four as shown sum to 28. The pattern of the layout is 2 letters and 8 letters or 28. The product of 4 (on line two) and 70 is 280.
  • The 4 repeats in the 40. They sum to 44. The top line sums to 234.
  • If the I is seen as a Roman 1, then the top line sum is 225 and 4 x 225 is 900.
  • If the I is seen as a Roman 1, the sum from 60 right becomes 79. The remaining numbers sum to 190. See this as a series 79,190…..or…. 7919.
  • There are four 6’s or 24.

Let’s give some of these meaning.

  • The period of Halley’s comet is 76 years.
  • There are 24 hours in a day and 24 hours of longitude mark the planet.
  • Each hour has 60 minutes.
  • The number of seconds of longitude is 86400. This is also the number of seconds in a day. Half of this is 432,000 or 432 for short. Reverse this number and find 234.
  • The 900 reminds one the pole lies at 90̊.
  • The diameter of the planet is 7920 miles.
  • The 28 is repeated twice so it must be important. Indeed, a 40 is present and a square of sides 40 has a diagonal of 56.56 which is a number similar to that just seen above.

All but two of the numbers reference time and/or longitude. One reference is to God and the other is to a comet.

How many of these numbers will repeat in that first phrase ET IN ARCADIA – EGO?


To continue, we convert these lines to their numeric equivalent in Hebrew.

  • Each line begins with 79. (70+9) and (70+3+6). T to A (9+10+50+10) is also 79 and it is followed by 200. This is 79200.
  • Sum of top line (376) minus second line (79) is 297. A jumbled 792.
  • IN (10+50) provides 60.
  • NA (50+1) provides 51.
  • I to R (10+50+10+200) provides 270.
  • N and O (50+6) provides 56. The number of letters on the first line is 11 and on the second is 3 so together as 113 it is twice 56.5.
  • From C to A (20+1+4+10+1) is 36.

This much shorter list gives us 51, 36, 376 and 270 that are new.

  • There are 360̊ in a circle.
  • Due west is at 270̊.
  • The Greenwich Meridian is at latitude 51.51̊.
  • 3 76 should be seen as 3 and 76. We have seen the 3 in the Big Hint OUO.

Evidently then, these numbers do relate to longitude and latitude.

The following important note is made. Normally E should equal 1 and A should equal 70. If this arrangement is chosen, nothing is found. Anson did the same manipulation in his riddle. ‘O’ normally has value 6 but he changed it to 70.

The original phrase Virgil used in his poem was only ‘Arcades.’ Someone in turn added the ET IN and EGO with the latter on the second line and changed ‘Arcades’ to ‘Arcadia.’ Presumably this was done in the same manner we say American for someone from America. The endings are just a change in suffix.

Let’s make it worse. After all, Hint #1 suggests two gematrias may be in play here. Having tried Latin and found nothing, the next one attempted was Futhork. This alphabet is used primarily only by the most northern peoples. This inscription is very reminiscent of their style of runic riddles except in Latin letters. Since positioning is of great importance to runic riddles, it is likely the E was aligned under or almost under the I when this was first written. Furthermore, since it is in Latin and Hebrew gematria provides numbers of interest, it is likely the writer was extremely well educated. So, we proceed by using the Younger Futhork. (E and I share value 9. See chart at end.)

This seems random except the 5 and 6 follow each other. So we begin there:

  • RC is 56.
  • NGO is 864.
  • Sum from R to end is 43.
  • Sum of phrase ‘In Arcadia’ is 70. There are two 9’s one above the other and to the left is (9+12) or 21 so…70, 9,21 or… 7921.
    The letters IN provide 98 which reminds one 89 x 89 = 7920.
  • Sum from first I to last I is 60.
  • Sum from first I to R is 32. Sum of ADIA is 32.
  • Sum from first I to D is 51.
  • Sum from C to last I is 28.
  • Sum of A above O is 14.
  • 9+9 = 18.
  • Sum of the top line is 91 and of the second is 19. Note 91 in reverse is 19.

A few of these are new but actually repeat the same ideas.

  • 14 is half of 28 which is half of 56.
  • 32 is 5.65 x 5.65.
  • There are 180̊ degrees of latitude.
  • There are 19 lines in the Easter table. (See below.)

Evidently, it is far from random! Indeed, it can be summed as follows to find something else of great interest.

When was ‘he’ in Arcadia

This is a date. All the runic riddles, as shown by Alf Mongé (1967), are dated via the Easter Tables. This form of calendar was invented in 525 AD by Dionysius Exiguus but was in use in other forms since 390 AD. In the Easter Tables (used to place Easter – a moveable holiday) each year is identified by three numbers: Line #, Golden Number (GN) and Day Letter (DL). There are 19 lines for 532 years and then the calendar recycles. Each line represents 28 years by GN and DL. Each DL tells what day of the week the year started. (The period of years during which these runic riddles were being written is covered by the appended chart.)

‘Vinland: 1011’ As seen Spirit Pond Map Stone

Above we see how a year date is implied by the riddle master. The date should appear twice. Once literally and once at least by confirmation with Line #, GN and DL. One must proceed somewhat by trial and error. Notice the 15. If this is a Line #, it begins with year 1000. Numbers 1010, 1011 and 1012 are present. The first, 1010 has GN 4, DL 1 which is indicated by the 4 next to the 15. Year 1011 and year 1012 are indicated by GN’s 5 and 6 which appear just above them. They have DL’s 7 and 5,6 (leap year) respectively. The DL’s for 1012 are just above. There is no 7 or sum to 7. This gives a span of years from 1010 to 1012 which is very significant. The Spirit Pond runestone SP-3 from Maine dates itself to 1010 and 1011. Also part of the same collection, the amulet stone clearly states Vin 1010; and the Map Stone states Vinland 1011. It can be said then there is support for this interpretation. But it gets better….

Who Wrote It

We know Virgil wrote the original phrase ‘Arcades’ about the year 40 BC. The age of Rome and widespread Paganism. We know Poussin and Guercino both immortalized it around 1630 in its present form. The era of the Pilgrams and witch trials. The above dating suggests that before or in the year 1010 ‘someone’ added the Et In /Ego to the phrase. The era when northern kings of Norway, Denmark and Sweden chose Christianity and began to oppress Paganism earnestly. Anson added his own two lines to those words around 1750. The age when freedom of religion was beginning to take shape. Who then added those three words during the era of Pagan oppression in the north?

Fortunately, many of these encrypted riddles do include the name of the author. Often it is concealed in the telestic/acrostic lines. These are the end letters running down or up the left and right sides of the inscription. In this case EE/AO reveals nothing. Now one should check the letters from both ends as noted by the word count for each line. In this case there are three words on the first line and one on the second. The third letters in, on the first line, are I and D. The first letters on the second are E and O. This is IE from the left and DO from the right.

The letters tell us two things. Anson also found this since he repeated the same ‘DO’ in his riddle. The name of the writer is then IE. But, this is a problem. It is not a name but the Latin phrase ‘ie.’ which is still in use. It essentially means ‘to restate’ or ‘as stated.’ The name then is obvious. ??? It turns out EGO is a male name of Swedish/ Danish/ Norwegian origin. But the text also uses the word ET which means in Latin ‘and.’ Interestingly, another name is also apparent at the same point in the inscription: IN and below it GE – Inge. So it reads:

INGE ET EGO DO – IN ARCADIA – 1010 – 1012

Inge and Ego wrote this – who were in Arcadia in 1010 to 1012

Another mystery appears. Where was Arcadia of the myths and was it a real place in 1010?

Conceal and Anagram

It has become blatantly obvious something else is concealed here. As it happens often in these riddles when an acrostic or telestic requires a letter in a certain position something will be misspelled or words will be compressed together. Let us look at it again. Perhaps if the D is used twice and EGO becomes AGO then it reads:


Now note: ET spells ‘eat’and AD means ‘fire’ in Old English. It means ‘hell’ in Russian. DI can be taken to mean ‘die’ and ago means ‘in the past.’ Now the phrase becomes: Eat in arc, fire, die, A – a long time ago.

It was eaten in an arc. By fire died A – a long time ago.

The letter framed by the shepherds hands was A. This then is a tomb in memory of ‘A.’ Sound strange? It is about to get even stranger.

We have just assumed the word spacing was compressed. What if this contains anagrams? What words do we see? Die, eat, go, roc(k), net, near, gore, dare, tear, gear, care, gone, ran. And then there is that Big Hint Anson gave…cup or was it a can?

Perhaps this says: ET I I CANADA GORE

No? We can be relatively certain this is the intended meaning by looking at the gematria in Hebrew:

ET I I CANADA       70 9 10 10 20 1 50 1 4 1

GORE                        3 6 200 70

These are found: 7920, 40, 60, 51, 51, 56, 77, 141 and 36, 270, 279. All of which were seen above. But again we have compressed CANADA into one word. Should it be CAN 141? Or CAN AD A? Either way, the whole thing becomes strange. Were Ego and Inge actually in Canada in 1010? Was it even called Canada then?

Virgil used the word ‘Arcades’ and it was where ‘Daphnis’ the shepherd was from. In Latin: ‘arc’ is arc, ‘cade’ is fall, ‘ad’ is to, and ‘caed’ is kill (the root of cadaver). It ends in S. Together it is: arc-fall to death-S. Whereas, Daphnis is not quite so obvious. It is four words together as well: hid-pan-I-S or hid-pan-eye-S. The ending ‘nis’ is remarkably close to ‘N is S’ and English ‘ness’ seen in other runic riddles. A study of many of the names Virgil used are like this. Perhaps the common theme here is Paganism.

It was eaten in an arc. By fire died A – a long time ago.

Inge and Ego wrote this – who were in Canada in 1010 to 1012

Remember – history is written by the victor.

The remainder of the secret is now easy to grasp, if the mind is willing.

Image at Virgil’s Tomb is reminiscent of Ragnarok.


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From Wikipedia

Similar Articles by the Same Author

** For numeric background see:

**Freeborn, B.L., Validating North American Runic Inscriptions,, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Ancient Riddles to Test Our Wits: The Secret Chamber,, January 2016. (Post)

Freeborn, B.L., Deciphering the Spirit Pond, Nomans Land and Narragansett Runic Inscriptions,, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Et in Arcadia Ego – OUOSVAVV DM – Deciphered,, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Kensington Rune Stone: A New Translation,, February 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Runic Riddles: Time Capsules,, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L. The Long Debated Bourne Stone,, January 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., The Nomans Land – Leif Eriksson Inscription,, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Narragansett Inscription: A Translation with its Date of Dedication, Author and Inscriber,, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Newport Tower: Finding the Date of Dedication, its Designer and Builder,, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Runic Riddles: Younger Futhork,, December 2022.


Gordon, Cyrus, Riddles in History, Crown Publishers, Inc. New York, 1974.

Landsverk, O.G., Runic Records of the Norsemen in America, Erik J. Friis, Publisher, Rushford, MN, 1974.

Mongé, Alf & O.G. Landsverk, Norse Medieval Cryptography in Runic Carvings, Norseman Press, Glendale, California, 1967.

Derogatory article by Aslak Liestol of Alf Mongé’s work:  and….

…Landsverk responded to these comments in Ancient Norse Messages pg. 126-129; and often in Runic Records of the Norsemen in America.

Wikipedia articles on: Guercino ‘Et in Arcadia Ego’ ; Virgil ; Poussin ‘Et in Arcadia Ego’ ; Shugborough Inscription ; and many others.

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The Runic Riddles: Younger Futhork

B.L. Freeborn © December 2022           (PDF version here.)

Some riddles lay in plain sight for generations and no one sees them for what they are. The Younger Futhork is just such a riddle. It replaced the Older Futhork and was certainly created by someone at some point in time. Indeed, his name and the year are concealed in the script.

The sixteen rune uses the same symbol for multiple sounds. Whereas the original Futhork had twenty-four symbols that provided for the sounds of the language very well. Why then digress?

There are riddles hidden in runic inscriptions such as the Kensington Stone and the Rök runestone of Sweden. A few of the ciphers in the Rök were decrypted over a century ago. Alf Mongé revealed others in the Kensington in 1967. Other inscriptions were examined which led to the attached paper Validating North American Runic Inscriptions (pdf). Other studies followed and they are listed below.

The rune forms of the Younger Futhark evolved from the older over time and in different places. The Younger Futhark as an alphabet was ‘invented’ by someone who placed them in the known specific order at some point in time. This order prescribed the numeric value attached to each sound. It changed the gematria of the system drastically while the form of the runes continued to evolve. The two different ‘s’ shown in the image below are a prime example. They cannot be any more different. The first is very close to its form in the Older Futhark. It is not as if the older just abruptly stopped either. It was used alongside the newer for both its sound value and numeric value. This in and of itself is confusing.

From Wikipedia

It was presumed by the author that the Younger was developed to help conceal numeric data and to confuse readers of the actual reading of the script – which it does. It was developed during a time when there was increased pressure to end paganism and to convert northern Europeans to Christianity. Part of the process was to end the use of runes and use Latin letters.

If one looks at this new alphabet as a riddle, the when and who are answered. It is such a clever riddle that overnight it must have gone viral, as we say, and supplanted the older twenty-four rune Futhork. Mongé notes that often a riddle master will create an alphabet within a riddle to conceal a message. This is what this fellow evidently did and the rest is history.

Here, then, is the riddle, the writer and when:

Younger Futhark transcribed to Latin letters: FUThARKHNIASTBMLʀ

This begins just as the original Futhark alphabet with the same six letters, same order, similar appearance. The last five are the most interesting: TBMLʀ. It almost says ‘table’ or even ‘tumble.’ Immediately preceding this is AS and then just before this is NI as if it says ‘nigh’ which means ‘here.’ The H of nigh precedes it. The letters have been ‘tumbled.’ Clearly then, it says ‘nigh as table’ with an M stuck into the middle to add confusion. There are many arrangements that can be made if one were to form a table from these sixteen symbols. The obvious break is after the first six original runes and indeed, if one reads it again it says: KH or HK in reverse which is similar to ‘hack.’ By hacking it off there the first line is presumably formed. By trial and error the riddle can go forward or one can simply notice that there are ten runes remaining.

This gives us two lines, one of 6 and one of 10 runes. These runic riddles were laced with numbers. The numbers 56 and 792 were always present in a riddle. They often included 51 and 76. By dividing the last ten into 5 and 5, two other groups are formed which is how the aetts (sets) known today must have been derived. This gives 6, 5 and 5 runes in each aett. The preferred order should have been 565 in the same way Hebrew Yahweh is numerically 5,6,5,10. The logical way to form a table is then to use 5,6,5 runes per line. Now after a bit of trial and error the following table is created and preferred for numeric reasons as shown below.

  • Notice the first column sums to 20. The 7 and 2 sum to 9. The 8 and 1 sum to 9. Then 8 and 9 are just to the right. So that 89 x 89 = 7920 and the numbers at the start were 7, 9 and 20. Find the 9, 2,3,4 in the center and note this also creates 792. Also 7,2,9 form a jumbled 792. This repeats this number 792 five times.
  • The sum of the last column is 32 which is 5.65 x 5.65. The 56 repeats at the middle end.
  • Total number of runes in inscription is 16 or half of 32.
  • If this is a Baalist/Pagan inscription then BL (ie. Baal) has values 13,15. Their sum is 28, or half of 56.
  • The sum down then up the diagonals (7,2,14,4,11) is 38 or half of 76. The sum of the bottom row is 70 then up to the 6 is 76.
  • The sum of the top row is 45 and then down to the 6 is 51.

This provides all the required numbers typically seen in Baalist/Pagan documents: 792, 56, 76 and 51.**

But this is just a simple row of numbers broken into three lines. Hardly that exciting, coincidental at the very least but not exciting to us. Now look at the letters. Those were assigned those values.The telestic and acrostics are important in riddles of this nature. Typically they reveal the name of the author and often some indication of his role.

On the right it is S K ʀ in an arc shape. Or in a bit of a loop: SKRAI. This is very suggestive of the word ‘scriva’ in Swedish meaning ‘to write.’ It is also the root of the word inscribe.

Now in an arc again from the I to A ..R..L ʀ find the word IARL which Mongé identified as earl, a title (Syversen, pg. 79).

On the opposite side moving up from T to U..NI find Tuni which is an Old Swedish name. It is short for Thorniutʀ. Interestingly, Tuni / Thorniut was name of the riddle master who wrote the Leif Ericsson inscription from Noman’s Land in 1001. (see pdf below) The name was similarly broken up into Tunæ and then the remaining letters were encoded. Here, it is found as follows:


F U Th O R K

T B M L ʀ ……………. Thorniut Iarlʀ scrai …

I wrote – Earl Thorniutʀ

Intentional, coincidental, or just imagined? Let us say it is the first because somebody at sometime designed the order of this shorter alphabet.

‘When’ is the remaining question.

Use this same table but now pay attention to why the letters TBML are in that order. Also notice TM sounds an awful lot like ‘time.’ Directly above the B or 13 is NU which suggests ‘now.’ We have: now, table and time. There apparently is some date hidden here.

If it does spell table, then the M is inserted between them for some reason. It has value 14. Four times 14 is again 56. Perhaps it is just to confuse. But what else does M represent?

On the Spirit Pond inscription stone (see pdf below) M as a runic M (in Younger Futhork) appeared as part of the date: M11 to indicate 1011. On the Leif Ericsson inscription from Nomans Land, M1 was used to indicate 1001. This reveals the one weakness that all these gematrias have in common and that is the inability to show 0’s. It is especially troubling if one has to write a number like 1000. A Roman numeral M is then very helpful. It has value 1000. Within the word table ‘TBL’ is inserted an M. Does it represent the year 1000? Or does it just refer to time ‘TM’?

The way to see (or prove) what date may be here is to use the Easter Tables (the hint was time table) which was how they determined dates such as Easter before modern calendars were invented. Each year is identified by three numbers. The Line number, the Golden Number (GN) and the Day Letter (DL). (See Landsverk.) For the year 1000 the Line # is 15, the GN is 13 and the DL is 6 and 7, a leap year.
Line # is 15. Letter L was assigned value 15.
Day letter is 13. It is nearby.
There is a 12 just before (of course) but above it is two letters: HF almost as if it says half.
Half of 12 is 6…..the day letter. ???
But this is a leap year, where is the 7? Notice the second line ends at 6 and it is a leap up to 7.
This makes year 1000 a possibility. But there is a better choice.

Another possible date is found on Line #14. The number before L is 14 and the sum above L is 14.
If NU means ‘now’ and B/13 was below it then perhaps 13 is the GN.
This year has DL 2 which is found at U above B/13 in ‘now.’
Line #14, GN 13 implies year 981. This number is found in the table at INF.
The years 982, 983 are equally implied but only 981 has its DL near/in the same group.

It is for the reader to decide which date is implied.

Was this devised as a riddle in 981 by Tuni, otherwise known as Earl Thorniutʀ, for the sole purpose of creating a new alphabet? Or was it a riddle that just went viral?

Also of interest, the original six letters is F U Th Æ R K… as in ‘Foe 3 ark 56.’ Another riddle!!

Previous Post        Next Post

Similar Articles by this Author – pdfs as available

* Easter Table pdf

** For numeric background see: 

**Freeborn, B.L., Validating North American Runic Inscriptions,, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Ancient Riddles to Test Our Wits: The Secret Chamber,, January 2016. (Post)

Freeborn, B.L., Deciphering the Spirit Pond, Nomans Land and Narragansett Runic Inscriptions,, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Et in Arcadia Ego – OUOSVAVV DM – Deciphered,, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Kensington Rune Stone: A New Translation,, February 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Runic Riddles: Time Capsules,, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L. The Long Debated Bourne Stone,, January 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., The Nomans Land – Leif Eriksson Inscription,, December 2022. 

Freeborn, B.L., The Narragansett Inscription: A Translation with its Date of Dedication, Author and Inscriber,, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Newport Tower: Finding the Date of Dedication, its Designer and Builder,, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Runic Riddles: Younger Futhork,, December 2022.

Book References:

Landsverk, O.G., Runic Records of the Norsemen in America, Erik J. Friis, Publisher, Rushford, MN, 1974.

Landsverk, O.G., Ancient Norse Messages, Norseman Press, Glendale, California, 1969.

Mongé, Alf & O.G. Landsverk, Norse Medieval Cryptography in Runic Carvings, Norseman Press, Glendale, California, 1967.

Syversen, Earl, Norse Runic Inscriptions: with their Long-forgotten Cryptography, The Vine Hill Press, Sebastopol, California, 1979.

Derogatory article by Aslak Liestol of Alf Mongé’s work:  and…. Landsverk responded to these comments in Ancient Norse Messages pg. 126-129; and often in Runic Records of the Norsemen in America.

Introduction Post      Next Post

Runic Riddles: Time Capsules

B.L. Freeborn © December 2022               (PDF version here.)

Runic riddles are riddles written in runes. Runes are alphabets that were in use in northern Europe, Britain and other northern areas. They were used for centuries but died out with the coming of Christianity.

There are a certain group of inscriptions from this period that are either difficult to interpret, very short, have unexplained symbols, use bindrunes (letters stuck together), and/ or are unusual for some reason. Here is an example from Norway (Lomen No. 2; Norges Inscrifter Med De Yngre Runer, Vol.1, Pg. 216) deemed to be a magic incantation. It is simply a riddle. The solution is at the end of the post.

These unusual ones are where the riddles hide. Primarily they were created for amusement, in the same manner as crosswords are today. Besides providing unique puzzles for people to solve, they often contained phrases and ‘secret messages’ that we find strange or incomprehensible today. They are little windows into a bygone era before the cleansing of facts by ‘modern’ teachers, internet myths, and the Catholic church. The latter worked especially hard via genocide and threats to stamp out Paganism. Throw the Black death into the picture which killed half the population of these areas and it is not surprising that the information these riddles reveal seems …. surprising to say the least.

Sadly, the numbers of inscriptions still in existence are declining with each passing year. They were once abundant. Many now only exist in photos. The few remaining tell us something of importance.

Many preserve the concepts of Baal and Paganism. This religion can be traced back 12000 years. The remaining practitioners faced with the power of the Catholic Church found a way to preserve some hints of it in these riddles. Others tell us of extraordinary journeys. They reveal an important part of our lost knowledge.

The following posts bring a few of these riddles to you. Others are available as pdfs at the bottom of the posts.

Hopefully, they are both enjoyable and educational to you.


This is called a magic formula – ISTIL form. The number of duplicated runes varies. This one uses triplicates and to match the three makes bindrunes of the six initial runes. The transliteration of the three bindrunes and duplicated runes is RT UÆ KN III SSS TTT III LLL. This is an anagram for ‘stlis’ in Latin which means ‘quarrel’ or ’cause’ and/or ‘tellus’ meaning Earth or region. This implies a ‘global difficulty.’

The three bindrunes and the triplicates suggest 3. This is equal to Th (or D) rune. Simplify and add the Th:    Th    R T U Æ K N    I S T I L. As numbers this is: 3   5 12 2 4 6 8     9 11 12 9 15.

The group ISTIL has four notable values. 9,11,12 sum to 32✓; then 9,15 sum to 24✓; then 12,9,15 sum to 36✓; and the total is 56.✓ All of these numbers are important. (For checked ✓ number meanings see below**. See next table for rune/number equivalents.)

The first group containing the bindrunes has no meaningful sums except for the total with the 3 (Th) included which is 40. A square of sides 40 has 56.56 as a diagonal. This repeats the ISTIL sum. The group does have the significant series 4 6 8 which in reverse is 864.✓

From Wikipedia

There are several elements of the riddle missing. The author and year are often stated and the number 792 (always present) is missing. This is long enough to contain both. Mongé derived the name KanutR from the first six runes. His solution is different than what is presented here. (Landsverk, Ancient…, pg. 127-138) However, by inspection the name Thorniut is found. (The Æ includes the sound O. Also, the I rune can be an E.) The only letter missing is an I and a K is left over. There are two I’s in the last group, so this implies letter sharing. If the K shifts to the last group notice this list of small abbreviated words can be formed: KIL (kill); I TIL (I tell); I LIS (I lies); S (south); I TI LI S (I tie lie South). When taken altogether the following is suggested:

I Thorniut tell. The I tie lies South where it was killed in the global upheaval.

This is a typical Baalist statement including the name of the author but the number 792 is still missing so the solution is incomplete. If Thorniut is converted to numbers as given (without the I) one finds: 3 4 5 8 2 12. Now the following sums are noted: 3,4 sums to 7; then 4,5 sums to 9; then 3,4,5,8 sums to 20 so that we now have 7920.✓

The year would complete the picture. Some indication of the year and three other numbers is sought: the Golden Number (GN), the Day Letter (DL) and the Line #. These numbers are used to find dates on the Perpetual Easter Table (here). A complete discussion of this is found in any of Landsverk’s books listed below.

The letters as bindrunes were anagrammed for a reason so returning to those runes/numbers we have: 5 12 2 4 6 8. These can somewhat change order since there is no way to tell which rune of the bindrune should go first ie. 12 5 4 2 8 6 etc. Note the 1224 looks like a year and in fact, Line # 4 in the attached chart begins with that year. The 4 is present in the series. But year 1224 has GN 9 which is not present in this group. Since 3 is prominently noted by the triplicates, if taken to mean GN 3 then on this 4th line, year 1237 is indicated. It has day letter 4. The sum of this series of numbers is 37 confirming the date.

Other dates for similar reasons can be found. But after much searching 1237 seemed to have the most in its favor. Mongé dated this to 3 March 1199 using just the 3’s. There is good reason to accept his date except that all versions of Istil riddles repeating 3 times would then imply the same date. The reader is free to search for other plausible dates using the attached Easter Table.

I Thorniut tell in the year 1237. The I tie lies South where it was killed in the global upheaval.

Earlier Riddle Posts      Next Post

Similar Articles by this Author (pdfs uploaded as available)

* Easter Table pdf

** For numeric background see:

**Freeborn, B.L., Validating North American Runic Inscriptions,, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Ancient Riddles to Test Our Wits: The Secret Chamber,, January 2016. (Post)

Freeborn, B.L., Deciphering the Spirit Pond, Nomans Land and Narragansett Runic Inscriptions,, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Et in Arcadia Ego – OUOSVAVV DM – Deciphered,, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Kensington Rune Stone: A New Translation,, February 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Runic Riddles: Time Capsules,, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L. The Long Debated Bourne Stone,, January 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., The Nomans Land – Leif Eriksson Inscription,, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Narragansett Inscription: A Translation with its Date of Dedication, Author and Inscriber,, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Newport Tower: Finding the Date of Dedication, its Designer and Builder,, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Runic Riddles: Younger Futhork,, December 2022.

Book References:

Landsverk, O.G., Runic Records of the Norsemen in America, Erik J. Friis, Publisher, Rushford, MN, 1974.

Landsverk, O.G., Ancient Norse Messages, Norseman Press, Glendale, California, 1969.

Mongé, Alf & O.G. Landsverk, Norse Medieval Cryptography in Runic Carvings, Norseman Press, Glendale, California, 1967.

Syversen, Earl, Norse Runic Inscriptions: with their Long-forgotten Cryptography, The Vine Hill Press, Sebastopol, California, 1979.

Derogatory article by Aslak Liestol of Alf Mongé’s work:  and….

…Landsverk responded to these comments in Ancient Norse Messages pg. 126-129; and often in Runic Records of the Norsemen in America.

Hidden Messages from the Ancients

© 2019 B. L. Freeborn

Here is a short riddle…


את הארוט
סעו נאטטירו פניסו אנו וו את
טסאלפמיס סאדוך ראוא דאטארך רו
ווה פנול טי כווט וט כארב טי
,אנו וו את טסום טלוכיוויד.


Use this key:

Key to the Hebrew Letters and the Latin Letter that will serve to substitute for it in this study due to font issues.

Using the above key to the Hebrew letters find:

Torah The
the of one using written was
or created ever codes simplest
it break to took it long how
.difficult most the of one,

Then read them right to left:

The Torah
was written using one of the
simplest codes ever created or,
how long it took to break it,
one of the most difficult.

Apply this same method to this verse from the Torah. (Word order already reversed.)

Deuteronomy Verse 25:14:

לך יהיה לא

Change into Latin letters:

ea-l  h-i-h-i  k-l






Into Old English using linked words (letters):

Eall! Hie! Hie! Cyll!

From Old English to modern:

All! Hy! Hy! It killed!
Clearly then around about it was stranded in tides
It happened as the powerful worms were at the source
It happened as the powerful worms were at the source
At the hollow mound it was senseless as the daggers
collided and changed the direction of its tack as it was leveled

Using the same method:

-Deuteronomy 28:1

גויי כל על

l-a   l-k   i-i-wf-g

Laeg loc eage-iew-wag

The lay and look at the eye was revealed and a wall

Using the same method:

-Deuteronomy 34:6

מול מואב בארץ

ts-r-ea-b   b-ea-wf-m   l-wf-m

Tos-seare-rab beuf-wom loma

It tossed, seared and raved above as it was bent where it looms

And these are some of the numerous other gems:

“Gaze on it all and how it was essentially horrible.”   -Numbers 6:4

“It quelled the living with stones that were abundant
It billowed forth thus as it ebbed at the gorges
in the lands with wasting heat.”    -Numbers 22: 38

“The battles on the living were woeful omens and flames that married.”    -Numbers 22: 41.

Last post —   Back to the first post on this topic





The One and Only Language of the Ancients

The thickest ice of the planet is not located at the poles as would be expected.

The thickest ice of the planet is not located at the poles as would be expected.

© 2018 B. L. Freeborn

In the last post the idea that ancient art describes the events of a great comet impact and an associated crustal displacement was discussed. It was also suggested that perhaps there is another way to retrieve any existing ancient records of such an event. This leads to a necessary assumption.

NASA image of crater

NASA image of crater

Assuming knowledge of the pole’s movement was known by key individuals, and if they adamantly believed this knowledge must be passed down through an infinite number of generations, then it should be found in the records of numerous cultures. The depiction of key elements in the art of vastly distant cultures, in both time and place, suggests this is true.

The Bible relates that originally one language existed. This has no doubt spurred on the countless researchers over the last 400+ years, since the existence of a base language was first suggested. The Indo-European Language (also known as indogermanisch) is the proposed base language from which a multitude of others evolved. Countless man hours of research has resulted in the mapping out of language development throughout Europe and western Asia. The oldest known is from 4200 BC in the Anatolian region. This is the same area from which Luwian Hieroglyphs originated that have often been referred to in these posts.

Side view of Great Circle in Newark, Ohio.

Side view of Great Circle in Newark, Ohio.

This four century study has also resulted in the mapping of religious areas and trade routes. If one works backwards from this idea, then it is possible to conjecture that the base language was part and parcel to religion, since trade can be done without verbal communication. Which begs the question: what ancient religion was involved?

A good candidate is…………….? Next post

Back to the first post on this topic.

Ancient Riddles to Test Our Wits: Indus Script

© 2017 B. L. Freeborn

Indus Valley Seal A.

Another ancient riddle presents itself in the Indus Valley seals written in a script which has defied translation. We are in a unique position to make a few inroads into this mystery. A search of Indus Valley Seals shows that the bull at the manger was a common motif so it is worthy of analysis. The message on each of these three seals is obviously different yet the symbolism is remarkably familiar.

Find in the image ….

Indus Valley Seal B.

Ba’al is like a bull.

The serpent like comets were like horns upon a bull.

Upon the covering of the mighty one they left marks like eyebrows.

The pole moved lower.

Indus Valley Seal C.

Now there is a cup on it.

Around it and in it are many cup marks.

The pole of measures now lies above it.

It came to the pole to eat.


The familiar symbolism assures us that these images refer to the double comet impact which formed the Nastapoka Arc and Hudson Bay amidst the mighty two mile thick ice sheet..

Observe the first two glyphs on Seal A are very nearly Hebrew  (M) and (I). The double square is also reminiscent of the Metcalf Stone’s first symbol or a dagger.

The third symbol suggests the up/down triangles noted in the previous post and seen in Da Vinci’s art, the Grave Creek Stone and other places. By connecting them to the oblong circle it further suggests the idea of the mountain that became a deep round abyss.

Like in the Grave Creek Stone some of the glyphs are elevated on a peak or delta which make the two glyphs in the center of Seal B appear to be fish but they probably suggest the ‘crater above’ or the ‘crater that delineates.’

Note the symbol immediately to the right of these looks like a comet entering a crater suggesting the idea of an impact.

The two parallel lines are seen on the Newberry Tablet and suggest longitude and/or latitude lines.

On Seal C the Hebrew letter for (Sh) is also elevated and the glyph is reminiscent of the menorah. The symbol third from the right, also elevated, appears to be a mountain that has been shot. Immediately to the right is a glyph like dual flames reminding one of Ba’al which literally means both fires.

Further still, many of the symbols are nearly identical to Luwian Hieroglyphs.

Perhaps with these few clues someone will be able to translate the script…..!!!

Previous Post….. Next Post



Ancient Riddles to Test Our Wits: Ancient or Modern Copies?

Elephant Tablet found during construction of Cuenca Airport, Ecuador

Elephant Tablet found during construction of Cuenca Airport, Ecuador

© 2016 B. L. Freeborn, updated August 2022

This piece from the Crespi Collection found during construction of the Airport in Cuenca, Ecuador is obviously related to the three stones shown below. An image of the Cuenca stele was published in a book by Barry Fell in 1976. The other three are from Burrow’s Cave which was reportedly found in 1982. In a previous post this stone was translated. Can it be determined if the other three are copies of this stone and if the copies were made relatively recently?

Using transliteration into Paleo-Hebrew circa 200 to 100 BC and Hebrew Letters as derived by J. Huston McCulloch in his study of the Newark Decalogue Stone from Ohio, the Elephant Tablets are translated with the aid of the Anglo-Saxon Language.

These copies of the elephant stone are believed to be from Burrows Cave which means their authenticity is in question.

These copies of the elephant stele are believed to be from Burrow’s Cave which means their authenticity is in question.

Compare the detail in the elephant and Sun. The Sun should appear as a dual reference to Baal’s crater as an origin. The Cuenca shows two eyes and lines radiating from a central O. The trunk of the elephant does not show the all important crater shape in any of the other copies. The back of the mammoth does not appear broken and in the eyebrow shape of Hudson Bay. If it was copied from the Cuenca Stele then the ‘copier’ was far removed from the significance of the detail in it.

The overall presentation on circular and chipped tile shapes is consistent with the story of Baal. However, the stones on the left and right appear freshly machined. And finally, the inscriptions in line 1 and 2 are different than the Cuenca.

The letter ‘th’ in the first line is not reversed as in the Cuenca example which suggests two possibilities. The first is both lines are to be read left to right. The second possibility is the copier was unaware of why the ‘th’ was reversed in the first line and corrected it. The lifespan of the copier cannot be determined by this difference just that he might have thought it was an error in the original. The middle stone’s N (center of first line) is truer to the Paleo-Hebrew style. But it also appears to be an L which then gives the word BL or Baal when read right left.

Lastly, note the facing C’s in the middle line of all four. These were seen in other tablets from Ohio and in art from Knowth, Ireland. Previously, using Luwian glyphs the meaning Great Origin or Mighty Crater was derived from this pattern. It also leads one to another translation of the middle line. If the ‘Th’ stands alone to represent ‘the’ and the C is the Luwian symbol for ‘great’. This then reads ‘The Great cave of Baal’ which is totally plausible and in line with ancient wit to use two languages/alphabets within a text (as academics still do today) and two meanings within the same line.

The overall problem remains though. Because the image of the Cuenca stele was freely available, did Burrow’s make the other three by copying it with minor changes? Barry Fell himself stated the first image published of the stele had an incorrect letter. That mistake appears in the Burrow’s Cave steles.

Old and real? New and fake?

Or copies of secreted away originals?


Back to first post on Elephant Tablet          Ahead to    Next Post

Back to Newberry Tablet beginning or its conclusion.

Paleo-Hebrew at


See full article on the alphabet by J. Huston McCulloch at:

Ancient Riddles to Test Our Wits: The Mammoth at the Top of the World

Elephant Tablet found during construction of Cuenca Airport, Ecuador

Elephant Tablet found during construction of Cuenca Airport, Ecuador

© 2016 B. L. Freeborn, Updated August 2022

This piece from the Crespi Collection was found during construction of the Airport in Cuenca, Ecuador. By identifying the letters as Paleo-Hebrew (Phoenician) circa 200 to 100 BC and Hebrew Letters as derived by J. Huston McCulloch in his study of the Newark Decalogue Stone from Ohio, the Elephant Tablet is translated. The language used to aid with the translation is Anglo-Saxon. A study of the stele when read in Boustrophedon style (back and forth) provides these words: bad, death, beat, cave or pole, dwell, lame, bucket, An, dish, change, origin, peck, cave or pole, eye, Baal, and area.

So perhaps they suggest…

The back of the mammoths was broken –

It was a bad death. It beat at the pole. There is a bucket where An dwelt. It is a dish where it changed (?) the origin (?). It pecked at the pole at the eye. Baal was there.

The letters can be converted to numbers as shown in the next image and the sums as shown can be found:

This number study reveals the all important 565. The numbers that comprise the word Yahweh by way of gematria are 565 10.

The number 79 was found and one can also easily find 792 or 7920 by using the 20 and 2 in the line above. The diameter of Earth is 7920 miles.

The 864 refers to the number of seconds in a day and to the seconds of longitude of the Earth or 86,400.

The 51 created by the letters AN then remains. There is this interesting fact. Cuenca sits nearly on the equator. By traveling 79 degrees longitude to the east and 51.51 degrees north of it one finds London and Greenwich, England the prime meridian. ??!!! ??

There is at least one other 56.5 that can be found. Because the letter noted as ‘sa’ or ‘a bucket’ is a pictogram the stele is composed of eleven letters and three pictures or 113 which is 2 x 56.5.

The most important idea here is that these numbers have been imbedded in ancient documents for millennia which lends credence to the Ohio Hebrew being valid and thence, the Newark Stones.

Continues in the next post with a comparison to other elephant stones ……………


See full article on the alphabet by J. Huston McCulloch at:

Paleo-Hebrew at


Back to Newberry Tablet beginning or its  conclusion.