The Nomans Land – Leif Eriksson Inscription

B.L Freeborn © December 2022               (PDF version here.)

(Excerpt from: Deciphering the Spirit Pond, Nomans Land and Narragansett Runic Inscriptions, noahsage.com, PDF here.)

This study would not be complete without some comment on the Leif Erikson inscription found on a rock off the shore of Nomans Land Island, adjacent to Martha’s Vineyard. Photos are scant which severely limits any study. Typically, it is considered a fraud because it contains a letter M or Roman numeral in the date. However, the Spirit Pond SP-3 inscription stone (following post) used the letter M in the final date and it was also used to substitute for a runic M in the center pictogram. Therefore, the use of M1 to suggest a date of 1001 is wholly consistent with it being a valid inscription. The Spirit Pond stones were not found for some 40 years after common knowledge of the Leif inscription so they could not have inspired the M1 date. Furthermore, consider the constraints of using only the runic numbers to indicate a date of 1001 as seen in the SP-2 (following post). There is simply no zero which makes an M very useful. Certainly any educated person of the year 1001 was in the habit of using M1 as a date since Roman numerals were known then throughout Europe. ‘Modern graffiti’ would not use such a strange arrangement. The zero is so common place today it would have been used without a thought. Indeed, it should have been 1003 since that was the date the then current encyclopedias stated Leif discovered Vinland.(Holand, 1944)

Images from Holand, 1944.

The top line of the inscription is straight forward. It consists of four runes spelling out LIIF and eight more spelling out IRIKSSĄN. This is accepted to be Leif Eriksson. The date follows M1 (1001) and then the next line begins clearly with Th I and that is where confusion sets in. The third rune is made to appear as an N in some white marked images. A photo from Holand (1944) has a chalked image which clearly does not show an N. Holand reports that Professor Delabarre in 1935 examined the stone carefully and found no additional markings on the upright staves of the runes after the first Th. He most certainly would have reported an N. Photos however can often reveal more than the eye can see. The first five runes are readable as: Th I ʀ TI. In the enlarged image note the short height of the third line and an arrow shape on top of the fourth can be made out. The remaining group of lines followed by the four on the fourth appear to be just lines or I’s. Holand’s explanation was that Greenlanders often left incomplete runes as part of magical incantations. Mongé and others disagreed.

Erikson is spelled with two S’s in the old Icelandic manner. Each name should be followed by an ʀ but these do not appear. The doubled S and deleted ʀ provides for the correct number of letters and sums as seen below. Other differences and some very good reasons for them are elucidated by Holand. The inscription then reads (retaining letter placement):

There are 12 runes on the first line in 2 groups of 4 and 8. The sum of Leif is 34 while Eriksson equals 63. Their total sum is 97 or 79 in reverse.✓ The second line is 14, 9 = 23; or 14,1 = 15. Finding the difference then 97 – 15 = 82 or 28 in reverse.✓ Then 79 followed by 23 is 7923 or 792.✓ (**See below for more information on numbers and meanings; and Easter Tables.)

Many critics note IRIK is misspelled but by this spelling it gives |5|6 which becomes 56. ✓ The RI pattern was seen on the SP-3 inscription stone which implied 5 + 1 = 6 ⇒ 56. More importantly, it can be seen as far away as Sweden on the famous Rök runestone.
Its double, 112 (56 x 2), is found by adding the sum of the first two lines or 97 and 15 = 112.✓
The S as 11 also supplies 56 since 5+6 = 11. The two S’s are then repeating 56’s.✓
There are 14 I’s in total. Recall 14 doubled is 28 and doubled again is 56.✓

The third line if read: ThI ʀ T I III provides ⇒ 3,9,16,12,9 111 (or 9,9,9).
ThI ʀ: 3,9,16 is 28. T I: is 12,9. If the TI is in the Elder Futhark, it is 17, 11 which sums to 28 as well which was seen in the Kingigtorssuaq and Kensington stones. Three I’s or 9’s suggests 3 x 9 = 27 which supplies all the digits for 792.✓

Typically the TI is in a vertical line. Lying in a nearly perfect vertical line is another I and the runes I M T I. This is 9,14,12,9 or 44…?
The same can be done on the other leg of the M with the R: R M I I or 5,14,9,9 = 37…?
Between them is an I or 9. 44 + 9 + 37 is 90 and 90̊ is the north pole which is portrayed as the center pole of the inscription.

The sum of the vertical lines IMTI, IIII and I between them is 89 and 89 x 89 is 7920.✓
The sum of the entire third line is 3,9,16,12,9,9,9,9 = 76 which was seen above.✓
The sum of the fourth line, if they are all 9’s, is 36 which reminds us there are 360 degrees in a circle.
If it is 9 and then 3 x 9; it is 9 27 or 792 as was seen in the line above.✓

Often a day of dedication is given. After trying many possibilities, the day of dedication appears to be simply stated by the two letter / numbers below the year. The four letters as a group spell TIMI which sounds like time. Let’s take the hint and see that this implies 12 /9 or the 9th of December which is confirmed by the first letter/number of value 15. The 9th is fifteen days before the end of the Norse year. This day also falls on the new moon.

However, this riddle master is much clearer with the latitude. One must know the latitude and longitude to find it in these inscriptions. Noman’s land is at 41.258̊N and 70.815̊W with respect to the Greenwich Meridian. (Its apparent accuracy suggests they were using this meridian as opposed to other available meridians.)

Note the count of the I’s. First line: 4. Second line: 1
Third line from right to left: 4 then 1.
Fourth line total: 4. Then left to right 1 and 3. ⇒⇒ 41.3̊N
Longitude is at 70.815̊and zero’s are difficult to imply. But there are 7 I’s in the vertical line and then left on the third line. There are also 7 I’s in the U shape that included the M. This suggests 7 and implies 0. But then again 7I appears very close to 71. So, the longitude is rounded up.

It is highly likely that the author of this complicated encryption embedded their name in it. Note the M could also be the T and L runes set together which could spell out the word ‘tell’ or ‘let’ – meaning inscribe. The adjoining I would then create : ‘I tell’ or ‘I let.’ There is the beginning of a name on the third line: Th I ʀ. The last symbol, ʀ, typically ends a name, so again it suggests a name is here. It remains elusive until one realizes the whole puzzle lends itself to counting: first line 12 runes, second 2, third 8 and fourth 4. If each of these represent letters, then TUNÆ is found. Interestingly, this is an old Swedish name and short form of ‘Thorniut.’ Looking at the word groups further find 4 and 8 on the first line and 5 and 3 on the third. This gives Æ,N and R, Th. The first is the name of a goddess in the same era as Baal. The latter is two of the missing letters to form Thorniut. Now recall the Th I ʀ. The name is now complete as Thærniutʀ also known as Tunæ, the author.

It would have been more satisfying to find Baal spelled out since An was found. But then again… shift ciphers are sometimes used in runic riddles. If the vertical line I M T I is shifted by one rune over (I ⇒A, M⇒B, etc.) it becomes A B L A or Baal. The right side does not shift but remains as RM III meaning ‘Rim 3.’ For sure, this is another one of those weird Baalist statements that appears to be true once you understand what they are talking about.

This inscription seems to be wholly valid. It certainly fits the riddle pattern of other stones, the date is supported by embedded Easter table values, and the syntax has suffered in favor of the numbers. There is also an embedded author name. It displays typical Baalist numbers and indeed, the name Baal in a classic shift cipher is a bonus. All of this is in common with others seen from the period. Consider that this is very near the southerly most tip of Martha’s Vineyard and once was probably ashore on Noman Island before the coast eroded. As the land washed away it dropped the stone into the ocean as well. As noted by many, Martha’s Vineyard most certainly fits the description of Vinland. Holand (1944) argues other reasons for its validity. One might want to err on the side of caution and retrieve it from the ocean before a possible work of great historical value is lost forever.

Leif Eriksson
9th December 1001
by Thorniutʀ, also known as Tunæ,
at Latitude 41.3̊N, 71̊ W

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Similar Articles by this Author (pdfs uploaded as available)

* Easter Table pdf

** For numeric background see:

**Freeborn, B.L., Validating North American Runic Inscriptions, noahsage.com, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Deciphering the Spirit Pond, Nomans Land and Narragansett Runic Inscriptions, noahsage.com, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Nomans Land – Leif Eriksson Inscription, noahsage.com, December 2022. (An excerpt from the above.)

Freeborn, B.L., Et in Arcadia Ego – OUOSVAVV DM – Deciphered, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Kensington Stone’s Secret Lairs, noahsage.com, February 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Lifting the Veil of Time off the Rökstone of Sweden, noahsage.com, April 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Runic Riddles: Time Capsules, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Runic Riddles: Younger Futhork, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Narragansett Inscription: A Translation with its Date of Dedication, Author and Inscriber, noahsage.com, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Newport Tower: Finding the Date of Dedication, its Designer and Builder, noahsage.com, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Vinland Map – Encoded Riddle, noahsage.com, February 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Ancient Riddles to Test Our Wits: The Secret Chamber, noahsage.com, January 2016. (Two parts: post and page)

References

Holand, Hjalmar Rued. “The Runic Inscription on No Man’s Land.” The New England Quarterly, vol. 17, no. 1, 1944, pp. 56–70. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.2307/361994. Accessed 26 Nov. 2022.

Marstrand, Vilhelm. “The Runic Inscription on No Man’s Land.” The New England Quarterly, vol. 22, no. 1, 1949, pp. 85–92. JSTOR, https://doi.org/10.2307/361538. Accessed 26 Nov. 2022.

**Mongé, Alf & O.G. Landsverk, Norse Medieval Cryptography in Runic Carvings, Norseman Press, Glendale, California, 1967.
– – – – –
Liestol, Aslak – Derogatory article on Alf Mongé’s work: http://collections.mnhs.org/MNHistoryMagazine/articles/41/v41i01p034-042.pdf  and…. Landsverk responded to these comments in Ancient Norse Messages pg. 126-129; and often in Runic Records of the Norsemen in America.

The Narragansett Inscription: A Translation with its Date of Dedication, Author and Inscriber

B.L. Freeborn © October 2022                          (PDF version here.)

The Narragansett Runestone is the work of a genius. Besides the initial plain text reading, there are an additional three phrases, the date and even the correct location concealed in the text. This is a lot for nine symbols to convey. The proposed transliteration and subsequent translation of symbols imbedded in the rock once on the shores of Narragansett, Rhode Island are shown below. The proof that the correct symbols are used is very math heavy, so it is at the end for those who are interested. What enables the cipher is that the text is in three alphabets: Younger Futhark, Elder Futhark and Latin. The reader is directed to the charts towards the end for Futhark (runic) alphabets.

The extra letters appear after one notices several other possibilities are present. The S (in Futhark) can be seen as a backwards Latin N. The Æ symbol (in Futhark) can also be seen as an F. The X can be seen as an A in Younger Futhark or a G in the Older. The T in the Younger Futhark is upside down. There is no reason to assume the adjoining M is not also upside down. If it is, it becomes a Y. There is also no reason to assume it is in the Younger Futhark, since the symbol appears in the Elder as does the S and O in the forms shown. This adds Z to its possible transliteration. Indeed, reading the pairs as shown provides AF, GA, FA, LT, TL, ZT, ZL, MT and MZ as easily readable. They suggest Af(ter), Go, Foe, Let, Tell, Set, Zeal, Meet and Maze.

We move on with reading the text. Find the runes: A H R. This is exactly how ‘year’ was written in both the Spirit Pond and Kensington runestones including the rune forms. This confirms these runes are part of or near the date. The date is found in the transliteration proof below.

Studying the inscription further leads to the correct plain text reading. Take the first letter as N and notice that the H looks like two arrowheads coming together. It is followed by RO which seems to reinforce the idea of an arrow. Take the hooked X as a G (in Elder Futhark) and now GÆN can be found. The letters forming ZT (set) were seen in the 5th and 6th runes. See the I erroneously as a T and now one has everything needed to interpret the inscription as:

……. N ……………… ARROW ……………………….. GAN ………………….. ZTT ………………

⇒⇒ Narragansett.

Now in the transliteration find: ÆR HOM LI ………………..Our homes lies…

This suggests the location is also embedded. The longitude and latitude is also deciphered below.

Now find:

AS SHÆ RO YMZ ML TI I – TL – ROZY…………..As she row amaze mill tie eye – tell Rozy
AF HÆ RO YMZ ML TI I – LT – HROM………..After he row amaze mill tie eye – let Hrom

As she rowed to the amazing mill tie eye, Rosy wrote this.
After he rowed to the amazing mill tie eye, Hrom carved this.

DESIGNED BY ROSY – INSCRIBED BY HROM – AFTER THEIR AMAZING
JOURNEY TO THE MILL TIE EYE
IN THE YEAR 1011
DEDICATED DECEMBER 24 OF THAT YEAR
OUR HOME LIES ∙ 41.45̊ N 71.45̊ W

Transliteration Proof

The gematria (number) associated with each rune is as found in that alphabet with the exception of the L which uses the value for L from the Younger Futhark. The correctness of the transliteration can be checked but it requires substitution to numbers and summing. Sums found should be typical numbers found in Baalist** encoded inscriptions. They are so noted with a ✓ check mark. The reader is directed to the paper Validating North American Runic Inscriptions (pdf) for further information on this topic since it is a new approach to deciphering runic inscriptions.

Below is the proposed transliteration which includes all three versions of the 5th rune and two provided by the 6th. This positioning at the 5th and 6th eliminates the possibility of the undecipherable rune (?) ever actually being present. If it was, these would shift to 6th and 7th positions. The 7 and 2 pattern provides a required number. (7 + 2 = 9) or 792.✓ The number 28 or its double 56 must be found. The 5th and 6th runes were just discussed. This provides 56.✓ Further still, 3 versions of the ‘M’ and 2 of the ‘L’ suggest 32 which is 5.65².✓ Look at it again and see there is a group of 3 double letters followed by a group of 2 or 32.✓

We have now found four numerical verifications of the stone’s validity. Others are easily found but number substitution is required to see them. (See chart of runes/numbers at end.)

In this case the dot is next to the [Æ, F]. Letter F has value 6. Notice the R of value 5 is just above so that 56 is found.✓

The 7 is followed by 5 and 24 which sum to 29 so that one finds 7, 29 ⇒⇒ 792.✓
The group of four numbers: 8,11,4,6 sum to 29 next to a 7 ⇒⇒ 792.✓
The sum of the five numbers in brackets is 15+14+16+15+12=72. This is followed by 9 or 72,9.✓

Running the sum across the top line (in bold) as written find 86. ✓ (86400 seconds of longitude.)
The sum as typically transliterated (with M, T) is 82 which if read in reverse is 28 or half 56.✓
The sum of A Æ or 10, 4 is 14 which is half of 28.✓

This is a significant number of numerical verifications. The transliteration appears to be correct.

Finding the Date

There is a 10 below the 11. The 7 and 4 sum to 11. The 4 and 6 sum to 10…..1011….1110. This appears to be a date. The Spirit Pond rune stones date themselves to the year 1011. Finding the Golden Number (GN) for both years may settle the matter. GN was commonly used at the time for determining Easter. The GN for 1110 is 9. Its Line # on the table is 18. (See Easter Table here and Mongé,1967) The Day Letter is 2. The two is not found so 1110 is eliminated.✗

The GN for year 1011 is 5. A five is immediately to the right of this group of numbers. More so, the Line # is 15 which appears twice (Z, L).✓ The Day letter is 7. To the left of the five is 7.✓ The implied date is year 1011.✓ Further confirmation for 1011 is found in the number of runes. There are 7 runes on the first line. Day letter = 7.✓ There are 11 runes from the doubled runes. Year is 1011.✓ There are 15 runes in total. The Line # is 15.✓

The numbers 12 and 24 are probably the dedication date. (7+ 5 = 12 and 24.) If the dedication date is 12/24 or December 24 it is zero days until the end of the Norse Year (Christmas). The zero is provided by the undecipherable first rune.✓

Alf Mongé would say the 24 represents the number of days to the end of the year and give a date of 30 November. This would explain the 11’s. While 30 can be found in the sum of 10+11+4+5 or the double 15. The preference here is 24 December since it is more plainly enumerated and explains the ‘zero’ rune. The 24th is certainly a more suitable holiday to commemorate such a work.

The numbers can be played with for some time. Eventually even a novice solver will come to the conclusion there is no mysterious missing rune on the first line as just confirmed by the dedication date. In other rune riddles a missing letter is required to be guessed to solve the riddle. Here it is the opposite. The missing letter was only a ruse.

Finding the Location

It is possible to confirm the latitude and longitude if it is known.
Recall the numbers are:

The full top line of the inscription provides N (7, 5, 24, 14, 12, 9) = N 71.

ZMT (15,14,12) = 41 and MLT (14,15,12) = 41.
ZMY (15,14,16) = 45 and must be used twice.

So that 41.45̊ N, 71.45̊ W is found which is correct with respect to the Greenwich Meridian. (Its apparent accuracy suggests they were using this meridian as opposed to other available meridians.) It is important to note – one must know beforehand the location to find it in the inscription. One cannot just read it out.

IN THE YEAR 1011
DEDICATED DECEMBER 24 OF THAT YEAR
OUR HOME LIES ∙ 41.45̊ N, 71.45̊ W

From Wikipedia

Previous Post         Next Post

*Easter Table PDF

Similar Articles by the Same Author

** For numeric background see:

**Freeborn, B.L., Validating North American Runic Inscriptions, noahsage.com, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Deciphering the Spirit Pond, Nomans Land and Narragansett Runic Inscriptions, noahsage.com, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Nomans Land – Leif Eriksson Inscription, noahsage.com, December 2022. (An excerpt from the above.)

Freeborn, B.L., Et in Arcadia Ego – OUOSVAVV DM – Deciphered, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Kensington Stone’s Secret Lairs, noahsage.com, February 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Lifting the Veil of Time off the Rökstone of Sweden, noahsage.com, April 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Runic Riddles: Time Capsules, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Runic Riddles: Younger Futhork, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Narragansett Inscription: A Translation with its Date of Dedication, Author and Inscriber, noahsage.com, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Newport Tower: Finding the Date of Dedication, its Designer and Builder, noahsage.com, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Vinland Map – Encoded Riddle, noahsage.com, February 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Ancient Riddles to Test Our Wits: The Secret Chamber, noahsage.com, January 2016. (Two parts: post and page)

References

*Monge, Alf & O.G. Landsverk, Norse Medieval Cryptography in Runic Carvings, Norseman Press, Glendale, California, 1967.

Landsverk, O.G., Runic Records of the Norsemen in America, Erik J. Friis, Publisher, Rushford, MN, 1974.

Landsverk, O.G., Ancient Norse Messages, Norseman Press, Glendale, California, 1969.

Syversen, Earl, Norse Runic Inscriptions with Their Long-forgotten Cryptography, The Vine Hill Press, Sebastopol, California, 1979.

Derogatory article by Aslak Liestol of Alf Mongé’s work: http://collections.mnhs.org/MNHistoryMagazine/articles/41/v41i01p034-042.pdf  and…. Landsverk responded to these comments in Ancient Norse Messages pg. 126-129; and often in Runic Records of the Norsemen in America.

 

The Newport Tower: Finding the Year of Dedication, its Designer and Builder

B.L. Freeborn © October 30, 2022        (PDF version here.)

Who built the Newport Tower is a long standing question. It has been well proven by James Eagan that the tower is used for keeping time as the celestial bodies align with its numerous small windows. Eagan also noticed that certain letters formed with stones appear in the arches of the structure. Most notable and hard to miss is the >OI<. He found the Delta and P. He also thought the h was a Greek η. From there he determined, probably correctly, it spells out Rode as in Rhode Island. His theory states John Dee had the tower built in 1583 in connection with a colonization attempt which failed.

The tower is shown on the “Woods Map 1635’ by William Woods a colonist in Providence, RI (Syverson, pg.32) The map notes it as Old Plymouth. This is the earliest known record and predates Benedict Arnold senior’s ownership. Evidently Arnold knew what it was and probably who built it, but because of the possibility of these prior claims resurfacing he referred to it as an old windmill knowing very well only a fool would believe that.

After studying Eagan’s discovery for some time the other letters shown above were identified by this author. There are eight arches. Three of which have one letter displayed and five display two each. There is also a round stone on the interior opposite the >OI< stone on the northwest side. This makes fourteen altogether. To complicate the picture there is a runic inscription found over the southwest pillar (see images below). It was translated by Mongé (1967) and it reads Henricus 1116. This refers to Eirikr Gnupsson, a Bishop from Greenland that was sent to Vinland. Other theories as to the tower’s origin abound. The Henricus theory is at least supported by an inscription imbedded into the tower itself in the manner of a corner stone.

This paper is a study of the inscription and stone letters. It is also an addendum to Validating North American Runic Inscriptions (PDF). The translation is given here and the study with its numeric work follows which will be difficult to understand without having read the aforementioned paper.

Translation

The round stone on a peg in the NW arch is as indicative of Baal as a cross is to Christ. (The >OI< stones.) Furthermore, it would seem the stone letters spell out Baal. This leads to studying the ‘inscription’ as if it is of Baalist origin and if so, certain numbers must be present. Validating North American Runic Inscriptions describes how certain numbers are embedded in Baalist inscriptions. One should recall that the Catholic Church went to great lengths to stamp out Paganism in the time preceding and during Henricus’ tenure as Bishop. Apparently Baal was central to that religion which is why there are so many references to it hidden in runic riddles. The dedication to Baal at Newport tower is unmistakable. The stone letters are repeated here:
Reading in a clockwise manner – b O O L T I h Δ I O >I< P O
These are transliterated as:        B A  A L T I h D I A   I   R O

Note that the P in some languages is R. (The stones may actually depict an R.) The O’s can be either O or A.
Reading from the top clockwise find: RO, BAAL, TI, HI, DI, O, >I<
Also find: HIT, I TOOL, O LO, BOR, ROB, POL, RODE or RHODE and OH.

The first line suggests: Row, Baal, Tie, die, high, eye, two strikes at I.
The second adds: hit, I tool Rob, hole low, bore, pole; rod, red or road; and oh. We may conclude:

Rob designed and built.
Baal at the high tie hit. It hit twice at the eye in rows.
The hole is low where it bore the eye of the pole.
Rhode Island

These are typical Baalist statements except for the last one. The words are easily found in the inscription. Rhode Island perhaps requires an explanation. RHODE appears to be a combined anagram for Rod (or Red) and Oh (meaning island). A rod is a measuring length of 16.5 feet. The clay on the shores of Rhode Island is notably red so it might also refer to red. This suggests the name, Rhode Island, is much older than cited by modern authorities.

Then Comes Henricus

Above the southwest pillar of the tower is a runic inscription. Harek Williams examines it in a video with James Eagan and confirms it is human carved and nothing more. A much better source for proving it is an authentic runic carving is Alf Mongé. Why the latter? Harek Williams reads plain text runes from that period. He does not delve into runic puzzles or dated riddles. Alf Mongé was a cryptologist. He deciphered the deep scratch marks into runic letters and decoded them. He found it reads: Henricus 1116. This gives a lower limit to the age of the tower. Based on other runic inscriptions found along the east coast and the Narragansett inscription nearby this seems plausible.

The rapidity with which the tower is giving away to nature demands that it must be under constant care. This requires that, regardless of when it was built, it must have been periodically repaired. It has been nine hundred years since Bishop Henricus visited as implied by the runic inscription. The Spirit Pond stones are dated to 1214-1217. (Freeborn, Deciphering.., 2022) They commemorate his visit. The Kensington Stone’s date is 1362. It states the travelers came from the east. Perhaps, they too were at this settlement. In 1525 Verazzanno explored the coast but did not mention the tower. In 1583 John Dee sent an expedition to the area. By the 1600’s it was settled by colonists and it came under the care of Benedict Arnold senior. This could mean it received periodic maintenance since the time of its construction, on or after 1116, until Arnold’s ownership five hundred years later.

The date and builder need not be total speculation. The aforementioned inlaid letters tell the story of Baal. If they were chosen in the manner of a runic riddle, they may reveal more. Since Henricus was a master at runic riddles, and if this was built by him or in honor of him, then the symbols should contain further information. These riddles always concealed the date.

As far as John Dee being the designer, that is possible as well. However, and it is a very big however, he was a devoted Christian and this tower is clearly a dedication to Baal. The two are not mutually exclusive since Henricus was a Bishop of the church as well, but he lived at the point in time when Paganism, through genocide, was actively stamped out. To continue their religion and live, they were forced underground. A study of Dee’s mathematics does not display the numbers so prevalent in Baalist inscriptions which suggests he is not the creator.

After a mathematical study (which follows) of the letters through their gematria more information was derived. It would appear the tower was erected to commemorate Henricus’ visit in 1116.

DESIGNED and BUILT by ROB – DEDICATED 1216
to HONOR HENRICUS of 1116
LOCATED at 41.48̊N, 71.3̊W
RHODE ISLAND

Number Work and Proof of Transliteration

Certain numbers** appear when the letters in any Baalist inscription is converted to their numerical equivalent (gematria). The Newport Tower’s hidden letter/numbers are studied here. Numbers that are typically found are noted by a ✓ check mark. Simply put, if the numbers are not found, it is -not- a true Baalist inscription -or- the letters have been misinterpreted. Once the correct letters are proven via their gematria then the message about Baal can be read and also, possibly who wrote it and when. The result of this study is as noted above.

The proposed transcription of symbols imbedded in the arches of the Newport Tower is shown. The numbers are studied for repetitions and pertinent numbers. As stated, numbers found should be typical numbers found in Baalist encoded inscriptions. The P can also be an R. The symbol may actually be an R.

Norse Runic Gematria

Sum from T and around to first A = 79. From the same A to L is 23. So that it is 79,23.✓
Total sum is 98 or 89 in reverse which reminds one 89 x 89 = 7921. ✓
The sum from the Δ around again to the 7 is 89. ✓ The 79 is also imbedded in the text. ✓
Even more notable the 9,3,9 sum to 21 so it becomes 7921. ✓
The sum from the first A to first I is 51. ✓ The sum from H to the right and around to L is 86. ✓
The 28 appears twice which is half of 56.✓ The sum from B to the left around to the I (by H) is 56.✓
The sum from first I to the last O is 43. ✓
Note the 12’s at T, ID, DI. Note the 13 at AI just following the 12.
Note the 14 at IR. Lastly, note 7 and 9 sum to 16.
By summing adjoining numbers find: 13,17, 19, 15, 19,12, 16, 12, 12, 13, 13, 14, 9, 17…
On either side of the 16 is a 12, then 12, 12, 13, 13, 14.

In dated runic riddles the Golden Number (GN), Day Letter (DL) and Line # are used to denote a year since every year has specific values that can be found in Easter Tables (a calendar device created in 525 AD). After having tried many dates it appears 1216 is implied. It has GN 1, DL 2,3 (a leap year) and Line #3. This is a series: 1,2,3.The idea of consecutive numbers is seen in the sequential 12’s, 13’s and 14. Further confirmation is found in the 3 that follows the 7,9 (sum 16).

Year 1217 is similar in that it has Line #3, GN 2 and DL 1. There are two 17’s present in the list and years are typically stated then confirmed. It is not stated as clearly as 1216 as implied by the numeric order. The Line # is positioned closer to 1216. Year 1117 is also implied with Line #19, GN 16 and DL 7. But again it is not clearly stated.

The location is also found in the runic gematria. One cannot just ‘read’ the location. It is just a bit of bragging by the inscriber that he knew the correct coordinates. Hence, one must know the location beforehand! The values are: 41.48̊N, 71.3̊W with respect to the Greenwich Meridian. (Its apparent accuracy suggests they were using this meridian as opposed to other available meridians.) The sum from H to the last I is 41. The sum from B to T is 48. This suggests 41.48.✓

Similarly, 71 runs from the H to the end and around to the T. From the R back around and including the second A is 30. So 71.30. ✓ It would seem the inscriber did know the correct coordinates.

The tower also spells out RHODI or Rhode. These letters have values: 5,7,4,3,9 = 28. ✓

The Structure Contributes

The structure is set up to provide numbers as well. There are 8 pillars and 10 symbols that appear on five arches (two each). One symbol (the red stone) is in the inside and three arches have only one symbol for a total of 14 symbols. 4 x 14 = 56.✓

There are five arches with two symbols each or 10. There are three with one each for 3. Total 13. There is a single round red stone on the interior. So 1. 1 and 13 ➟ ➟ 113 = 56.5 x 2. ✓
There are 8 pillars and of course, 8 arches. A square of sides 5.656 has a diagonal of 8. ✓
There are double symbols in 5 arches and single symbols in 3.
If the first arch with B is #1, then the arches with two symbols are found on: 3, 5, 6, 7,8. The ever present 3 is represented, then 56 and 7 x 8 is 56 again.✓ Similarly, if B is #1, then it is 1 symbol, then 1 symbol, then 2 symbols; or 112 which is twice 56.✓

One may conclude after finding so many instances of numbers typically found in Baalist documents that the transliteration is correct.

Runic Inscription Study

This is a summary of Mongé’s decipherment. It is a group of five runes and two are joined runes: (HE) N (IK) R S or Henricus. There is an arrow to the right. The arrow is another feature common on Baalist inscriptions.** Using runic gematria, the year 1116 is found. The (HE) is 16. The S is 11. The R is 16. The (IK) is 15. The line number on the Easter Table is 15. The date 1116 is confirmed by the grouping 4 then 1 for GN 4 and DL 1. It is worth reading Mongé’s study (Mongé, pgs 128-129).

Conclusion

The Newport Tower’s embedded letters when converted to gematria reveal numbers typical to Baalist documents. Their transliteration and subsequent translation educate us in a long lost religion. That this tower displays these features severely narrows the field of possible builders. It also strongly suggests that the northern peoples, Norse and others, inhabited this region known as Rhode Island for some time and built an elegant edifice in the year 1216.

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*Easter Table PDF

Similar Articles by the Same Author

** For numeric background see:

**Freeborn, B.L., Validating North American Runic Inscriptions, noahsage.com, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Deciphering the Spirit Pond, Nomans Land and Narragansett Runic Inscriptions, noahsage.com, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Nomans Land – Leif Eriksson Inscription, noahsage.com, December 2022. (An excerpt from the above.)

Freeborn, B.L., Et in Arcadia Ego – OUOSVAVV DM – Deciphered, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Kensington Stone’s Secret Lairs, noahsage.com, February 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Lifting the Veil of Time off the Rökstone of Sweden, noahsage.com, April 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Runic Riddles: Time Capsules, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Runic Riddles: Younger Futhork, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Narragansett Inscription: A Translation with its Date of Dedication, Author and Inscriber, noahsage.com, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Newport Tower: Finding the Date of Dedication, its Designer and Builder, noahsage.com, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Vinland Map – Encoded Riddle, noahsage.com, February 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Ancient Riddles to Test Our Wits: The Secret Chamber, noahsage.com, January 2016. (Two parts: post and page)

References

Creedon, Marc, Runologist Henrik Williams Examines the Newport Tower, Youtube, April 2015.

Eagan, James Alan, Elizabethan America: The John Dee Tower of 1583/ A Renaissance horologium in Newport, Rhode Island, Cosmopolite Press, Newport, Rhode Island, 2011.

*Monge, Alf & O.G. Landsverk, Norse Medieval Cryptography in Runic Carvings, Norseman Press, Glendale, California, 1967.

Syversen, Earl, Norse Runic Inscriptions with Their Long-forgotten Cryptography, The Vine Hill Press, Sebastopol, California, 1979.

Derogatory article by Aslak Liestol of Alf Mongé’s work: http://collections.mnhs.org/MNHistoryMagazine/articles/41/v41i01p034-042.pdf  and…. Landsverk responded to these comments in Ancient Norse Messages pg. 126-129; and often in Runic Records of the Norsemen in America.

ET IN ARCADIA EGO – OUOSVAVV DM – Deciphered

B.L. Freeborn © December 2022        (PDF version here.)

Shugborough Inscription beneath Anson’s Version of Poussin’s Et In Arcadia Ego – From Wikipedia

The Shugborough Inscription is a sequence of letters ‘OUOSVAVV’ on the first line and ‘DM’ spaced far apart on the second line. It is on a monument built between 1748 and1756 commissioned by Thomas Anson. Above it is a relief by sculptor Peter Scheemakers which is a variation of the Poussin painting Et in Arcadia ego. The famous painting by Nicolas Poussin displays this inscription on a tomb. It translates from Latin as ‘I am also in Arcadia.’ This inscription has eleven letters on top and three on bottom. The Poussin painting was done in 1637-1638. He did an earlier version in 1627. Previous to this, Guercino painted a similar but different version in 1618-1622. The original inspiration is a poem by Roman poet Virgil known as Ecologues. In this poem from 40 BC the inscription on the tomb of Daphnis is described. The tomb is in ‘Arcades.’ Daphnis was a shepherd in ancient Greek mythology.

Although the number of shepherds changes from two to three as the work progresses they all include a tomb. At some point in time the full phrase ‘Et in Arcadia ego’ was developed. The fact that Anson invokes this phrase and adds several elements to it suggests there is more to it besides his still undeciphered cipher some 270 years later.

It would seem he saw something in Et in Arcadia ego that others had not and added the lower inscription as a clue to revealing what is in the original phrase which is most definitely a cipher as well.

Indeed, his efforts resulted in creating a perplexing mystery. The solution to Anson’s ‘OUOSVAVV’ and to the riddle concealed in Et in Arcadia ego follow.

Part I: OUOSVAVV DM

Image Details

Et in Arcadia Ego, relief of painting by Poussin at Shugborough – From Wikipedia

Before solving it, note what the image gives us:
• A woman on the left stands tall but looks down.
• The sky is tumultuous. On the upper coffin is a round wreath.
• Her right arm is bent and rests on her hip. It forms an arc.
• There are 3 shepherds each of whom has a staff. One leans to the left by the woman. The other two lean to the right. Two of the staffs seem to join at the bottom in a very large V.
• Two of the shepherds gesture at the inscription. Their thumbs are out creating V’s. It is said they are pointing at the N and R but in fact they frame the letter A.
• The third shepherd rests his arm on the tomb with 3 fingers together. This also appears in the Poussin version.
• Their arms form two arcs. The Poussin uses a shadow to depict a third arm /arc.
• While the other three look at the inscription, the shepherd on the left looks directly at the observer with a smile on his face.

Is he laughing because this is a riddle? With those images in mind, the solutions move forward.

Cipher #1: O U O S V I V V – D M

For background purposes:
Many alphabets have numerical equivalents for their letters called gematria. Hebrew, Greek and Futhork are three which have gematria. Hebrew and Greek gematria are still in use today. Then to complicate matters, just slightly, do not forget there are also Roman Numerals which are letters as well. The solution requires the Hebrew gematria – first.

The gematria used by Anson is:

  • O is A or 70.    U is Vav or 6.    S is S or 60.
  • D is D or 4.   M is M or 40. 
  • The I is both 10 and /or Roman numeral 1. 
  • V is Vav or 6, but then again it is also a 5 as in a Roman V.

The O and U are reversed. There is only one S. The I is in the correct position but there is no N. However, there is an M just below. In Hebrew gematria M has value 40 and N has value 50.
There are two V’s where there should be an N. Two Roman V’s equal 10 and 40 + 10 = 50 ⇒ N. Missing N found. ✓

It is convenient that the UO is reversed because then by putting the D in front the word DUO can be spelled. An S follows. Perhaps he meant a DUO of S’s. Missing S found. ✓

The first letter is O and as stated previously it has value 70. The P in Hebrew has value 80. Once again add two V’s or 10 and find 70 + 10 = 80 ⇒ P. ✓

Notice that the DO creates the word ‘do’ which refers to Poussin. He did it. Similarly, if the V’s are replaced by N the last two letters spell NM which sounds remarkably like ‘name.’

The inscription then simply reads: DO POUSSIN NaMe. – – One mystery solved. ✓

By creating this exercise, Anson has shown us several clues to resolve the riddle in the original inscription. Note that it required two numeric systems to solve it (Hint #1) and more importantly, fixed the value of the O’s at 70 (Hint #2).

Before going further, see this puzzle in a new way – as an image. It has 3 V’s. (This is similar to the V’s and three formed by the shepherds’ hands.) It has a pattern OUO. Recall this used Hebrew gematria and the name of god in Hebrew is Yahweh spelled יהוה. It portrays the same alternating pattern. The numbers in Yahweh are 565 10.

We must pause for a moment for a bit of seemingly irrelevant information. In drafting, when drawing an image of an object, two versions are often shown: the plan view – as if one is looking down; and the side view – as if one is looking at the side. Now – in your minds eye – look at the O’ and U’s as if they are plan and side views of an object. This will be called Anson’s Big Hint.

These -3- letters are followed by an S. Recall S often represents the word South. This idea will repeat later.

Cipher #1 Numbers

This requires numbers for a while…distasteful to many… lovely to others.

  • Yahweh or יהוה or 565 10 can be seen in the last four letters. The V is 5 and then VI is 6. Two V’s is 10. In the fifth and sixth position from the left is V and I. This is 5th and 6th then 5 and 6.

Fully substituting now for the phrase but using only Hebrew gematria it equates to:

70 6 70 60 6 10 6 6
     4 40

  • Find 76 twice at the start. And it repeats again with 70 60. It repeats again with 60,6,10.
  • If the last four are seen as Roman numerals 5 1 5 5 = 16 and 60. Together 16+60 = 76.
  • The last four as shown sum to 28. The pattern of the layout is 2 letters and 8 letters or 28. The product of 4 (on line two) and 70 is 280.
  • The 4 repeats in the 40. They sum to 44. The top line sums to 234.
  • If the I is seen as a Roman 1, then the top line sum is 225 and 4 x 225 is 900.
  • If the I is seen as a Roman 1, the sum from 60 right becomes 79. The remaining numbers sum to 190. See this as a series 79,190…..or…. 7919.
  • There are four 6’s or 24.

Let’s give some of these meaning.

  • The period of Halley’s comet is 76 years.
  • There are 24 hours in a day and 24 hours of longitude mark the planet.
  • Each hour has 60 minutes.
  • The number of seconds of longitude is 86400. This is also the number of seconds in a day. Half of this is 432,000 or 432 for short. Reverse this number and find 234.
  • The 900 reminds one the pole lies at 90̊.
  • The diameter of the planet is 7920 miles.
  • The 28 is repeated twice so it must be important. Indeed, a 40 is present and a square of sides 40 has a diagonal of 56.56 which is a number similar to that just seen above.

All but two of the numbers reference time and/or longitude. One reference is to God and the other is to a comet.

How many of these numbers will repeat in that first phrase ET IN ARCADIA – EGO?

Cipher #2 ET IN ARCADIA EGO

To continue, we convert these lines to their numeric equivalent in Hebrew.

  • Each line begins with 79. (70+9) and (70+3+6). T to A (9+10+50+10) is also 79 and it is followed by 200. This is 79200.
  • Sum of top line (376) minus second line (79) is 297. A jumbled 792.
  • IN (10+50) provides 60.
  • NA (50+1) provides 51.
  • I to R (10+50+10+200) provides 270.
  • N and O (50+6) provides 56. The number of letters on the first line is 11 and on the second is 3 so together as 113 it is twice 56.5.
  • From C to A (20+1+4+10+1) is 36.

This much shorter list gives us 51, 36, 376 and 270 that are new.

  • There are 360̊ in a circle.
  • Due west is at 270̊.
  • The Greenwich Meridian is at latitude 51.51̊.
  • 3 76 should be seen as 3 and 76. We have seen the 3 in the Big Hint OUO.

Evidently then, these numbers do relate to longitude and latitude.

The following important note is made. Normally E should equal 1 and A should equal 70. If this arrangement is chosen, nothing is found. Anson did the same manipulation in his riddle. ‘O’ normally has value 6 but he changed it to 70.

The original phrase Virgil used in his poem was only ‘Arcades.’ Someone in turn added the ET IN and EGO with the latter on the second line and changed ‘Arcades’ to ‘Arcadia.’ Presumably this was done in the same manner we say American for someone from America. The endings are just a change in suffix.

Let’s make it worse. After all, Hint #1 suggests two gematrias may be in play here. Having tried Latin and found nothing, the next one attempted was Futhork. This alphabet is used primarily only by the most northern peoples. This inscription is very reminiscent of their style of runic riddles except in Latin letters. Since positioning is of great importance to runic riddles, it is likely the E was aligned under or almost under the I when this was first written. Furthermore, since it is in Latin and Hebrew gematria provides numbers of interest, it is likely the writer was extremely well educated. So, we proceed by using the Younger Futhork. (E and I share value 9. See chart at end.)

This seems random except the 5 and 6 follow each other. So we begin there:

  • RC is 56.
  • NGO is 864.
  • Sum from R to end is 43.
  • Sum of phrase ‘In Arcadia’ is 70. There are two 9’s one above the other and to the left is (9+12) or 21 so…70, 9,21 or… 7921.
    The letters IN provide 98 which reminds one 89 x 89 = 7920.
  • Sum from first I to last I is 60.
  • Sum from first I to R is 32. Sum of ADIA is 32.
  • Sum from first I to D is 51.
  • Sum from C to last I is 28.
  • Sum of A above O is 14.
  • 9+9 = 18.
  • Sum of the top line is 91 and of the second is 19. Note 91 in reverse is 19.

A few of these are new but actually repeat the same ideas.

  • 14 is half of 28 which is half of 56.
  • 32 is 5.65 x 5.65.
  • There are 180̊ degrees of latitude.
  • There are 19 lines in the Easter table. (See below.)

Evidently, it is far from random! Indeed, it can be summed as follows to find something else of great interest.

When was ‘he’ in Arcadia

This is a date. All the runic riddles, as shown by Alf Mongé (1967), are dated via the Easter Tables. This form of calendar was invented in 525 AD by Dionysius Exiguus but was in use in other forms since 390 AD. In the Easter Tables (used to place Easter – a moveable holiday) each year is identified by three numbers: Line #, Golden Number (GN) and Day Letter (DL). There are 19 lines for 532 years and then the calendar recycles. Each line represents 28 years by GN and DL. Each DL tells what day of the week the year started. (The period of years during which these runic riddles were being written is covered by the appended chart.)

‘Vinland: 1011’ As seen Spirit Pond Map Stone

Above we see how a year date is implied by the riddle master. The date should appear twice. Once literally and once at least by confirmation with Line #, GN and DL. One must proceed somewhat by trial and error. Notice the 15. If this is a Line #, it begins with year 1000. Numbers 1010, 1011 and 1012 are present. The first, 1010 has GN 4, DL 1 which is indicated by the 4 next to the 15. Year 1011 and year 1012 are indicated by GN’s 5 and 6 which appear just above them. They have DL’s 7 and 5,6 (leap year) respectively. The DL’s for 1012 are just above. There is no 7 or sum to 7. This gives a span of years from 1010 to 1012 which is very significant. The Spirit Pond runestone SP-3 from Maine dates itself to 1010 and 1011. Also part of the same collection, the amulet stone clearly states Vin 1010; and the Map Stone states Vinland 1011. It can be said then there is support for this interpretation. But it gets better….

Who Wrote It

We know Virgil wrote the original phrase ‘Arcades’ about the year 40 BC. The age of Rome and widespread Paganism. We know Poussin and Guercino both immortalized it around 1630 in its present form. The era of the Pilgrams and witch trials. The above dating suggests that before or in the year 1010 ‘someone’ added the Et In /Ego to the phrase. The era when northern kings of Norway, Denmark and Sweden chose Christianity and began to oppress Paganism earnestly. Anson added his own two lines to those words around 1750. The age when freedom of religion was beginning to take shape. Who then added those three words during the era of Pagan oppression in the north?

Fortunately, many of these encrypted riddles do include the name of the author. Often it is concealed in the telestic/acrostic lines. These are the end letters running down or up the left and right sides of the inscription. In this case EE/AO reveals nothing. Now one should check the letters from both ends as noted by the word count for each line. In this case there are three words on the first line and one on the second. The third letters in, on the first line, are I and D. The first letters on the second are E and O. This is IE from the left and DO from the right.

The letters tell us two things. Anson also found this since he repeated the same ‘DO’ in his riddle. The name of the writer is then IE. But, this is a problem. It is not a name but the Latin phrase ‘ie.’ which is still in use. It essentially means ‘to restate’ or ‘as stated.’ The name then is obvious. ??? It turns out EGO is a male name of Swedish/ Danish/ Norwegian origin. But the text also uses the word ET which means in Latin ‘and.’ Interestingly, another name is also apparent at the same point in the inscription: IN and below it GE – Inge. So it reads:

INGE ET EGO DO – IN ARCADIA – 1010 – 1012

Inge and Ego wrote this – who were in Arcadia in 1010 to 1012

Another mystery appears. Where was Arcadia of the myths and was it a real place in 1010?

Conceal and Anagram

It has become blatantly obvious something else is concealed here. As it happens often in these riddles when an acrostic or telestic requires a letter in a certain position something will be misspelled or words will be compressed together. Let us look at it again. Perhaps if the D is used twice and EGO becomes AGO then it reads:

ET IN ARC / A D / D I / A AGO

Now note: ET spells ‘eat’and AD means ‘fire’ in Old English. It means ‘hell’ in Russian. DI can be taken to mean ‘die’ and ago means ‘in the past.’ Now the phrase becomes: Eat in arc, fire, die, A – a long time ago.

It was eaten in an arc. By fire died A – a long time ago.

The letter framed by the shepherds hands was A. This then is a tomb in memory of ‘A.’ Sound strange? It is about to get even stranger.

We have just assumed the word spacing was compressed. What if this contains anagrams? What words do we see? Die, eat, go, roc(k), net, near, gore, dare, tear, gear, care, gone, ran. And then there is that Big Hint Anson gave…cup or was it a can?

Perhaps this says: ET I I CANADA GORE

No? We can be relatively certain this is the intended meaning by looking at the gematria in Hebrew:

ET I I CANADA       70 9 10 10 20 1 50 1 4 1

GORE                        3 6 200 70

These are found: 7920, 40, 60, 51, 51, 56, 77, 141 and 36, 270, 279. All of which were seen above. But again we have compressed CANADA into one word. Should it be CAN 141? Or CAN AD A? Either way, the whole thing becomes strange. Were Ego and Inge actually in Canada in 1010? Was it even called Canada then?

Virgil used the word ‘Arcades’ and it was where ‘Daphnis’ the shepherd was from. In Latin: ‘arc’ is arc, ‘cade’ is fall, ‘ad’ is to, and ‘caed’ is kill (the root of cadaver). It ends in S. Together it is: arc-fall to death-S. Whereas, Daphnis is not quite so obvious. It is four words together as well: hid-pan-I-S or hid-pan-eye-S. The ending ‘nis’ is remarkably close to ‘N is S’ and English ‘ness’ seen in other runic riddles. A study of many of the names Virgil used are like this. Perhaps the common theme here is Paganism.

It was eaten in an arc. By fire died A – a long time ago.

Inge and Ego wrote this – who were in Canada in 1010 to 1012

Remember – history is written by the victor.

The remainder of the secret is now easy to grasp, if the mind is willing.

Image at Virgil’s Tomb is reminiscent of Ragnarok.

 

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From Wikipedia

Similar Articles by the Same Author

** For numeric background see:

**Freeborn, B.L., Validating North American Runic Inscriptions, noahsage.com, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Deciphering the Spirit Pond, Nomans Land and Narragansett Runic Inscriptions, noahsage.com, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Nomans Land – Leif Eriksson Inscription, noahsage.com, December 2022. (An excerpt from the above.)

Freeborn, B.L., Et in Arcadia Ego – OUOSVAVV DM – Deciphered, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Kensington Stone’s Secret Lairs, noahsage.com, February 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Lifting the Veil of Time off the Rökstone of Sweden, noahsage.com, April 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Runic Riddles: Time Capsules, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Runic Riddles: Younger Futhork, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Narragansett Inscription: A Translation with its Date of Dedication, Author and Inscriber, noahsage.com, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Newport Tower: Finding the Date of Dedication, its Designer and Builder, noahsage.com, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Vinland Map – Encoded Riddle, noahsage.com, February 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Ancient Riddles to Test Our Wits: The Secret Chamber, noahsage.com, January 2016. (Two parts: post and page)

References

Gordon, Cyrus, Riddles in History, Crown Publishers, Inc. New York, 1974.

Landsverk, O.G., Runic Records of the Norsemen in America, Erik J. Friis, Publisher, Rushford, MN, 1974.

Mongé, Alf & O.G. Landsverk, Norse Medieval Cryptography in Runic Carvings, Norseman Press, Glendale, California, 1967.

Derogatory article by Aslak Liestol of Alf Mongé’s work: http://collections.mnhs.org/MNHistoryMagazine/articles/41/v41i01p034-042.pdf  and…. Landsverk responded to these comments in Ancient Norse Messages pg. 126-129; and often in Runic Records of the Norsemen in America.

Wikipedia articles on: Guercino ‘Et in Arcadia Ego’ ; Virgil ; Poussin ‘Et in Arcadia Ego’ ; Shugborough Inscription ; and many others.

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The Runic Riddles: Younger Futhork

B.L. Freeborn © December 2022           (PDF version here.)

Some riddles lay in plain sight for generations and no one sees them for what they are. The Younger Futhork is just such a riddle. It replaced the Older Futhork and was certainly created by someone at some point in time. Indeed, his name and the year are concealed in the script.

The sixteen rune uses the same symbol for multiple sounds. Whereas the original Futhork had twenty-four symbols that provided for the sounds of the language very well. Why then digress?

There are riddles hidden in runic inscriptions such as the Kensington Stone and the Rök runestone of Sweden. A few of the ciphers in the Rök were decrypted over a century ago. Alf Mongé revealed others in the Kensington in 1967. Other inscriptions were examined which led to the attached paper Validating North American Runic Inscriptions (pdf). Other studies followed and they are listed below.

The rune forms of the Younger Futhark evolved from the older over time and in different places. The Younger Futhark as an alphabet was ‘invented’ by someone who placed them in the known specific order at some point in time. This order prescribed the numeric value attached to each sound. It changed the gematria of the system drastically while the form of the runes continued to evolve. The two different ‘s’ shown in the image below are a prime example. They cannot be any more different. The first is very close to its form in the Older Futhark. It is not as if the older just abruptly stopped either. It was used alongside the newer for both its sound value and numeric value. This in and of itself is confusing.

From Wikipedia

It was presumed by the author that the Younger was developed to help conceal numeric data and to confuse readers of the actual reading of the script – which it does. It was developed during a time when there was increased pressure to end paganism and to convert northern Europeans to Christianity. Part of the process was to end the use of runes and use Latin letters.

If one looks at this new alphabet as a riddle, the when and who are answered. It is such a clever riddle that overnight it must have gone viral, as we say, and supplanted the older twenty-four rune Futhork. Mongé notes that often a riddle master will create an alphabet within a riddle to conceal a message. This is what this fellow evidently did and the rest is history.

Here, then, is the riddle, the writer and when:

Younger Futhark transcribed to Latin letters: FUThARKHNIASTBMLʀ

This begins just as the original Futhark alphabet with the same six letters, same order, similar appearance. The last five are the most interesting: TBMLʀ. It almost says ‘table’ or even ‘tumble.’ Immediately preceding this is AS and then just before this is NI as if it says ‘nigh’ which means ‘here.’ The H of nigh precedes it. The letters have been ‘tumbled.’ Clearly then, it says ‘nigh as table’ with an M stuck into the middle to add confusion. There are many arrangements that can be made if one were to form a table from these sixteen symbols. The obvious break is after the first six original runes and indeed, if one reads it again it says: KH or HK in reverse which is similar to ‘hack.’ By hacking it off there the first line is presumably formed. By trial and error the riddle can go forward or one can simply notice that there are ten runes remaining.

This gives us two lines, one of 6 and one of 10 runes. These runic riddles were laced with numbers. The numbers 56 and 792 were always present in a riddle. They often included 51 and 76. By dividing the last ten into 5 and 5, two other groups are formed which is how the aetts (sets) known today must have been derived. This gives 6, 5 and 5 runes in each aett. The preferred order should have been 565 in the same way Hebrew Yahweh is numerically 5,6,5,10. The logical way to form a table is then to use 5,6,5 runes per line. Now after a bit of trial and error the following table is created and preferred for numeric reasons as shown below.

  • Notice the first column sums to 20. The 7 and 2 sum to 9. The 8 and 1 sum to 9. Then 8 and 9 are just to the right. So that 89 x 89 = 7920 and the numbers at the start were 7, 9 and 20. Find the 9, 2,3,4 in the center and note this also creates 792. Also 7,2,9 form a jumbled 792. This repeats this number 792 five times.
  • The sum of the last column is 32 which is 5.65 x 5.65. The 56 repeats at the middle end.
  • Total number of runes in inscription is 16 or half of 32.
  • If this is a Baalist/Pagan inscription then BL (ie. Baal) has values 13,15. Their sum is 28, or half of 56.
  • The sum down then up the diagonals (7,2,14,4,11) is 38 or half of 76. The sum of the bottom row is 70 then up to the 6 is 76.
  • The sum of the top row is 45 and then down to the 6 is 51.

This provides all the required numbers typically seen in Baalist/Pagan documents: 792, 56, 76 and 51.**

But this is just a simple row of numbers broken into three lines. Hardly that exciting, coincidental at the very least but not exciting to us. Now look at the letters. Those were assigned those values.The telestic and acrostics are important in riddles of this nature. Typically they reveal the name of the author and often some indication of his role.

On the right it is S K ʀ in an arc shape. Or in a bit of a loop: SKRAI. This is very suggestive of the word ‘scriva’ in Swedish meaning ‘to write.’ It is also the root of the word inscribe.

Now in an arc again from the I to A ..R..L ʀ find the word IARL which Mongé identified as earl, a title (Syversen, pg. 79).

On the opposite side moving up from T to U..NI find Tuni which is an Old Swedish name. It is short for Thorniutʀ. Interestingly, Tuni / Thorniut was name of the riddle master who wrote the Leif Ericsson inscription from Noman’s Land in 1001. (see pdf below) The name was similarly broken up into Tunæ and then the remaining letters were encoded. Here, it is found as follows:

H N I A S

F U Th O R K

T B M L ʀ ……………. Thorniut Iarlʀ scrai …

I wrote – Earl Thorniutʀ

Intentional, coincidental, or just imagined? Let us say it is the first because somebody at sometime designed the order of this shorter alphabet.

‘When’ is the remaining question.

Use this same table but now pay attention to why the letters TBML are in that order. Also notice TM sounds an awful lot like ‘time.’ Directly above the B or 13 is NU which suggests ‘now.’ We have: now, table and time. There apparently is some date hidden here.

If it does spell table, then the M is inserted between them for some reason. It has value 14. Four times 14 is again 56. Perhaps it is just to confuse. But what else does M represent?

On the Spirit Pond inscription stone (see pdf below) M as a runic M (in Younger Futhork) appeared as part of the date: M11 to indicate 1011. On the Leif Ericsson inscription from Nomans Land, M1 was used to indicate 1001. This reveals the one weakness that all these gematrias have in common and that is the inability to show 0’s. It is especially troubling if one has to write a number like 1000. A Roman numeral M is then very helpful. It has value 1000. Within the word table ‘TBL’ is inserted an M. Does it represent the year 1000? Or does it just refer to time ‘TM’?

The way to see (or prove) what date may be here is to use the Easter Tables (the hint was time table) which was how they determined dates such as Easter before modern calendars were invented. Each year is identified by three numbers. The Line number, the Golden Number (GN) and the Day Letter (DL). (See Landsverk.) For the year 1000 the Line # is 15, the GN is 13 and the DL is 6 and 7, a leap year.
Line # is 15. Letter L was assigned value 15.
Day letter is 13. It is nearby.
There is a 12 just before (of course) but above it is two letters: HF almost as if it says half.
Half of 12 is 6…..the day letter. ???
But this is a leap year, where is the 7? Notice the second line ends at 6 and it is a leap up to 7.
This makes year 1000 a possibility. But there is a better choice.

Another possible date is found on Line #14. The number before L is 14 and the sum above L is 14.
If NU means ‘now’ and B/13 was below it then perhaps 13 is the GN.
This year has DL 2 which is found at U above B/13 in ‘now.’
Line #14, GN 13 implies year 981. This number is found in the table at INF.
The years 982, 983 are equally implied but only 981 has its DL near/in the same group.

It is for the reader to decide which date is implied.

Was this devised as a riddle in 981 by Tuni, otherwise known as Earl Thorniutʀ, for the sole purpose of creating a new alphabet? Or was it a riddle that just went viral?

Also of interest, the original six letters is F U Th Æ R K… as in ‘Foe 3 ark 56.’ Another riddle!!

Previous Post        Next Post


Similar Articles by this Author – pdfs as available

* Easter Table pdf

** For numeric background see: 

**Freeborn, B.L., Validating North American Runic Inscriptions, noahsage.com, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Deciphering the Spirit Pond, Nomans Land and Narragansett Runic Inscriptions, noahsage.com, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Nomans Land – Leif Eriksson Inscription, noahsage.com, December 2022. (An excerpt from the above.)

Freeborn, B.L., Et in Arcadia Ego – OUOSVAVV DM – Deciphered, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Kensington Stone’s Secret Lairs, noahsage.com, February 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Lifting the Veil of Time off the Rökstone of Sweden, noahsage.com, April 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Runic Riddles: Time Capsules, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Runic Riddles: Younger Futhork, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Narragansett Inscription: A Translation with its Date of Dedication, Author and Inscriber, noahsage.com, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Newport Tower: Finding the Date of Dedication, its Designer and Builder, noahsage.com, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Vinland Map – Encoded Riddle, noahsage.com, February 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Ancient Riddles to Test Our Wits: The Secret Chamber, noahsage.com, January 2016. (Two parts: post and page.)

Book References:

Landsverk, O.G., Runic Records of the Norsemen in America, Erik J. Friis, Publisher, Rushford, MN, 1974.

Landsverk, O.G., Ancient Norse Messages, Norseman Press, Glendale, California, 1969.

Mongé, Alf & O.G. Landsverk, Norse Medieval Cryptography in Runic Carvings, Norseman Press, Glendale, California, 1967.

Syversen, Earl, Norse Runic Inscriptions: with their Long-forgotten Cryptography, The Vine Hill Press, Sebastopol, California, 1979.

Derogatory article by Aslak Liestol of Alf Mongé’s work: http://collections.mnhs.org/MNHistoryMagazine/articles/41/v41i01p034-042.pdf  and…. Landsverk responded to these comments in Ancient Norse Messages pg. 126-129; and often in Runic Records of the Norsemen in America.

Introduction Post      Next Post

Runic Riddles: Time Capsules

B.L. Freeborn © December 2022               (PDF version here.)

Runic riddles are riddles written in runes. Runes are alphabets that were in use in northern Europe, Britain and other northern areas. They were used for centuries but died out with the coming of Christianity.

There are a certain group of inscriptions from this period that are either difficult to interpret, very short, have unexplained symbols, use bindrunes (letters stuck together), and/ or are unusual for some reason. Here is an example from Norway (Lomen No. 2; Norges Inscrifter Med De Yngre Runer, Vol.1, Pg. 216) deemed to be a magic incantation. It is simply a riddle. The solution is at the end of the post.

These unusual ones are where the riddles hide. Primarily they were created for amusement, in the same manner as crosswords are today. Besides providing unique puzzles for people to solve, they often contained phrases and ‘secret messages’ that we find strange or incomprehensible today. They are little windows into a bygone era before the cleansing of facts by ‘modern’ teachers, internet myths, and the Catholic church. The latter worked especially hard via genocide and threats to stamp out Paganism. Throw the Black death into the picture which killed half the population of these areas and it is not surprising that the information these riddles reveal seems …. surprising to say the least.

Sadly, the numbers of inscriptions still in existence are declining with each passing year. They were once abundant. Many now only exist in photos. The few remaining tell us something of importance.

Many preserve the concepts of Baal and Paganism. This religion can be traced back 12000 years. The remaining practitioners faced with the power of the Catholic Church found a way to preserve some hints of it in these riddles. Others tell us of extraordinary journeys. They reveal an important part of our lost knowledge.

The following posts bring a few of these riddles to you. Others are available as pdfs at the bottom of the posts.

Hopefully, they are both enjoyable and educational to you.

Solution:

This is called a magic formula – ISTIL form. The number of duplicated runes varies. This one uses triplicates and to match the three makes bindrunes of the six initial runes. The transliteration of the three bindrunes and duplicated runes is RT UÆ KN III SSS TTT III LLL. This is an anagram for ‘stlis’ in Latin which means ‘quarrel’ or ’cause’ and/or ‘tellus’ meaning Earth or region. This implies a ‘global difficulty.’

The three bindrunes and the triplicates suggest 3. This is equal to Th (or D) rune. Simplify and add the Th:    Th    R T U Æ K N    I S T I L. As numbers this is: 3   5 12 2 4 6 8     9 11 12 9 15.

The group ISTIL has four notable values. 9,11,12 sum to 32✓; then 9,15 sum to 24✓; then 12,9,15 sum to 36✓; and the total is 56.✓ All of these numbers are important. (For checked ✓ number meanings see below**. See next table for rune/number equivalents.)

The first group containing the bindrunes has no meaningful sums except for the total with the 3 (Th) included which is 40. A square of sides 40 has 56.56 as a diagonal. This repeats the ISTIL sum. The group does have the significant series 4 6 8 which in reverse is 864.✓

From Wikipedia

There are several elements of the riddle missing. The author and year are often stated and the number 792 (always present) is missing. This is long enough to contain both. Mongé derived the name KanutR from the first six runes. His solution is different than what is presented here. (Landsverk, Ancient…, pg. 127-138) However, by inspection the name Thorniut is found. (The Æ includes the sound O. Also, the I rune can be an E.) The only letter missing is an I and a K is left over. There are two I’s in the last group, so this implies letter sharing. If the K shifts to the last group notice this list of small abbreviated words can be formed: KIL (kill); I TIL (I tell); I LIS (I lies); S (south); I TI LI S (I tie lie South). When taken altogether the following is suggested:

I Thorniut tell. The I tie lies South where it was killed in the global upheaval.

This is a typical Baalist statement including the name of the author but the number 792 is still missing so the solution is incomplete. If Thorniut is converted to numbers as given (without the I) one finds: 3 4 5 8 2 12. Now the following sums are noted: 3,4 sums to 7; then 4,5 sums to 9; then 3,4,5,8 sums to 20 so that we now have 7920.✓

The year would complete the picture. Some indication of the year and three other numbers is sought: the Golden Number (GN), the Day Letter (DL) and the Line #. These numbers are used to find dates on the Perpetual Easter Table (here). A complete discussion of this is found in any of Landsverk’s books listed below.

The letters as bindrunes were anagrammed for a reason so returning to those runes/numbers we have: 5 12 2 4 6 8. These can somewhat change order since there is no way to tell which rune of the bindrune should go first ie. 12 5 4 2 8 6 etc. Note the 1224 looks like a year and in fact, Line # 4 in the attached chart begins with that year. The 4 is present in the series. But year 1224 has GN 9 which is not present in this group. Since 3 is prominently noted by the triplicates, if taken to mean GN 3 then on this 4th line, year 1237 is indicated. It has day letter 4. The sum of this series of numbers is 37 confirming the date.

Other dates for similar reasons can be found. But after much searching 1237 seemed to have the most in its favor. Mongé dated this to 3 March 1199 using just the 3’s. There is good reason to accept his date except that all versions of Istil riddles repeating 3 times would then imply the same date. The reader is free to search for other plausible dates using the attached Easter Table.

I Thorniut tell in the year 1237. The I tie lies South where it was killed in the global upheaval.

Earlier Riddle Posts      Next Post

Similar Articles by this Author (pdfs uploaded as available)

* Easter Table pdf

** For numeric background see:

**Freeborn, B.L., Validating North American Runic Inscriptions, noahsage.com, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Deciphering the Spirit Pond, Nomans Land and Narragansett Runic Inscriptions, noahsage.com, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Nomans Land – Leif Eriksson Inscription, noahsage.com, December 2022. (An excerpt from the above.)

Freeborn, B.L., Et in Arcadia Ego – OUOSVAVV DM – Deciphered, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Kensington Stone’s Secret Lairs, noahsage.com, February 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Lifting the Veil of Time off the Rökstone of Sweden, noahsage.com, April 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Runic Riddles: Time Capsules, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Runic Riddles: Younger Futhork, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Narragansett Inscription: A Translation with its Date of Dedication, Author and Inscriber, noahsage.com, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Newport Tower: Finding the Date of Dedication, its Designer and Builder, noahsage.com, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Vinland Map – Encoded Riddle, noahsage.com, February 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Ancient Riddles to Test Our Wits: The Secret Chamber, noahsage.com, January 2016. (Two parts: post and page)

Book References:

Landsverk, O.G., Runic Records of the Norsemen in America, Erik J. Friis, Publisher, Rushford, MN, 1974.

Landsverk, O.G., Ancient Norse Messages, Norseman Press, Glendale, California, 1969.

Mongé, Alf & O.G. Landsverk, Norse Medieval Cryptography in Runic Carvings, Norseman Press, Glendale, California, 1967.

Syversen, Earl, Norse Runic Inscriptions: with their Long-forgotten Cryptography, The Vine Hill Press, Sebastopol, California, 1979.

Derogatory article by Aslak Liestol of Alf Mongé’s work: http://collections.mnhs.org/MNHistoryMagazine/articles/41/v41i01p034-042.pdf  and…. Landsverk responded to these comments in Ancient Norse Messages pg. 126-129; and often in Runic Records of the Norsemen in America.