The Narragansett Inscription: A Translation with its Date of Dedication, Author and Inscriber

B.L. Freeborn © October 2022                          (PDF version here.)

The Narragansett Runestone is the work of a genius. Besides the initial plain text reading, there are an additional three phrases, the date and even the correct location concealed in the text. This is a lot for nine symbols to convey. The proposed transliteration and subsequent translation of symbols imbedded in the rock once on the shores of Narragansett, Rhode Island are shown below. The proof that the correct symbols are used is very math heavy, so it is at the end for those who are interested. What enables the cipher is that the text is in three alphabets: Younger Futhark, Elder Futhark and Latin. The reader is directed to the charts towards the end for Futhark (runic) alphabets.

The extra letters appear after one notices several other possibilities are present. The S (in Futhark) can be seen as a backwards Latin N. The Æ symbol (in Futhark) can also be seen as an F. The X can be seen as an A in Younger Futhark or a G in the Older. The T in the Younger Futhark is upside down. There is no reason to assume the adjoining M is not also upside down. If it is, it becomes a Y. There is also no reason to assume it is in the Younger Futhark, since the symbol appears in the Elder as does the S and O in the forms shown. This adds Z to its possible transliteration. Indeed, reading the pairs as shown provides AF, GA, FA, LT, TL, ZT, ZL, MT and MZ as easily readable. They suggest Af(ter), Go, Foe, Let, Tell, Set, Zeal, Meet and Maze.

We move on with reading the text. Find the runes: A H R. This is exactly how ‘year’ was written in both the Spirit Pond and Kensington runestones including the rune forms. This confirms these runes are part of or near the date. The date is found in the transliteration proof below.

Studying the inscription further leads to the correct plain text reading. Take the first letter as N and notice that the H looks like two arrowheads coming together. It is followed by RO which seems to reinforce the idea of an arrow. Take the hooked X as a G (in Elder Futhark) and now GÆN can be found. The letters forming ZT (set) were seen in the 5th and 6th runes. See the I erroneously as a T and now one has everything needed to interpret the inscription as:

……. N ……………… ARROW ……………………….. GAN ………………….. ZTT ………………

⇒⇒ Narragansett.

Now in the transliteration find: ÆR HOM LI ………………..Our homes lies…

This suggests the location is also embedded. The longitude and latitude is also deciphered below.

Now find:

AS SHÆ RO YMZ ML TI I – TL – ROZY…………..As she row amaze mill tie eye – tell Rozy
AF HÆ RO YMZ ML TI I – LT – HROM………..After he row amaze mill tie eye – let Hrom

As she rowed to the amazing mill tie eye, Rosy wrote this.
After he rowed to the amazing mill tie eye, Hrom carved this.

DESIGNED BY ROSY – INSCRIBED BY HROM – AFTER THEIR AMAZING
JOURNEY TO THE MILL TIE EYE
IN THE YEAR 1011
DEDICATED DECEMBER 24 OF THAT YEAR
OUR HOME LIES ∙ 41.45̊ N 71.45̊ W

Transliteration Proof

The gematria (number) associated with each rune is as found in that alphabet with the exception of the L which uses the value for L from the Younger Futhark. The correctness of the transliteration can be checked but it requires substitution to numbers and summing. Sums found should be typical numbers found in Baalist** encoded inscriptions. They are so noted with a ✓ check mark. The reader is directed to the paper Validating North American Runic Inscriptions (pdf) for further information on this topic since it is a new approach to deciphering runic inscriptions.

Below is the proposed transliteration which includes all three versions of the 5th rune and two provided by the 6th. This positioning at the 5th and 6th eliminates the possibility of the undecipherable rune (?) ever actually being present. If it was, these would shift to 6th and 7th positions. The 7 and 2 pattern provides a required number. (7 + 2 = 9) or 792.✓ The number 28 or its double 56 must be found. The 5th and 6th runes were just discussed. This provides 56.✓ Further still, 3 versions of the ‘M’ and 2 of the ‘L’ suggest 32 which is 5.65².✓ Look at it again and see there is a group of 3 double letters followed by a group of 2 or 32.✓

We have now found four numerical verifications of the stone’s validity. Others are easily found but number substitution is required to see them. (See chart of runes/numbers at end.)

In this case the dot is next to the [Æ, F]. Letter F has value 6. Notice the R of value 5 is just above so that 56 is found.✓

The 7 is followed by 5 and 24 which sum to 29 so that one finds 7, 29 ⇒⇒ 792.✓
The group of four numbers: 8,11,4,6 sum to 29 next to a 7 ⇒⇒ 792.✓
The sum of the five numbers in brackets is 15+14+16+15+12=72. This is followed by 9 or 72,9.✓

Running the sum across the top line (in bold) as written find 86. ✓ (86400 seconds of longitude.)
The sum as typically transliterated (with M, T) is 82 which if read in reverse is 28 or half 56.✓
The sum of A Æ or 10, 4 is 14 which is half of 28.✓

This is a significant number of numerical verifications. The transliteration appears to be correct.

Finding the Date

There is a 10 below the 11. The 7 and 4 sum to 11. The 4 and 6 sum to 10…..1011….1110. This appears to be a date. The Spirit Pond rune stones date themselves to the year 1011. Finding the Golden Number (GN) for both years may settle the matter. GN was commonly used at the time for determining Easter. The GN for 1110 is 9. Its Line # on the table is 18. (See Easter Table here and Mongé,1967) The Day Letter is 2. The two is not found so 1110 is eliminated.✗

The GN for year 1011 is 5. A five is immediately to the right of this group of numbers. More so, the Line # is 15 which appears twice (Z, L).✓ The Day letter is 7. To the left of the five is 7.✓ The implied date is year 1011.✓ Further confirmation for 1011 is found in the number of runes. There are 7 runes on the first line. Day letter = 7.✓ There are 11 runes from the doubled runes. Year is 1011.✓ There are 15 runes in total. The Line # is 15.✓

The numbers 12 and 24 are probably the dedication date. (7+ 5 = 12 and 24.) If the dedication date is 12/24 or December 24 it is zero days until the end of the Norse Year (Christmas). The zero is provided by the undecipherable first rune.✓

Alf Mongé would say the 24 represents the number of days to the end of the year and give a date of 30 November. This would explain the 11’s. While 30 can be found in the sum of 10+11+4+5 or the double 15. The preference here is 24 December since it is more plainly enumerated and explains the ‘zero’ rune. The 24th is certainly a more suitable holiday to commemorate such a work.

The numbers can be played with for some time. Eventually even a novice solver will come to the conclusion there is no mysterious missing rune on the first line as just confirmed by the dedication date. In other rune riddles a missing letter is required to be guessed to solve the riddle. Here it is the opposite. The missing letter was only a ruse.

Finding the Location

It is possible to confirm the latitude and longitude if it is known.
Recall the numbers are:

The full top line of the inscription provides N (7, 5, 24, 14, 12, 9) = N 71.

ZMT (15,14,12) = 41 and MLT (14,15,12) = 41.
ZMY (15,14,16) = 45 and must be used twice.

So that 41.45̊ N, 71.45̊ W is found which is correct with respect to the Greenwich Meridian. (Its apparent accuracy suggests they were using this meridian as opposed to other available meridians.) It is important to note – one must know beforehand the location to find it in the inscription. One cannot just read it out.

IN THE YEAR 1011
DEDICATED DECEMBER 24 OF THAT YEAR
OUR HOME LIES ∙ 41.45̊ N, 71.45̊ W

From Wikipedia

Previous Post         Next Post

*Easter Table PDF

Similar Articles by the Same Author

** For numeric background see:

**Freeborn, B.L., Validating North American Runic Inscriptions, noahsage.com, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Deciphering the Spirit Pond, Nomans Land and Narragansett Runic Inscriptions, noahsage.com, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Nomans Land – Leif Eriksson Inscription, noahsage.com, December 2022. (An excerpt from the above.)

Freeborn, B.L., Et in Arcadia Ego – OUOSVAVV DM – Deciphered, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Kensington Stone’s Secret Lairs, noahsage.com, February 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Lifting the Veil of Time off the Rökstone of Sweden, noahsage.com, April 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Runic Riddles: Time Capsules, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Runic Riddles: Younger Futhork, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Narragansett Inscription: A Translation with its Date of Dedication, Author and Inscriber, noahsage.com, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Newport Tower: Finding the Date of Dedication, its Designer and Builder, noahsage.com, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Vinland Map – Encoded Riddle, noahsage.com, February 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Ancient Riddles to Test Our Wits: The Secret Chamber, noahsage.com, January 2016. (Two parts: post and page)

References

*Monge, Alf & O.G. Landsverk, Norse Medieval Cryptography in Runic Carvings, Norseman Press, Glendale, California, 1967.

Landsverk, O.G., Runic Records of the Norsemen in America, Erik J. Friis, Publisher, Rushford, MN, 1974.

Landsverk, O.G., Ancient Norse Messages, Norseman Press, Glendale, California, 1969.

Syversen, Earl, Norse Runic Inscriptions with Their Long-forgotten Cryptography, The Vine Hill Press, Sebastopol, California, 1979.

Derogatory article by Aslak Liestol of Alf Mongé’s work: http://collections.mnhs.org/MNHistoryMagazine/articles/41/v41i01p034-042.pdf  and…. Landsverk responded to these comments in Ancient Norse Messages pg. 126-129; and often in Runic Records of the Norsemen in America.

 

The Newport Tower: Finding the Year of Dedication, its Designer and Builder

B.L. Freeborn © October 30, 2022        (PDF version here.)

Who built the Newport Tower is a long standing question. It has been well proven by James Eagan that the tower is used for keeping time as the celestial bodies align with its numerous small windows. Eagan also noticed that certain letters formed with stones appear in the arches of the structure. Most notable and hard to miss is the >OI<. He found the Delta and P. He also thought the h was a Greek η. From there he determined, probably correctly, it spells out Rode as in Rhode Island. His theory states John Dee had the tower built in 1583 in connection with a colonization attempt which failed.

The tower is shown on the “Woods Map 1635’ by William Woods a colonist in Providence, RI (Syverson, pg.32) The map notes it as Old Plymouth. This is the earliest known record and predates Benedict Arnold senior’s ownership. Evidently Arnold knew what it was and probably who built it, but because of the possibility of these prior claims resurfacing he referred to it as an old windmill knowing very well only a fool would believe that.

After studying Eagan’s discovery for some time the other letters shown above were identified by this author. There are eight arches. Three of which have one letter displayed and five display two each. There is also a round stone on the interior opposite the >OI< stone on the northwest side. This makes fourteen altogether. To complicate the picture there is a runic inscription found over the southwest pillar (see images below). It was translated by Mongé (1967) and it reads Henricus 1116. This refers to Eirikr Gnupsson, a Bishop from Greenland that was sent to Vinland. Other theories as to the tower’s origin abound. The Henricus theory is at least supported by an inscription imbedded into the tower itself in the manner of a corner stone.

This paper is a study of the inscription and stone letters. It is also an addendum to Validating North American Runic Inscriptions (PDF). The translation is given here and the study with its numeric work follows which will be difficult to understand without having read the aforementioned paper.

Translation

The round stone on a peg in the NW arch is as indicative of Baal as a cross is to Christ. (The >OI< stones.) Furthermore, it would seem the stone letters spell out Baal. This leads to studying the ‘inscription’ as if it is of Baalist origin and if so, certain numbers must be present. Validating North American Runic Inscriptions describes how certain numbers are embedded in Baalist inscriptions. One should recall that the Catholic Church went to great lengths to stamp out Paganism in the time preceding and during Henricus’ tenure as Bishop. Apparently Baal was central to that religion which is why there are so many references to it hidden in runic riddles. The dedication to Baal at Newport tower is unmistakable. The stone letters are repeated here:
Reading in a clockwise manner – b O O L T I h Δ I O >I< P O
These are transliterated as:        B A  A L T I h D I A   I   R O

Note that the P in some languages is R. (The stones may actually depict an R.) The O’s can be either O or A.
Reading from the top clockwise find: RO, BAAL, TI, HI, DI, O, >I<
Also find: HIT, I TOOL, O LO, BOR, ROB, POL, RODE or RHODE and OH.

The first line suggests: Row, Baal, Tie, die, high, eye, two strikes at I.
The second adds: hit, I tool Rob, hole low, bore, pole; rod, red or road; and oh. We may conclude:

Rob designed and built.
Baal at the high tie hit. It hit twice at the eye in rows.
The hole is low where it bore the eye of the pole.
Rhode Island

These are typical Baalist statements except for the last one. The words are easily found in the inscription. Rhode Island perhaps requires an explanation. RHODE appears to be a combined anagram for Rod (or Red) and Oh (meaning island). A rod is a measuring length of 16.5 feet. The clay on the shores of Rhode Island is notably red so it might also refer to red. This suggests the name, Rhode Island, is much older than cited by modern authorities.

Then Comes Henricus

Above the southwest pillar of the tower is a runic inscription. Harek Williams examines it in a video with James Eagan and confirms it is human carved and nothing more. A much better source for proving it is an authentic runic carving is Alf Mongé. Why the latter? Harek Williams reads plain text runes from that period. He does not delve into runic puzzles or dated riddles. Alf Mongé was a cryptologist. He deciphered the deep scratch marks into runic letters and decoded them. He found it reads: Henricus 1116. This gives a lower limit to the age of the tower. Based on other runic inscriptions found along the east coast and the Narragansett inscription nearby this seems plausible.

The rapidity with which the tower is giving away to nature demands that it must be under constant care. This requires that, regardless of when it was built, it must have been periodically repaired. It has been nine hundred years since Bishop Henricus visited as implied by the runic inscription. The Spirit Pond stones are dated to 1214-1217. (Freeborn, Deciphering.., 2022) They commemorate his visit. The Kensington Stone’s date is 1362. It states the travelers came from the east. Perhaps, they too were at this settlement. In 1525 Verazzanno explored the coast but did not mention the tower. In 1583 John Dee sent an expedition to the area. By the 1600’s it was settled by colonists and it came under the care of Benedict Arnold senior. This could mean it received periodic maintenance since the time of its construction, on or after 1116, until Arnold’s ownership five hundred years later.

The date and builder need not be total speculation. The aforementioned inlaid letters tell the story of Baal. If they were chosen in the manner of a runic riddle, they may reveal more. Since Henricus was a master at runic riddles, and if this was built by him or in honor of him, then the symbols should contain further information. These riddles always concealed the date.

As far as John Dee being the designer, that is possible as well. However, and it is a very big however, he was a devoted Christian and this tower is clearly a dedication to Baal. The two are not mutually exclusive since Henricus was a Bishop of the church as well, but he lived at the point in time when Paganism, through genocide, was actively stamped out. To continue their religion and live, they were forced underground. A study of Dee’s mathematics does not display the numbers so prevalent in Baalist inscriptions which suggests he is not the creator.

After a mathematical study (which follows) of the letters through their gematria more information was derived. It would appear the tower was erected to commemorate Henricus’ visit in 1116.

DESIGNED and BUILT by ROB – DEDICATED 1216
to HONOR HENRICUS of 1116
LOCATED at 41.48̊N, 71.3̊W
RHODE ISLAND

Number Work and Proof of Transliteration

Certain numbers** appear when the letters in any Baalist inscription is converted to their numerical equivalent (gematria). The Newport Tower’s hidden letter/numbers are studied here. Numbers that are typically found are noted by a ✓ check mark. Simply put, if the numbers are not found, it is -not- a true Baalist inscription -or- the letters have been misinterpreted. Once the correct letters are proven via their gematria then the message about Baal can be read and also, possibly who wrote it and when. The result of this study is as noted above.

The proposed transcription of symbols imbedded in the arches of the Newport Tower is shown. The numbers are studied for repetitions and pertinent numbers. As stated, numbers found should be typical numbers found in Baalist encoded inscriptions. The P can also be an R. The symbol may actually be an R.

Norse Runic Gematria

Sum from T and around to first A = 79. From the same A to L is 23. So that it is 79,23.✓
Total sum is 98 or 89 in reverse which reminds one 89 x 89 = 7921. ✓
The sum from the Δ around again to the 7 is 89. ✓ The 79 is also imbedded in the text. ✓
Even more notable the 9,3,9 sum to 21 so it becomes 7921. ✓
The sum from the first A to first I is 51. ✓ The sum from H to the right and around to L is 86. ✓
The 28 appears twice which is half of 56.✓ The sum from B to the left around to the I (by H) is 56.✓
The sum from first I to the last O is 43. ✓
Note the 12’s at T, ID, DI. Note the 13 at AI just following the 12.
Note the 14 at IR. Lastly, note 7 and 9 sum to 16.
By summing adjoining numbers find: 13,17, 19, 15, 19,12, 16, 12, 12, 13, 13, 14, 9, 17…
On either side of the 16 is a 12, then 12, 12, 13, 13, 14.

In dated runic riddles the Golden Number (GN), Day Letter (DL) and Line # are used to denote a year since every year has specific values that can be found in Easter Tables (a calendar device created in 525 AD). After having tried many dates it appears 1216 is implied. It has GN 1, DL 2,3 (a leap year) and Line #3. This is a series: 1,2,3.The idea of consecutive numbers is seen in the sequential 12’s, 13’s and 14. Further confirmation is found in the 3 that follows the 7,9 (sum 16).

Year 1217 is similar in that it has Line #3, GN 2 and DL 1. There are two 17’s present in the list and years are typically stated then confirmed. It is not stated as clearly as 1216 as implied by the numeric order. The Line # is positioned closer to 1216. Year 1117 is also implied with Line #19, GN 16 and DL 7. But again it is not clearly stated.

The location is also found in the runic gematria. One cannot just ‘read’ the location. It is just a bit of bragging by the inscriber that he knew the correct coordinates. Hence, one must know the location beforehand! The values are: 41.48̊N, 71.3̊W with respect to the Greenwich Meridian. (Its apparent accuracy suggests they were using this meridian as opposed to other available meridians.) The sum from H to the last I is 41. The sum from B to T is 48. This suggests 41.48.✓

Similarly, 71 runs from the H to the end and around to the T. From the R back around and including the second A is 30. So 71.30. ✓ It would seem the inscriber did know the correct coordinates.

The tower also spells out RHODI or Rhode. These letters have values: 5,7,4,3,9 = 28. ✓

The Structure Contributes

The structure is set up to provide numbers as well. There are 8 pillars and 10 symbols that appear on five arches (two each). One symbol (the red stone) is in the inside and three arches have only one symbol for a total of 14 symbols. 4 x 14 = 56.✓

There are five arches with two symbols each or 10. There are three with one each for 3. Total 13. There is a single round red stone on the interior. So 1. 1 and 13 ➟ ➟ 113 = 56.5 x 2. ✓
There are 8 pillars and of course, 8 arches. A square of sides 5.656 has a diagonal of 8. ✓
There are double symbols in 5 arches and single symbols in 3.
If the first arch with B is #1, then the arches with two symbols are found on: 3, 5, 6, 7,8. The ever present 3 is represented, then 56 and 7 x 8 is 56 again.✓ Similarly, if B is #1, then it is 1 symbol, then 1 symbol, then 2 symbols; or 112 which is twice 56.✓

One may conclude after finding so many instances of numbers typically found in Baalist documents that the transliteration is correct.

Runic Inscription Study

This is a summary of Mongé’s decipherment. It is a group of five runes and two are joined runes: (HE) N (IK) R S or Henricus. There is an arrow to the right. The arrow is another feature common on Baalist inscriptions.** Using runic gematria, the year 1116 is found. The (HE) is 16. The S is 11. The R is 16. The (IK) is 15. The line number on the Easter Table is 15. The date 1116 is confirmed by the grouping 4 then 1 for GN 4 and DL 1. It is worth reading Mongé’s study (Mongé, pgs 128-129).

Conclusion

The Newport Tower’s embedded letters when converted to gematria reveal numbers typical to Baalist documents. Their transliteration and subsequent translation educate us in a long lost religion. That this tower displays these features severely narrows the field of possible builders. It also strongly suggests that the northern peoples, Norse and others, inhabited this region known as Rhode Island for some time and built an elegant edifice in the year 1216.

Previous Post                     Next Post

*Easter Table PDF

Similar Articles by the Same Author

** For numeric background see:

**Freeborn, B.L., Validating North American Runic Inscriptions, noahsage.com, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Deciphering the Spirit Pond, Nomans Land and Narragansett Runic Inscriptions, noahsage.com, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Nomans Land – Leif Eriksson Inscription, noahsage.com, December 2022. (An excerpt from the above.)

Freeborn, B.L., Et in Arcadia Ego – OUOSVAVV DM – Deciphered, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Kensington Stone’s Secret Lairs, noahsage.com, February 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Lifting the Veil of Time off the Rökstone of Sweden, noahsage.com, April 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Runic Riddles: Time Capsules, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Runic Riddles: Younger Futhork, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Narragansett Inscription: A Translation with its Date of Dedication, Author and Inscriber, noahsage.com, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Newport Tower: Finding the Date of Dedication, its Designer and Builder, noahsage.com, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Vinland Map – Encoded Riddle, noahsage.com, February 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Ancient Riddles to Test Our Wits: The Secret Chamber, noahsage.com, January 2016. (Two parts: post and page)

References

Creedon, Marc, Runologist Henrik Williams Examines the Newport Tower, Youtube, April 2015.

Eagan, James Alan, Elizabethan America: The John Dee Tower of 1583/ A Renaissance horologium in Newport, Rhode Island, Cosmopolite Press, Newport, Rhode Island, 2011.

*Monge, Alf & O.G. Landsverk, Norse Medieval Cryptography in Runic Carvings, Norseman Press, Glendale, California, 1967.

Syversen, Earl, Norse Runic Inscriptions with Their Long-forgotten Cryptography, The Vine Hill Press, Sebastopol, California, 1979.

Derogatory article by Aslak Liestol of Alf Mongé’s work: http://collections.mnhs.org/MNHistoryMagazine/articles/41/v41i01p034-042.pdf  and…. Landsverk responded to these comments in Ancient Norse Messages pg. 126-129; and often in Runic Records of the Norsemen in America.

ET IN ARCADIA EGO – OUOSVAVV DM – Deciphered

B.L. Freeborn © December 2022        (PDF version here.)

Shugborough Inscription beneath Anson’s Version of Poussin’s Et In Arcadia Ego – From Wikipedia

The Shugborough Inscription is a sequence of letters ‘OUOSVAVV’ on the first line and ‘DM’ spaced far apart on the second line. It is on a monument built between 1748 and1756 commissioned by Thomas Anson. Above it is a relief by sculptor Peter Scheemakers which is a variation of the Poussin painting Et in Arcadia ego. The famous painting by Nicolas Poussin displays this inscription on a tomb. It translates from Latin as ‘I am also in Arcadia.’ This inscription has eleven letters on top and three on bottom. The Poussin painting was done in 1637-1638. He did an earlier version in 1627. Previous to this, Guercino painted a similar but different version in 1618-1622. The original inspiration is a poem by Roman poet Virgil known as Ecologues. In this poem from 40 BC the inscription on the tomb of Daphnis is described. The tomb is in ‘Arcades.’ Daphnis was a shepherd in ancient Greek mythology.

Although the number of shepherds changes from two to three as the work progresses they all include a tomb. At some point in time the full phrase ‘Et in Arcadia ego’ was developed. The fact that Anson invokes this phrase and adds several elements to it suggests there is more to it besides his still undeciphered cipher some 270 years later.

It would seem he saw something in Et in Arcadia ego that others had not and added the lower inscription as a clue to revealing what is in the original phrase which is most definitely a cipher as well.

Indeed, his efforts resulted in creating a perplexing mystery. The solution to Anson’s ‘OUOSVAVV’ and to the riddle concealed in Et in Arcadia ego follow.

Part I: OUOSVAVV DM

Image Details

Et in Arcadia Ego, relief of painting by Poussin at Shugborough – From Wikipedia

Before solving it, note what the image gives us:
• A woman on the left stands tall but looks down.
• The sky is tumultuous. On the upper coffin is a round wreath.
• Her right arm is bent and rests on her hip. It forms an arc.
• There are 3 shepherds each of whom has a staff. One leans to the left by the woman. The other two lean to the right. Two of the staffs seem to join at the bottom in a very large V.
• Two of the shepherds gesture at the inscription. Their thumbs are out creating V’s. It is said they are pointing at the N and R but in fact they frame the letter A.
• The third shepherd rests his arm on the tomb with 3 fingers together. This also appears in the Poussin version.
• Their arms form two arcs. The Poussin uses a shadow to depict a third arm /arc.
• While the other three look at the inscription, the shepherd on the left looks directly at the observer with a smile on his face.

Is he laughing because this is a riddle? With those images in mind, the solutions move forward.

Cipher #1: O U O S V I V V – D M

For background purposes:
Many alphabets have numerical equivalents for their letters called gematria. Hebrew, Greek and Futhork are three which have gematria. Hebrew and Greek gematria are still in use today. Then to complicate matters, just slightly, do not forget there are also Roman Numerals which are letters as well. The solution requires the Hebrew gematria – first.

The gematria used by Anson is:

  • O is A or 70.    U is Vav or 6.    S is S or 60.
  • D is D or 4.   M is M or 40. 
  • The I is both 10 and /or Roman numeral 1. 
  • V is Vav or 6, but then again it is also a 5 as in a Roman V.

The O and U are reversed. There is only one S. The I is in the correct position but there is no N. However, there is an M just below. In Hebrew gematria M has value 40 and N has value 50.
There are two V’s where there should be an N. Two Roman V’s equal 10 and 40 + 10 = 50 ⇒ N. Missing N found. ✓

It is convenient that the UO is reversed because then by putting the D in front the word DUO can be spelled. An S follows. Perhaps he meant a DUO of S’s. Missing S found. ✓

The first letter is O and as stated previously it has value 70. The P in Hebrew has value 80. Once again add two V’s or 10 and find 70 + 10 = 80 ⇒ P. ✓

Notice that the DO creates the word ‘do’ which refers to Poussin. He did it. Similarly, if the V’s are replaced by N the last two letters spell NM which sounds remarkably like ‘name.’

The inscription then simply reads: DO POUSSIN NaMe. – – One mystery solved. ✓

By creating this exercise, Anson has shown us several clues to resolve the riddle in the original inscription. Note that it required two numeric systems to solve it (Hint #1) and more importantly, fixed the value of the O’s at 70 (Hint #2).

Before going further, see this puzzle in a new way – as an image. It has 3 V’s. (This is similar to the V’s and three formed by the shepherds’ hands.) It has a pattern OUO. Recall this used Hebrew gematria and the name of god in Hebrew is Yahweh spelled יהוה. It portrays the same alternating pattern. The numbers in Yahweh are 565 10.

We must pause for a moment for a bit of seemingly irrelevant information. In drafting, when drawing an image of an object, two versions are often shown: the plan view – as if one is looking down; and the side view – as if one is looking at the side. Now – in your minds eye – look at the O’ and U’s as if they are plan and side views of an object. This will be called Anson’s Big Hint.

These -3- letters are followed by an S. Recall S often represents the word South. This idea will repeat later.

Cipher #1 Numbers

This requires numbers for a while…distasteful to many… lovely to others.

  • Yahweh or יהוה or 565 10 can be seen in the last four letters. The V is 5 and then VI is 6. Two V’s is 10. In the fifth and sixth position from the left is V and I. This is 5th and 6th then 5 and 6.

Fully substituting now for the phrase but using only Hebrew gematria it equates to:

70 6 70 60 6 10 6 6
     4 40

  • Find 76 twice at the start. And it repeats again with 70 60. It repeats again with 60,6,10.
  • If the last four are seen as Roman numerals 5 1 5 5 = 16 and 60. Together 16+60 = 76.
  • The last four as shown sum to 28. The pattern of the layout is 2 letters and 8 letters or 28. The product of 4 (on line two) and 70 is 280.
  • The 4 repeats in the 40. They sum to 44. The top line sums to 234.
  • If the I is seen as a Roman 1, then the top line sum is 225 and 4 x 225 is 900.
  • If the I is seen as a Roman 1, the sum from 60 right becomes 79. The remaining numbers sum to 190. See this as a series 79,190…..or…. 7919.
  • There are four 6’s or 24.

Let’s give some of these meaning.

  • The period of Halley’s comet is 76 years.
  • There are 24 hours in a day and 24 hours of longitude mark the planet.
  • Each hour has 60 minutes.
  • The number of seconds of longitude is 86400. This is also the number of seconds in a day. Half of this is 432,000 or 432 for short. Reverse this number and find 234.
  • The 900 reminds one the pole lies at 90̊.
  • The diameter of the planet is 7920 miles.
  • The 28 is repeated twice so it must be important. Indeed, a 40 is present and a square of sides 40 has a diagonal of 56.56 which is a number similar to that just seen above.

All but two of the numbers reference time and/or longitude. One reference is to God and the other is to a comet.

How many of these numbers will repeat in that first phrase ET IN ARCADIA – EGO?

Cipher #2 ET IN ARCADIA EGO

To continue, we convert these lines to their numeric equivalent in Hebrew.

  • Each line begins with 79. (70+9) and (70+3+6). T to A (9+10+50+10) is also 79 and it is followed by 200. This is 79200.
  • Sum of top line (376) minus second line (79) is 297. A jumbled 792.
  • IN (10+50) provides 60.
  • NA (50+1) provides 51.
  • I to R (10+50+10+200) provides 270.
  • N and O (50+6) provides 56. The number of letters on the first line is 11 and on the second is 3 so together as 113 it is twice 56.5.
  • From C to A (20+1+4+10+1) is 36.

This much shorter list gives us 51, 36, 376 and 270 that are new.

  • There are 360̊ in a circle.
  • Due west is at 270̊.
  • The Greenwich Meridian is at latitude 51.51̊.
  • 3 76 should be seen as 3 and 76. We have seen the 3 in the Big Hint OUO.

Evidently then, these numbers do relate to longitude and latitude.

The following important note is made. Normally E should equal 1 and A should equal 70. If this arrangement is chosen, nothing is found. Anson did the same manipulation in his riddle. ‘O’ normally has value 6 but he changed it to 70.

The original phrase Virgil used in his poem was only ‘Arcades.’ Someone in turn added the ET IN and EGO with the latter on the second line and changed ‘Arcades’ to ‘Arcadia.’ Presumably this was done in the same manner we say American for someone from America. The endings are just a change in suffix.

Let’s make it worse. After all, Hint #1 suggests two gematrias may be in play here. Having tried Latin and found nothing, the next one attempted was Futhork. This alphabet is used primarily only by the most northern peoples. This inscription is very reminiscent of their style of runic riddles except in Latin letters. Since positioning is of great importance to runic riddles, it is likely the E was aligned under or almost under the I when this was first written. Furthermore, since it is in Latin and Hebrew gematria provides numbers of interest, it is likely the writer was extremely well educated. So, we proceed by using the Younger Futhork. (E and I share value 9. See chart at end.)

This seems random except the 5 and 6 follow each other. So we begin there:

  • RC is 56.
  • NGO is 864.
  • Sum from R to end is 43.
  • Sum of phrase ‘In Arcadia’ is 70. There are two 9’s one above the other and to the left is (9+12) or 21 so…70, 9,21 or… 7921.
    The letters IN provide 98 which reminds one 89 x 89 = 7920.
  • Sum from first I to last I is 60.
  • Sum from first I to R is 32. Sum of ADIA is 32.
  • Sum from first I to D is 51.
  • Sum from C to last I is 28.
  • Sum of A above O is 14.
  • 9+9 = 18.
  • Sum of the top line is 91 and of the second is 19. Note 91 in reverse is 19.

A few of these are new but actually repeat the same ideas.

  • 14 is half of 28 which is half of 56.
  • 32 is 5.65 x 5.65.
  • There are 180̊ degrees of latitude.
  • There are 19 lines in the Easter table. (See below.)

Evidently, it is far from random! Indeed, it can be summed as follows to find something else of great interest.

When was ‘he’ in Arcadia

This is a date. All the runic riddles, as shown by Alf Mongé (1967), are dated via the Easter Tables. This form of calendar was invented in 525 AD by Dionysius Exiguus but was in use in other forms since 390 AD. In the Easter Tables (used to place Easter – a moveable holiday) each year is identified by three numbers: Line #, Golden Number (GN) and Day Letter (DL). There are 19 lines for 532 years and then the calendar recycles. Each line represents 28 years by GN and DL. Each DL tells what day of the week the year started. (The period of years during which these runic riddles were being written is covered by the appended chart.)

‘Vinland: 1011’ As seen Spirit Pond Map Stone

Above we see how a year date is implied by the riddle master. The date should appear twice. Once literally and once at least by confirmation with Line #, GN and DL. One must proceed somewhat by trial and error. Notice the 15. If this is a Line #, it begins with year 1000. Numbers 1010, 1011 and 1012 are present. The first, 1010 has GN 4, DL 1 which is indicated by the 4 next to the 15. Year 1011 and year 1012 are indicated by GN’s 5 and 6 which appear just above them. They have DL’s 7 and 5,6 (leap year) respectively. The DL’s for 1012 are just above. There is no 7 or sum to 7. This gives a span of years from 1010 to 1012 which is very significant. The Spirit Pond runestone SP-3 from Maine dates itself to 1010 and 1011. Also part of the same collection, the amulet stone clearly states Vin 1010; and the Map Stone states Vinland 1011. It can be said then there is support for this interpretation. But it gets better….

Who Wrote It

We know Virgil wrote the original phrase ‘Arcades’ about the year 40 BC. The age of Rome and widespread Paganism. We know Poussin and Guercino both immortalized it around 1630 in its present form. The era of the Pilgrams and witch trials. The above dating suggests that before or in the year 1010 ‘someone’ added the Et In /Ego to the phrase. The era when northern kings of Norway, Denmark and Sweden chose Christianity and began to oppress Paganism earnestly. Anson added his own two lines to those words around 1750. The age when freedom of religion was beginning to take shape. Who then added those three words during the era of Pagan oppression in the north?

Fortunately, many of these encrypted riddles do include the name of the author. Often it is concealed in the telestic/acrostic lines. These are the end letters running down or up the left and right sides of the inscription. In this case EE/AO reveals nothing. Now one should check the letters from both ends as noted by the word count for each line. In this case there are three words on the first line and one on the second. The third letters in, on the first line, are I and D. The first letters on the second are E and O. This is IE from the left and DO from the right.

The letters tell us two things. Anson also found this since he repeated the same ‘DO’ in his riddle. The name of the writer is then IE. But, this is a problem. It is not a name but the Latin phrase ‘ie.’ which is still in use. It essentially means ‘to restate’ or ‘as stated.’ The name then is obvious. ??? It turns out EGO is a male name of Swedish/ Danish/ Norwegian origin. But the text also uses the word ET which means in Latin ‘and.’ Interestingly, another name is also apparent at the same point in the inscription: IN and below it GE – Inge. So it reads:

INGE ET EGO DO – IN ARCADIA – 1010 – 1012

Inge and Ego wrote this – who were in Arcadia in 1010 to 1012

Another mystery appears. Where was Arcadia of the myths and was it a real place in 1010?

Conceal and Anagram

It has become blatantly obvious something else is concealed here. As it happens often in these riddles when an acrostic or telestic requires a letter in a certain position something will be misspelled or words will be compressed together. Let us look at it again. Perhaps if the D is used twice and EGO becomes AGO then it reads:

ET IN ARC / A D / D I / A AGO

Now note: ET spells ‘eat’and AD means ‘fire’ in Old English. It means ‘hell’ in Russian. DI can be taken to mean ‘die’ and ago means ‘in the past.’ Now the phrase becomes: Eat in arc, fire, die, A – a long time ago.

It was eaten in an arc. By fire died A – a long time ago.

The letter framed by the shepherds hands was A. This then is a tomb in memory of ‘A.’ Sound strange? It is about to get even stranger.

We have just assumed the word spacing was compressed. What if this contains anagrams? What words do we see? Die, eat, go, roc(k), net, near, gore, dare, tear, gear, care, gone, ran. And then there is that Big Hint Anson gave…cup or was it a can?

Perhaps this says: ET I I CANADA GORE

No? We can be relatively certain this is the intended meaning by looking at the gematria in Hebrew:

ET I I CANADA       70 9 10 10 20 1 50 1 4 1

GORE                        3 6 200 70

These are found: 7920, 40, 60, 51, 51, 56, 77, 141 and 36, 270, 279. All of which were seen above. But again we have compressed CANADA into one word. Should it be CAN 141? Or CAN AD A? Either way, the whole thing becomes strange. Were Ego and Inge actually in Canada in 1010? Was it even called Canada then?

Virgil used the word ‘Arcades’ and it was where ‘Daphnis’ the shepherd was from. In Latin: ‘arc’ is arc, ‘cade’ is fall, ‘ad’ is to, and ‘caed’ is kill (the root of cadaver). It ends in S. Together it is: arc-fall to death-S. Whereas, Daphnis is not quite so obvious. It is four words together as well: hid-pan-I-S or hid-pan-eye-S. The ending ‘nis’ is remarkably close to ‘N is S’ and English ‘ness’ seen in other runic riddles. A study of many of the names Virgil used are like this. Perhaps the common theme here is Paganism.

It was eaten in an arc. By fire died A – a long time ago.

Inge and Ego wrote this – who were in Canada in 1010 to 1012

Remember – history is written by the victor.

The remainder of the secret is now easy to grasp, if the mind is willing.

Image at Virgil’s Tomb is reminiscent of Ragnarok.

 

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Similar Articles by the Same Author

** For numeric background see:

**Freeborn, B.L., Validating North American Runic Inscriptions, noahsage.com, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Deciphering the Spirit Pond, Nomans Land and Narragansett Runic Inscriptions, noahsage.com, November 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Nomans Land – Leif Eriksson Inscription, noahsage.com, December 2022. (An excerpt from the above.)

Freeborn, B.L., Et in Arcadia Ego – OUOSVAVV DM – Deciphered, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., Kensington Stone’s Secret Lairs, noahsage.com, February 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Lifting the Veil of Time off the Rökstone of Sweden, noahsage.com, April 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Runic Riddles: Time Capsules, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Runic Riddles: Younger Futhork, noahsage.com, December 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Narragansett Inscription: A Translation with its Date of Dedication, Author and Inscriber, noahsage.com, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Newport Tower: Finding the Date of Dedication, its Designer and Builder, noahsage.com, October 2022.

Freeborn, B.L., The Vinland Map – Encoded Riddle, noahsage.com, February 2023.

Freeborn, B.L., Ancient Riddles to Test Our Wits: The Secret Chamber, noahsage.com, January 2016. (Two parts: post and page)

References

Gordon, Cyrus, Riddles in History, Crown Publishers, Inc. New York, 1974.

Landsverk, O.G., Runic Records of the Norsemen in America, Erik J. Friis, Publisher, Rushford, MN, 1974.

Mongé, Alf & O.G. Landsverk, Norse Medieval Cryptography in Runic Carvings, Norseman Press, Glendale, California, 1967.

Derogatory article by Aslak Liestol of Alf Mongé’s work: http://collections.mnhs.org/MNHistoryMagazine/articles/41/v41i01p034-042.pdf  and…. Landsverk responded to these comments in Ancient Norse Messages pg. 126-129; and often in Runic Records of the Norsemen in America.

Wikipedia articles on: Guercino ‘Et in Arcadia Ego’ ; Virgil ; Poussin ‘Et in Arcadia Ego’ ; Shugborough Inscription ; and many others.

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