The Message Sitting Plainly in Sight at Newgrange

Stone in front of Newgrange, Ireland. Photo provided by Wikimedia.

Stone in front of Newgrange, Ireland. Photo provided by Wikimedia.

© 2018 B. L. Freeborn

Before we continue on with the alphabet….. another kerb stone from Ireland.

Newgrange, Ireland is a large pre-historic monument called a passage tomb. It is older than the Great Pyramids. In front of it sits what is called a kerb stone adorned with Neolithic art.

Most people who look at this stone see pre-historic graffiti despite the fact it is sitting in front of a spectacular building.

Notice on the far right there are actually two squares above a shape like a mountain. There is a swirl shape above which is perhaps a cloud? Notice at the top center a vertical straight line. Perhaps a pole?

Could this be a story which reads right to left. Does it say two daggers struck a mountain from the clouds above? Everything turned and churned at the pole. There was more turning and churning as more daggers ricocheted from the pole.

Could it be possible there is more written here in a language we were meant to understand? Could this be a message written in math?

There are three large swirls followed by six swirls. Most could read the message that far. 3 and 6 as in 36 or 3 + 6 = 9.

But all of the 6 swirls are not complete. There are 4 complete and 2 partial. Then that is 2, 4 or 24. Or it might be 42. These numbers 24 and 36 bring to mind hours in a day and seconds in an hour? Degrees in a circle?

Perhaps it is just 32. The square of 5.65 is 32. So we might say 5.65 is at the pole or 56.5?

How delightfully co-incidental of them to doodle in such a scientific manner!!!

But there are two key numbers missing…the diameter of the sun 864,000 miles or seconds of longitude 86400; and the diameter of the Earth 7920 miles. The first four squares plus the large three circles equals 7. The 3 swirls followed by the 6 equals 9. The 6 swirls are followed by 4 shapes or 10. So perhaps this is 7910!!

What of the diameter 864000? The radius is then 432,000. We have the 4 squares, 3 swirls and then 2 swirls or 432. This looks remarkably like the radius.

Taking one last look at the stone we see on the right side: 1 cloud, 1 mountain and 2 dagger/squares for 112. Twice 56 is 112.

It might be concluded that it says the pole is at 79.10 degrees and at 56.5 degrees. Surely, the magnetic pole used to lie close to N 56.5, W 79.2.

There is a Sumerian saying: “The knowing may show the knowing. The unknowing shall not see it.”

And we did not.

Back to other posts on kerb stones.

On to the next post on the Indo-European Language.

Back to the last post.

The Message of the Newbery Tablet – Part 4

© 2015 B. L. Freeborn, updated Sept. 2022

Smithsonian Photo of Newberry Tablet, compliments of Roger Jewell

Smithsonian Photo of Newberry Tablet, compliments of Roger Jewell

To the first post on the tablet – To the previous post on the tablet.

In the last posts we looked at the overall layout of the Newberry Tablet and many symbols. The list has grown and we push to completion of this project by looking at twelve symbols in this post.

The symbol identification thus far has suggested the topic of the tablet is a double comet collision and its crater as a point of reference for measurements. Hopefully the remaining symbols support and complete the story. Note the parallel line symbol in the first row and the cross hatching symbol that ends the fifth. Note the circle with two lines through it that ends the seventh. These suggest that the double comet arcs of Hudson Bay are to represent a reference point for longitude and latitude. Signs associated with this concept are studied here as well as another two groups of signs.

The second and third groups require an understanding of the symbols as pictographs that would have meaning even today. The first symbol in the third row down uses an upstroke to elevate a cup symbol. Next to it is a symbol that can be described as a P on a line. Perhaps the upstroke means above or heavenly, and the horizontal line simply represents – on the surface of the Earth. With these ideas the study continues.

We begin with the parallel lines in the first line and suggest it means to/from which is found in the glyph list at #221 except they used curved lines. Keep in mind that the two parallel lines may simply mean two or equal distance. They may also suggest lines of measure.

The circle with the set of parallel lines continues the idea and perhaps means specifically either longitude and latitude or both and/or the measurement of such.

Similar to this is the two lines with the horizontal mark found in the center of the fourth line from the bottom which suggests either two or perhaps measure and is so noted below.

The cross hatching symbol suggests a grid or the longitude/latitude net of the Earth.

Although not identical the symbol compared to the Luwian glyph meaning ‘above’ is similar to the symbol found at 3,1. Compare it to the symbols for ‘ma’ #110 and ‘thousand’ #400 and the second symbol from the table found at 2,1. (See diagram below.) The word ‘ma’ in Old English means ‘more.’

Interestingly, Luwian glyph #91 is said to mean rotate/scale/foot. It is compared to the glyph found in the third row, third position and is shown below. It appears to be two shoes and a hook suggesting rotation. Note they are located at grid positions 3,3; 8,4; 10,6 and most notably 7,9. The 33 and 79 stand out immediately as the 33 degree latitude change of the pole and the diameter of the Earth at 7920 miles. The location of Hudson Bay is just west of the 79 degrees. But the other two numbers even in reverse are not of much importance. However! If one counts their position from the opposing corner (bottom right) then the two positions 7,7 and 5,6 are counted out. The latitude of Hudson Bay is 56 and the return period of Halley’s Comet is 76 to 77 years. This then correlates well with the proposed topic of the tablet and to the idea of scale, rotation and foot as found in the Luwian glyph #91.

The staff is found in glyph #378. The associated symbol was used three times on the tablet and suggests a staff stuck in the ground. The symbol is found at 3,2; 11,3; and 12,6. The symbol next to the bottom P appears to be a slanted version so it may also be the same symbol but is not so noted here.

Glyph #199 is said to mean ‘thunder’ and is very close to the symbol found at 4,3.

Glyph #41 means ‘take’ and is close to the symbol in the table at 14,2 and mirrored at 14,8.

Glyph #209  with sound ‘i’ appears to be the same as shown in the table and is taken to mean pole or eye. It is found notably at position 4,4. The circumference of the planet divided by 44 is 565 miles.

The reader should examine this ‘i’ symbol closely and note there is a small horizontal stroke on the left upstroke. This may not be accidental. In the Luwian glyph system of writing this small stroke represents the sound ‘r’ and if the two sounds are combined we arrive at the word ‘ire’ which means today what it did in Old English except previously it additionally meant to wander. So this adds that now the ‘eye’ has ‘wandered angrily.’

Lastly, the symbol that looks like a backwards F is taken to be a sword or knife that stabs the ground and the idea repeats in the glyphs as seen in #278.

For your reference the Luwian Glyph list can be found linked here:

Click to access Signlist.pdf

The associated words have been filled in and the tablet’s ideas are unfolding  in this very complicated riddle and blending of ideas with Earth related numbers.

The next post compares this script to cave art found in Europe.  The last of the symbols that can be identified in the Newberry Tablet are found when the decipherment continues.

Newberry Tablet decipherment continues here.


The Newberry Tablet – A New Way to Read It

© 2015 B. L. Freeborn, September 2022

Newberry Tablet, photo Smithsonian

Newberry Tablet, photo Smithsonian

The Newberry Tablet’s authenticity, like all inscribed artifacts found in North America, is much debated. The best place to see it as it exists today is to watch Scott Wolter’s episode in America Unearthed. Virtually destroyed, there are few pictures of it in existence. The best pictures are in Roger Jewell’s book, “Ancient Mines of Kitchi Gummi” which is a well thought out explanation of the copper mines in the Lake Superior area and worth reading.

The Tablet was translated by Barry Fell as ‘how to obtain omens using birdseed’ and is available in Betty Sodders’, “Michigan Prehistory Mysteries.”

The translation done here of this tablet begins with looking at the square grid as essential to its meaning. The Earth is divided by longitude and latitude in a grid like manner. This then gives a starting point for translation. The numbers revealed by the grid are the same as those found in studying the Adena Tablets. It is highly unlikely a modern trickster would have known to incorporate these same numbers and this suggests the Tablet was authentic.

In the coming weeks the meaning of the 138 (twice 69) symbols will be explored but for now ….. the numbers reveal a great deal!

Translation of Newberry Tablet, Part IThe tablet is a 10 x 14 grid. Here in the first image, notice that the upper right corner only has a dot or an eye. There are two empty boxes in the middle. Counting from the left and then right obtain 5,6 for the right box. Count it again as if the box is translated left 5 spaces and down 6 spaces so that 56 is obtained again. In this case, if the dot is at 1,1 it has translated to 5,6.

Do the same for the left box and it is 4,7. Recall 4 x 7 = 28 or half of 56. Also as the seventh box down and the 8th up or 7 x 8 is 56.

Other numbers can be found depending on how one counts such as 7,8; 6,7; 7,6; 4,6; 6, 4; 7,8 and 7,7. In this grouping notice 76 and 77 both appear and the return period of Halley’s comet is 76 to 77 years. Combining the two ideas it suggests the pole moved to latitude 56 because of a comet. This interpretation will be supported by further study of the symbols.

Translation of Newberry Tablet, Part 2

The next number study reveals the grid can be divided by the central boxes into sections. The number of boxes in each section are indicated and sums of these numbers reveal Earth related values. The three most plausible numbers from this study are found in the cross, top and bottom. The cross has 36 boxes which suggests the 360 degrees of longitude, 360 seconds in a degree of measure, and 360 seconds in an hour.

The top has 60 boxes suggesting the 60 minutes in a degree of latitude and longitude. The bottom has 70 boxes suggesting the 69.2 miles per degree of longitude at the equator.

Read the line with two empty squares as 3,2,5 and find 32 or 23.5. The first is 5.65 squared and the second suggests the arctic circle which lies at (90-23.5 =) 66.5 degrees.

The other number arrangements are left for your consideration

Translation of Newberry Tablet, Part 3The third and last figures both reveal Earth related values and that the positioning vertically in the grid of the empty boxes was intentional.

Translation of Newberry Tablet, Part 4Finally, note the overall 10 by 14 grid. Recall the square root of 2 is 1.414 and that 14 x 10 assembled as 1410 resembles this number.

The story this tablet reveals continues in coming posts. Next up then is the beginning study of the symbols.

Back to the very beginning of series on Adena Tablets

Previous Post on the Batcreek Stone

Posts on:  Shaman Stone,

 Adena Pipe, Numbers and their Meaning, Ramey Peet Tablet, Gridley Stone

McKensie and Bainbridge Tablets, Cincinnati Tablet,

Egyptian Art Comparison, Wilmington Tablet, Lakin A Tablet,

The Gaitskill Clay Tablet, Allen Tablet, Grave Creek,

The Kiefer Tablet, Wright, Lakin B and Meigs Tablets,

Berlin Tablet, Gaitskill Stone Tablet, The Low Tablet,

The Waverly Tablet, Metcalf Stone, and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

The Adena Tablets – The Grave Creek Stone

Smithsonian photo of Grave Creek Stone from McCulloch's site

Smithsonian photo of Grave Creek Stone from McCulloch’s site

© 2015 B. L. Freeborn

The Grave Creek Stone was found in the Grave Creek Mound close to the Ohio River in West Virginia. Translations have been done, one in jest, but none seem satisfying. An excellent place to review the controversy surrounding the stone is at J. Huston McCulloch’s site linked here. The original Smithsonian photo of the stone and Schoolcraft’s art are from his site and his efforts are greatly appreciated.

Seth Eastman drawing of stone from Schoolcraft's 1850 book.

Seth Eastman drawing of stone from Schoolcraft’s 1850 book.

There are several ideas that have been consistently overlooked in translating the stone. The lines on the stone are always assumed to be guides for writing such as ruled school paper. Since most persons attempting to translate this stone read and write English which is presented horizontally it has never occurred to anyone they are not guide lines and represent something else. Perhaps they represent lines of longitude and the stone should be rotated to be read in a vertical manner.

Grave Creek Mound, Moundsville, W. Virginia

Grave Creek Mound, Moundsville, W. Virginia

Continuing with the idea they represent longitude note that the Grave Creek Mound lies at 80 degrees 44 minutes and 40 seconds West longitude and 39 degrees 55 minutes North.  For easier understanding this is 80 44 40 and 39 55.  Twice the value of the latitude is 39.55 x 2 = 79.10.  The 80 44 and 40 all sound very even and if 80 is 4 x 20 then they all repeat 4 . The sum of 80, 44 and 55 is 179 which repeats 79 and 1. This brings to mind that the sum of 79 and 1 is 80 or the longitude. But we assume that measurement of location was beyond North Americans until the European influence. Perhaps it was. But the numbers suggest otherwise. They speak of an awareness of Greenwich, England and its zero significance. If the lines on the stone represent longitude and latitude then there is a very good reason to assume the longitude of this mound is not accidental. Compare the longitude and latitude of the Miamisburg Mound which is very similar and sits on the far side of Ohio below Dayton: 39 37 39.6 N which can be written 39.63. The radius of the Earth is 3960 miles. This number is found twice in this latitude. Double the number as done at Grave Creek and find 79.2. Both Grave Creek and Miamisburg demonstrate the radius of the planet in their positioning. The longitude: 84 16 51 repeats the 4 idea in two of the numbers. The sum of 84 and 16 is 100. The sum of 39, 37, and this 100 is 176 or twice 88 which once again emphasizes 4 as 4 x 22. A square of sides of 4 has a diagonal of 5.65. The mile is 60 x 88 feet.

Miamisburg Mound

Miamisburg Mound, Miamisburg, Ohio

Consider also the location of the Alligator Effigy Mound a few miles west of the extensive Newark Earthworks in mid-Ohio. They lie at 40 4 12 N and 82 30 4 W. The latitude is once again full of 4’s. However the longitude, although nearly on the half degree, does not seem that significant until one realizes it can be written as 82.50 W. The former repeats the 4’s as expected. The latter is 528 in reverse or a tenth mile. The sum of 40, 4, 82, and 30 is 156 with the ever significant 56 at the end. The sum of 40, 4 and 12 is 56. The sum of 82 and 30 is 112 or twice 56. It is improbable that this site was chosen at random and displays these unique numbers just a few miles from an enormous earthwork that uses a 1/5th mile (1056 feet) as one of its major dimensions.

Comparison with other art from Ireland and Georgia

Comparison with other art from Ireland and Georgia

The decipherment of the stone resolves itself quickly as seen here when it is compared to Kerbstone 86 from the ancient ruins in Knowth, Ireland (3000 BC) and when compared to the Metcalf stone from Georgia. The Metcalf Stone began this series. The kerbstone was studied in a prior posting as well. The comparison shows the symbols from the kerbstone are located in the middle line if the stone is rotated and read in a vertical manner. The top is confirmed by comparison to the Metcalf stone as shown in the image. The two symbols at the bottom of the columns are out of alignment intentionally. One indicates 3 and the other 2 for 32 or the square of 5.65 is where the misalignment lies.

Numbers of Grave Creek Stone, Par II

grave creek sketch mod 2bAlthough it is believed these glyphs are letters, it is more likely they are simple small pictures that tell the same story as the Metcalf and as depicted on the Mystery Stone from New Hampshire. It is the same story depicted on the other Adena Tablets. Several of the glyphs appear to be forerunners to Phoenician letters including the symbols interpreted here as numbers at the bottom of the middle row.

grave creek readingIt is as if this is all to commemorate a separation of the North Pole from Magnetic North. It is as if they honored it with phrases like:

Oh High Yew!  which still echoes in …………Ohio!

The stone is then translated as shown and reads:

The two eyes lie at 79 degrees and 56.5 degrees in the lake.

The object struck the pole at the top and pushed it down.

The pole was stricken by two arrows and craters.

It was split and shaken.

The one place of the mountain became a great valley.

It measured the heavens.

The numbers’ order rotated.

Arisen is a pole and it is the foot for measurement of angles.

Measure also from the stricken pole place.


The last stone in this translation series will be the Newberry Tablet. The numbers are easy. Yes, same old, same old numbers! Imagine that!


Much more Information at:

J. Huston McCulloch’s site


Back to the very beginning of series on Adena Tablets

Previous Post on the Bat Creek Stone

Posts on:  Shaman Stone, Adena Pipe,

Numbers and their Meaning, Ramey Peet Tablet, Gridley Stone

McKensie and Bainbridge Tablets, Cincinnati Tablet,

Egyptian Art Comparison, Wilmington Tablet, Lakin A Tablet,

The Gaitskill Clay Tablet, Allen Tablet, Grave Creek,

The Kiefer Tablet, Wright, Lakin B and Meigs Tablets,

Berlin Tablet, Gaitskill Stone Tablet, The Low Tablet,

The Waverly Tablet, Metcalf Stone, and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

The Adena Tablets of Ancient Ohio – The Gaitskill Clay Tablet

© 2014 B. L. Freeborn

Art from ancient Ohio - Gaitskill Clay Tablet

Art from ancient Ohio – Gaitskill Clay Tablet

Art from ancient Ohio - Gaitskill Clay Tablet

Art from ancient Ohio – Gaitskill Clay Tablet. Clay copy.

Preserved from ancient Ohio is the Gaitskill Clay Tablet which gives us much to ponder. This stone has been described as having anthropomorphic and/or zoomorphic characteristics. Another author describes it as Avian with four world quarters. If we reflect on the open mouthed man who seemed to be crying ‘no’ in the Waverly Tablet and the angst of the Gaitskill Stone Tablet then it follows that what the artist is portraying is two hands held up as if to say, “Stop!” Above the hands appears two triangles which suggest this is another way of expressing the double eye of the comet Baal. Up and over on each side is the double tail of the comet. The two tails are similar in style to the feathers in the hat of the Prophet Glyph and the curved down feathers seen on the men in the Low Tablet. If the center line is taken as the pole then the reference to four quarters of the world is correct.

There are other details we might notice. In the lower quadrants notice the three lobed wings above the large circle that are like those in the Low Tablet. The Luwian Hieroglyph Symbol #78 Ala meaning ‘wing of army’ is similar. The wing of the Army of Baal would be the debris that preceded, followed and was created by the comet. The image shows multiple circles suggesting many craters of various sizes occurred.

Prophet Symbol

Prophet Symbol

Wing symbol meaning troops - Ala 78

Wing symbol meaning troops – Ala 78

In a prior post the name of the goddess Isis was discussed. It was suggested it means ‘ice-seat.’ At the base of the center pole on the tablet the lines fan out. Perhaps this symbolizes a mountain of ice or the mountain Isis at the seat of the North Pole. But the story these tablets relate is that the pole has a mirror image, a second location to which it moved. ‘Where?’ was the question asked by the Low and Waverly Tablets. Presumably the tablets answer the question. Perhaps this tablet will reveal the answer to us.

The quoted dimensions of the stone are 4.4″ x 2.95″ x .55″. The last number is .01 off from 56 suggesting this was the desired thickness. But these stones vary too much in thickness to be so exact so 4.4″ x 2.9″ x .6″ is a better way to describe it. The 4.4 we will see repeated in the stone and discussed later. The sum of these terms is 7.9 inches. The diagonal of the stone squared is 28 and twice this is 56.

The abstraction of the drawing is distracting to say the least. By counting the message becomes clearer. There are 8 large dot-circles. Of these, 6 are on the bottom. On the top there are 4 dots without outer circles and 2 remaining large circles. This gives us 8,6,4,2 which is a descending even series. When combined the familiar 86420 that is reminiscent of the diameter of the Sun at 864322 miles appears.

Those 6 bottom circles can be counted out as 3,3. The top circles as 12, 21 or perhaps it is 1212 or 2121. This all seems familiar and the abstraction begins to make sense. The fingers on each hand give 4 and 4 for 44. The thumb finger combination gives 1414 which we have seen before. Recall 4 x 14 is 56. The bottom fringe can be counted out as 5 upward nips and then the center plus the other side (assumed to be a mirror image) makes 6 for 56. This was found in the same manner on the center strip of the Low Tablet.

In the lower half the 3 wings to the left and 2 in the opposite direction makes 32 23. The 2, 3 pattern repeats in the two lower tails and the three circles. It repeats again on the left with two side tails and above it lies three lobes of the wing. Counting the 2 lower tails and the 2 side tails creates 22 which is half of 44.

In the top half move around the exterior of the hand and count 2 lower tails, 4 fingers, 1 thumb for 241. Also count 2 lower tails, 1 large circle, 2 dots for 212. The 5 fingers on the hands plus 2 tails creates 52 suggesting weeks in a year. The total sum is 7 for the days in a week.

The only number listed above that is new to our long list of numbers from the previous tablets is 44 but then again it is not so new. We already have 2486 suggesting the circumference of the Earth at 24881 miles and the very repetitive 56.5 listed. Divide the circumference of the planet by 565 and the term 44 appears.

Thus the abstraction is a rather clever way to relate numbers to a people who are both distant in place and time with no common language. It is clear from this list that these numbers and the story related involves the Earth and that someone had advanced scientific knowledge which they wished to share with someone of similar mind. That would be us.

The next tablet is equally abstract but rewarding to study.

Back to very first post on Adena Tablets

Previous Post on The Waverly Tablet

Posts on: Allen Tablet, Grave Creek, The Kiefer Tablet,

Wright, Lakin B and Meigs Tablets,

Berlin Tablet, Gaitskill Stone Tablet,

The Low Tablet, Metcalf Stone, and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

The Adena Tablets of Ancient Ohio – The Berlin Tablet

© 2014 B. L. Freeborn

The Berlin Tablet of Ancient Ohio

The Berlin Tablet of Ancient Ohio

The Berlin Tablet is unique in its shape but not its message. We begin by comparing it to artwork found at Knowth, Ireland. Kerbstone 86 depicts a strong image and a familiar shape. This stone was studied in a prior post but here the symbolism repeats in a totally different place. If one were to draw a bold outline around each lobe of the Berlin Tablet the same strong U shape appears. The line through the middle of the kerbstone has a dot on each side. The line through the middle of the tablet has a dot on each side. The kerbstone is considered to be 5000 years old and sits half a world a way. Like the Odd Little Purse in Olmec and Assyrian Art there is an obvious connection here.

Symbols #439 'wa' and #363 'Magnus'

Symbols #439 ‘wa’ and #363 ‘Magnus’

This symbol in Luwian Hieroglyphs is #363 Magnus meaning ‘great’ with sound value ‘ur’. Exactly as in Kerbstone 86 it is doubled and so we have ‘great-great.’ Another way to look at the doubled symbol is to consider the one opening down as Magnus or great, and the opposite opening up as a crater. Then the statement is ‘great-crater.’ This is wholly consistent with the idea of comets.

Sketch of Kerbstone 86

Sketch of Kerbstone 86

Studying the image on the stone gives us once again something for the uninitiated. It looks like a bird with a very distorted eye next to a little tree. Here then is exactly what we saw in the remaining half of the Wright Tablet. The double tailed comet appears as the head. The odd eye is then a doubled eye within a comet which is flying towards a tree. This tree could be called the tree of life or the polar axis through Earth which is directed towards the Pole Star. So then we have a great-comet headed towards the great-tree.

Within the tree is a similar shape as we saw in the nest portion of the Wright Tablet. Here it has seven strong lobes on the exterior and two on the interior plus the handle. Closer inspection reveals a lobe in the middle which is inwards so the inner image is the series 1,1,2 or twice 56. The total number of lobes is 9 so divided to make 2 and 7 or the number 792 which we recognize as the diameter of the planet. The number 72 is significant in relation to the polestar since precession causes the direction to which the axis points to change over time at the rate of 1 degree per 72 years.

Just below this inner shape is a circle. It is none other than the ‘sa’ symbol that has been consistently found in the other tablets. Below it and acting as a mirror to it is another ‘sa’ circle across the central line or pole. It has been suggested that two ‘sa’ refers to the word ‘sess’ meaning ‘seat.’ Perhaps seeing them as ‘es’ makes it easier to hear. But if one listens carefully to ‘es-es’ not only can the Anglo word ‘sess’ be heard but it sounds remarkably like Isis. Taking this one step further, the first syllable of Isis sounds exactly like the Anglo word ‘ice.’ And then if the subject has not been taken too far we might hear ‘sess’ in the name of the King of Egypt ‘Ramses’. This word is spelled in Ancient Egyptian as ‘r-m-s-s’ making it entirely possible the last two s’s are pronounced ‘sess.’ Although, it appears we have strayed off topic it is pertinent to the discussion to note that the Anglo word for border or number is ‘rim.’ This then implies that in Old English the name Ramses pronounced as rim-sess means ‘number-seat’ and Isis is ‘ice-seat.’

The two circles that inspired the above and the bar create another hieroglyph (#439) with sound ‘wa’ which was also central to Kerbstone 86. The  meaning of ‘wa’ in Old English is woe. Pushed further to the left is another ‘sa’ circle so that once again we find 1 circle, 1 line, 2 circles for 112 or twice 56. The artist was thorough in expressing 112 for along the lower side of the bar are two jut outs that create 1,1 and then 2 circled circles.

What then is the rest of the distorted image? Spending time counting it seems futile for it is truly a mess and that is probably the full intention of the artist. But careful study reveals 2’s and 3’s and these numbers have been seen in the other tablets as 23 32 and 23.5. They imply the limit of the Arctic Circle. So then, the great comet strikes the polar tree, the sess, seat of all measurement. A great-crater forms. It was woeful as all was destroyed. The world is literally a mess. This is the same message as found in the New Hampshire Mystery Stone, the Newark Earthworks, and Aberlemno Stone of Scotland. They tell the story of a comet impact. They even allude to the correct shape of the Earth in the overall shape of the stone with the new pole north-south as we know it today.

Comments have been made in relation to these posts that this sort of an impact would have killed nearly all life on the planet and therefore it is impossible for these artists to be relating something so fantastic. But this is what the artist shows – devastation of unimaginable proportions. It does not require this artist to have lived through it. Indeed, mythological and actual history report that few life forms lived through the deluge as confirmed by the massive skeletal debris piles found on various continents. These events were witnessed and survived by a few people, perhaps those out of harm’s way on the far side of the world. They recorded it as strange images such as “The Venus of Willendorf.” Their children, spurned on by legends of their grandparents, later came to view the destruction and pay homage to vanished civilizations and life. Some remained behind to restart civilization on the American continents and others returned to their homelands having viewed the devastation firsthand.

Perhaps the Gaitskill Stone Tablet will prove this all wrong!! It’s cartoon-ish features are of a fearsome spider.

Back to very first post on Adena Tablets

Previous Post on The Wright, Lakin B and Meigs Tablets

Posts on: Allen Tablet, Grave Creek, The Kiefer Tablet,

Metcalf Stone, and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

The Adena Tablets of Ancient Ohio – The Grave Creek Tablet

© 2014 B. L. Freeborn

The Adena Tablet most similar in design to the Allen is the Grave Creek Tablet. The only existing drawings are from Henry R. Schoolcraft done in 1845 and a re-drawing done in 1851 by Eastman. It was found at the Grave Creek Mound which lies next to the Ohio River in West Virginia.

Grave Creek Tablet. after Eastman drawing and Schoolcraft 1851.

Grave Creek Tablet. after Eastman drawing and Schoolcraft 1851.

Once again we see the six circles aligned in two rows but this time there are details. Two squares are in the middle in alignment with two sets of vertical lines so that this design forms the center of the image. The exterior triangles are so placed to give the impression that if it was possible the stone would have been removed at these places so that it would have been six circles joined by the center bar. Additionally, the triangles in the upper/lower center are doubled so that there are four sets of two or 8 angles. There are six circles, four side angles and two inner squares. We might sum up the image by saying 8,6,4,2, or 8642, or at the very least a series of even numbers.

To go deeper into the meaning of this tablet we must interpret the symbols. This requires a translation of the most difficult type. The meaning and/or sounds associated with the symbols is unknown and so is the language of the people who made the symbols. However, we do have insight into the story that is being related by the stones if we accept the Metcalf Stone’s interpretation as accurate. But then again, Georgia is a long way from Ohio and there is no reason to think the artists were attempting to depict the same subject. More notably the resemblance to any other script does not mean the person who made the art was using it the way other persons have. With that caveat ….

Luwian Glyph: Sol #191.

Luwian Glyph: Sol #191.

This image is so strikingly similar to a Luwian Hieroglyph that it must be noted. These glyphs have been discussed in other posts and the point has been made that the word Luwian should actually be La Ang-a. The glyph is #191 and is called the Sun, or Sol in Latin. This is not the only glyph to be found on these tablets so its significance should be explored. Note that the diameter of the Sun is 864,322 and this is similar to the number 8642 above. The number of seconds in a day, 86400, is also similar.

Another glyph is clearly found and that is #402 Scutella meaning shield. This is simply the double concentric circle. Its sound is ‘sa.’ Could this be six sa or sores? The two diamonds in the center may be glyph #423. It is a small rhomboid and has the sound ‘ku.’ This then gives us the opportunity to sound out a few ancient (however improbable) words. So we have sa-sa, ku-sa-sa, ku-sa-sa. It has already been suggested that these are Luwian (or La Ang-a) words and a good source of La Ang-a might be an Anglo-Saxon dictionary. Thus these interesting words: sa-sa is ‘sess’ just like in sister which means ‘a seat.’ So a sister is a seat. (The ‘ter’ just means it is a noun.) We can also find the word ceac which means cauldron or vat. It is the root word of castle which comes from its variant ceas meaning quarrel. Either word ceac or ceas will do and in reality both are descriptive. It is ‘a cup or place of a quarrel’ which is reinforced by following it by a word which means seat (sa-sa or sess). So perhaps it reads sess, keas-sess, keas-sess. In modern terms it could be seat, quarrel-seat, quarrel-seat.

The Metcalf Stone supplies the answer to what a ‘quarrel-seat’ or ‘keas-sess’ might be. A comet crater is the seat of an impact or a quarrel between planet and comet. It also explains the association of cup to quarrel. We might also pause to note that the rhomboid had a ‘ku’ sound and both cup and quarrel preserve this sound.

This tablet does not reveal any details that confirm this in any way. What is very real though are the numbers clearly portrayed. Three circles and three circles creates 33. Six circles (concentric) and six more becomes 66. Two squares and three circles is 23 and its reverse is 32 for 23 32 as we saw in the last post. The pattern 2,1,2,1,2 as 21212 which can be looked at as something that repeats. Interestingly, 21212 x pi is 66637. Pi is used in circular measure such as measuring the velocity of Earth at 66624 mph.

Twenty-six is also dramatically formed by the circles and squares, and 2 x 26 is 52. The number 56 can be formed in the same manner as it was found on the Allen Tablet or 2 + 3 = 5 and 2 x 3 = 6.

This stone then gives us the following collection of numbers: 8642, 33, 66, 56, 23 32, 52 and 21212 which builds upon the prior list of 7, 33, 34, 23.5, 23 32 and 56.

To simplify, it has been previously found that the 33 and 34 relate to the same concept. The 23.5 and 23 32 as we saw in the prior post are equivalent. The 7 and 52 are also obviously interrelated as in days in a week and weeks in a year.

And here we must end, since this is a tablet which expects us to know the story to appreciate its message. We will look next at the bottom portion of a stone which still actually exists!!! and can be seen!!! The Kiefer Tablet is in the Ohio Historical Society Museum and we shall study it next.

Next Post on Kiefer Tablet

Previous Post on Allen Tablet

Beginning post and index on Adena Tablets:

Post on Metcalf Stone. Pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

The Metcalf Stone Gives Up Its Secret

Copyright © 2013 by B.L. Freeborn, updated Sept. 2022

Two views of the Metcalf Stone. (The peck mark on the center left bottom symbol does not appear in the right photo.)

An exciting new series of posts begins! New translations of ancient North American Stones …..

The Metcalf Stone is a unique and important discovery. It was found by Manfred Metcalf in 1967 at Fort Benning outside Columbus, Georgia. This eleven by eleven inch stone was part of a chimney foundation from a house built prior to 1889 eliminating the idea of a recent forgery. Several individuals believe the symbols are Linear A. But some symbols do not fit the script so it is, as of yet, unread. (See sketch below.)

There are twelve symbols on the stone composed of sixteen components. This is significant. Twelve indicates the number of months in the year and the number of signs in the zodiac. Sixteen reminds us that the Earth travels 1600,000 miles in any given day. Counting punch marks from far right to left moving upwards we find 1,1, and 3 which creates the number 113. This is 2 x 56.5. Or count them as 2, 3 or 3, 2. This 23 – 32 was significant at Newark and on the Aberlemno Stone from Scotland. Indeed, counting the placement of the symbols, there are four in the first column and three in the second giving us 43 which is half 86. The diameter of the sun is 864,000 miles. The remaining columns must be read left to right to give 1,1,3 or 113. This is 2 x 56.5 which is a reiteration of the 56.5 above. This number was seen in the Newark Decalogue Stone. Continuing along this line from left to right is 1 and 1 or 11. Returning, moving right to left, the remaining columns then count 3, 3, 4 symbols. This creates 33.4 which is significant as we saw in the Newark Earthworks and the Norrie’s Law medallion also from Scotland. This method of item counts with punches is identical to what was found on the 5,000 year old Knowth and Newgrange Kerb Stones from Ireland giving one a good idea of when and by whom these stone documents were inscribed.

Understanding the double triangle symbol.

Understanding the double triangle symbol.

Three of the symbols can be easily identified as mathematical symbols. Note the symbols for parallel lines, a bent angle and an angle. The bottom left symbol is very similar to the letter quo in Phoenician during the 7th to 1st century B.C. Prior to that in 1000 B.C. it was depicted as a circle with a stick out of its center to the bottom which is more stylized in a modern Q. Today, in engineering discussions, a ball on top of a stick is used to symbolize a structure and how it moves. This double triangle symbol was a Z in South Semitic scripts in 1000 B.C. The Phoenician symbol for Z in that time period looked more like a capital I. We can understand this symbol by seeing it as a rectangle that has twisted like a bag-twisty.

The left top symbol is not a triangle but a dagger or sword which is easily identified in other art from the pre-Christ era. The two symbols in the third column are animal skins. Archaeologists have wondered why copper ingots were cast in this shape. Here then we have an answer. Copper is cast in the shape of a skin in remembrance of the comet, composed of copper, which moved the skin of the Earth.

The symbol on the far right.

The symbol on the far right.

The most interesting symbol on the piece is on the right hand side made of the square and the downward stroke ending in a punch mark. Comparison with the constellation Ursa Minor quickly proves it is not exactly this star cluster. Comparison of the layout with a star map shows that the pole star from 4000 BC to 1800 BC, Thuban, is being indicated which gives us a reference for the time period to which the stone relates, was first written, or it is just a mirror image of Ursa Minor and so a simple reference to the pole star.

The translation is thus read from top left downwards in columns towards the right except for the bottom row which reads left to right for two symbols. So then, there is enough information to translate this stone as shown in the last diagram.

Ursa Minor. Wikipedia.

Ursa Minor. Wikipedia.

A comet came to Earth.

It struck at the pole.

It broke into two comets

and left craters.

The impact twisted the lines

of latitude (parallels).

It rotated the skin.

The angle of measurement

to Ursa Minor and

the pole star changed.

The Metcalf Stone translated.

The Metcalf Stone translated.

In the coming months the Ohio Tablets, Gridley Stone, Hopewell Shaman Statue, and Ohio Adena Pipe will be studied. They are fabulous ancient art each with an extraordinary message to tell.


NEXT POST IN SERIES- the Allen Tablet

Index to Adena Tablets:

Posts on:

Newberry Tablet, Batcreek Stone,

Grave Creek Stone, Hopewell Shaman Bear,

The Ohio Adena Pipe,  Bainbridge and McKensie Tablets,

Wilmington Tablet, Lakin A Tablet, The Gaitskill Clay Tablet,

Allen Tablet, Grave Creek, The Kiefer Tablet, Wright, Lakin B and Meigs Tablets,

Berlin Tablet, Gaitskill Stone Tablet, The Low Tablet,

The Waverly Tablet

Egyptian Art Comparison and the Cincinnati Tablet.

Ramey Peet Tablet, Gridley Stone, the Numbers

and more!

Posts on Newark Decalogue Stone and Earthworks

Posts on Aberlemno Stone

Posts on  Knowth Kerbstones, and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

Plain English Please

By B.L. Freeborn © 2013

Sketch of Decalogue Stone of Newark, Ohio. By B.L. Freeborn.

Sketch of Decalogue Stone of Newark, Ohio. By B.L. Freeborn.

The explanation of the Oval at the Newark Earthworks in Ohio is simple but of exceptional debate. We need to ask what elements in the Beltane story, Newark Earthworks and the Newark Decalogue have we left out? We have discussed the possibility that the oval was once filled seasonally with water. We have discussed how the Decalogue Stone appears to be a little ark. We might recall that the Oval is the shape of the egg at the Great Serpent Mound. In that respect, keeping with the story then Baal may be the serpent and the Oval would be another representation of the Earth since in fact the planet is just sightly oval not round. We have discussed the finding of meteoric iron and crescent shapes and the idea that the Great Circle shows a sideways impact of a comet into the Earth. Could the Oval be a further description? It would have been nice if they had just wrote it out in plain Old English so we would not have to guess. Ahhh, did they?

Recall the overall layout gave us the idea of 23 32 or “keg Baal.”  But 23 degrees 30′ is in fact the limit of the Arctic and Antarctic circles. The center of these two circles are the poles which relates back to the maypole.

Newark Oval as drawn by D. WyrickWe might ask what else the Ancients tried to portray here. All three maps of the site, Burks’, Squier’s and Wyrick’s, depict the oval with a U shaped appendage to the west. There are also several strange paths with bump-outs to the west. Is it possible that this large oval and projections are letters or words? It is possible that the east side of the oval had a similar appendage as on the west that has worn away with time and creek flooding. This would make the Oval similar in concept to the Luwian Hieroglyph shown below. This glyph is unnamed but is associated with the sound “la.” 1

Luwian symbol #445.

Luwian symbol #445.

This form of writing called Luwian or Hittite Hieroglyphs is from the area of Hattusa in present day region of Anatola, Turkey and northern Syria. Evidence that this writing dates from third and early second millennia BC exists. There is no evidence of its use after 7th century BC per academia.2 Its use has been previously demonstrated at Loughcrew, Ireland3 which is believed by some to be much older than the 5500 year old Knowth Tomb, Ireland where several examples have been demonstrated.4 An example of Luwian Hieroglyphics will be shown at the conclusion of this series from a much later period.

Oval with Hieroglyphic Words notedIt would seem this symbol of a circle with two ears is not the only Hieroglyph to be found at Newark. Since Wyrick’s map is believed to be the most accurate, the Oval portion of his map is redrawn here for our study. A comparison of the simple geometric figures with Luwian Hieroglyphs produces a translation as we see in this image.5 Three words are written out. The main oval is Symbol number 445 with sound “la.” Attached at the bottom is the line pronounced “ra,” Symbol number 383. Off the side of Ra is a hump or Symbol number 209 or 210 and sound “i” or “ia” which gives the word: La- Ra- I.

The middle set of lines with the circle and dot is Scutella 402 (Latin for shield) pronounced “sa”. The line beneath is “ra,” Symbol number 383. This forms the word Sa-Ra.

The third word is a combination of the hump out “i” and “ra” to form I-Ra.

We need a translation of “Larai Sare Ira.” How fortunate! This is written in English, Old English that is! 6 7

Larai provides these possibilities: lær = empty; læran = to teach (to fill the mind of someone who is empty); lar = lore, history; lareow = teacher; leorian = to vanish, die, become empty; lyre = hurt, lure; and leger = lair, lying, grave.

Sa-Ra provides: sar = to sear, or sare = sore. And I-Ra could be irre or ierre which means fierce, angry or ire.

The sentence then becomes “Ire sore lair” or in modern terms “An angry sore, an emptiness.” This provides us with a meaning for the Oval. It represents the place where we might presume the event of Bael-teon occurred or where the comet they are referring to as Baal impacted.

Is this sore in southern Ohio? Is it the .8 mile crater that forms the hills into strange sheared plains? Would this event motivate people from half way around the world to seek it out? Not likely. The construction so close to the creek so the Oval can be filled with water suggests they are referring to a watery grave and to have drawn the attention of the ancient world it must have been a significantly larger impact. What event do we find described world-wide that everyone scoffs at?

Forward to NEXT POST




References/ Footnotes:

  1. Freeborn, B.L., “Luwian Hieroglyph Reinterpretation,” 2013. See:
  2. Wikipedia article: Anatolian Hieroglyphs. See:
  3. Freeborn, B.L. “A Loughcrew Petroglyph Translation,” 2013. See:
  4. Freeborn, B.L., “A Simple and Elegant Neolithic Oops,” 2013. See:
  5. Anders, Gunter, “Luwian Symbols.”  See:
  6. Hall, J.R. Clark , “A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary.” Toronto: University of Toronto, 1894.
  7. “The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language,” Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1976.
  8. Gordon, Cyrus, “Forgotten Scripts,” New York: Dorset Press, 1987.

Newark Decalogue Stone and Earthworks: An Unraveling Mystery

The following twenty-five posts were a pleasure to write and even more so to share with you. 

Newark Decalogue Stone and Earthworks: An Unraveling Mystery  … Full document as pdf.

B.L. Freeborn   © July 2013

“As a rule, innovation is welcome only when it is confined to surface details and does not modify the structure as a whole.” – Cyrus Gordon

Table of Contents

  1. Lepper’s One-Way Leap into Oh-Oh

    Front Face of Newark Decalogue Stone

    Front Face of Newark Decalogue Stone

  2. The Remains according to Romain

    Keystone found near Octagon in Newark, Ohio

    Keystone found near Octagon in Newark, Ohio

  3. Ohh… Let It Not be True

    Newark Earthworks, Link to James Q. Jacobs Site and Photos.

    Newark Earthworks, Link to James Q. Jacobs Site and Photos.


See another example of Ohio Hebrew here.