Ancient Riddles to Test Our Wits: Ancient or Modern Copies?

Elephant Tablet found during construction of Cuenca Airport, Ecuador

Elephant Tablet found during construction of Cuenca Airport, Ecuador

© 2016 B. L. Freeborn

This piece from the Crespi Collection found during construction of the Airport in Cuenca, Ecuador is obviously related to the three stones shown below. In a previous post this stone was translated. Can it be determined if the other three are copies of this stone and if the copies were made relatively recently?

Using transliteration into Paleo-Hebrew circa 200 to 100 BC and Hebrew Letters as derived by J. Huston McCulloch in his study of the Newark Decalogue Stone from Ohio, the Elephant Tablets are translated with the aid of the Anglo-Saxon Language.

 

These copies of the elephant stone are believed to be from Burrows Cave which means their authenticity is in question.

These copies of the elephant stone are believed to be from Burrows Cave which means their authenticity is in question. Read translation and comparison below.

These copies of the elephant stone are believed to be from Burrows Cave which means their authenticity is in question.

Compare the detail in the elephant and Sun. The Sun should appear as a dual reference to Baal’s crater as an origin. The Cuenca shows two eyes and lines radiating from a central O. The trunk of the elephant does not show the all important crater shape in any of the other copies. The back of the mammoth does not appear broken and in the eyebrow shape of Hudson Bay. This means the ‘copier’ was far removed from the significance of the detail, however, it does not mean they are forged.

The overall presentation on circular and chipped tile shapes is consistent with the story of Baal. The stones on the left and right appear freshly machined. And finally, the inscriptions in line 1 and 2 are different than the Cuenca but plausible. They read b-n-th and th-k, k-b, b-l or ‘beneath thatch cave Baal.’ The k-b can also be read as cab which means pole.

The letter ‘th’ in the first line is not reversed as in the Cuenca example which suggests two possibilities. The first is both lines are to be read left to right so the top would read th-n, n-b or ‘thin nib’ … ‘thatch cave Baal.’ The second possibility is the copier was unaware of why the ‘th’ was reversed in the first line and corrected it. The lifespan of the copier cannot be determined by this difference just that he might have thought it was an error in the original. The middle stone’s N (center of first line) is truer to the Paleo-Hebrew style then the other two suggesting it is an original or a more exact copy of another original with evidently valid lettering.

Lastly, note the facing C’s in the middle line of all four copies. These were seen in other tablets from Ohio and in art from Knowth, Ireland. Previously, using Luwian glyphs the meaning Great Origin or Mighty Crater was derived from this pattern. It also leads one to another translation of the middle line. If the ‘Th’ stands alone to represent ‘the’ and the C is the Luwian symbol for ‘great’ then the last two letters spell b-l. This then reads ‘The Great Baal’ which is totally plausible and in line with ancient wit to use two languages/alphabets within a text (as academics still do today) and two meanings within the same line.

Old and real? New and fake?

Or is it more likely… these are copies of secreted away originals?

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Paleo-Hebrew at oocities.org

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See full article on the alphabet by J. Huston McCulloch at:

http://www.econ.ohio-state.edu/jhm/arch/decalog.html

The Hopewell Shaman Bear

© 2015 B. L. Freeborn

Ohio Shaman Bear - Art from ancient Ohio found in Newark Earthworks

Ohio Shaman Bear – Art from ancient Ohio found in Newark Earthworks

The Hopewell Shaman Bear is located in the Ohio History Museum in Columbus, Ohio. This magnificent piece of art was found in Newark, Ohio in the extensive earthworks there. The Newark Decalogue Stone was found seven miles south under a massive stone mound. The Newark Stone is inscribed with a form of Jewish letters and considered to be a fraud by academics. A full description and discussion about this stone can be found in the paper – Newark Decalogue Stone and Earthworks: An Unraveling Mystery or at this post. The Newark Stone is so unlike the Shaman Bear that it is easy to accept the academics’ viewpoint. However, despite their apparent and obvious differences they depict a similar story. The Newark Stone was found in a stone carved case that forms a rock shape when closed. Both statues are carved stones. Both are about the same size.

Both have one arm bent at the waist and the second arm pointed up. Compare the arm positions to the statue from Ugarit that is said to describe Baal. It has one hand pointed up at the hat which is a round ball with a conical tail.

Baal, a Statute from Ugarit.14th to 12th BC. Louvre, Wikipedia,

Baal, a Statute from Ugarit.14th to 12th BC. Louvre, Wikipedia,

Front Face of Newark Decalogue Stone

Front Face of Newark Decalogue Stone

Concentrating now on the Shaman Stone we find it has three heads. One is upside down in the lap of the man with the hair splayed downwards. The sitting man is wearing a bear head creating a double head. So we find one head below and two above or it can be said one becomes two. The caul of the bear covers the man and keeps him from being bare. It is suggested that the stone is referring to the old North Pole with its caul of ice that is thought of as the Laurentide Ice Sheet. From it bearings were taken. Hence, we find three forms of the word bear is depicted by this stone: bear- animal, bare – uncovered, and bear – direction. The head in the lap depicts the head (of the Earth) forced down. It lies on a lap which makes a pun of the man’s lap to indicate that it lies on an important lap of longitude. Notice the ear of this upside down head is not quite right. There is a little comet for the ear with a u – cup shape above it almost in the hairline. The hair becomes the meteorites following the comet. This idea is seen in the Ugarit Statue with the cone below the round ball. The legs of the man become arms for the upside down man who is exclaiming as we saw in other Adena stones. Men crying out in horror is part of the story.

Close up of head in lap showing comet and crater.

Close up of head in lap showing comet and crater.

The small comet is directed towards the man’s hand. His fingers clearly depict the numbers 2 and 3. The other hand has 5 straight fingers The Arctic Circle ends at 23.5 degrees. The sitting man has two bold round earrings. These are the double comet craters of Baal indicated on the other tablets.

The statue is designed to sit with a 90 degree -or so- posture, yet since the feet are bent out at an angle there is a tendency to think they should be dropped down at a 90 degree angle. In other words the angle is bent or turned as the other stones studied in previous posts have depicted.

Right hand shows two and three with fingers.

Right hand shows two and three with fingers.

Looking for other numbers, note the right hand as 23 can also be 32 and this gives the square of 5.65. There are 5 eyes, 3 ears (2 bear and 1 human), 3 round donut comet craters, and the toes are 3 on each side making 33. The approximate angle between the pole positions is 33 to 35 degrees. The 5 and 3 suggests 53 and 5.3 is the square root of 28 which is half of 56.

Left hand showing five fingers.

Left hand showing five fingers.

The words that form the meaningful puns -lap and bear- are Old English words which may not really be indicated but considering the Anglo words found in the Adena Tablets previously, there is probably no coincidence.

Apparently the three statues have more in common then first thought. They all describe Baal and its collision with Earth. This collision changed the position of the pole and bared it of its caul. It was beheaded and at the lap it lies.

Shaman Bear

Shaman Bear

The next adventure into the minds of the ancients continues with the Bat Creek Stone.

Back to the very beginning of series on Adena Tablets

Previous Post on the Adena Pipe

Posts on: Numbers and their Meaning, Ramey Peet Tablet, Gridley Stone

McKensie and Bainbridge Tablets, Cincinnati Tablet,

Egyptian Art Comparison, Wilmington Tablet, Lakin A Tablet,

The Gaitskill Clay Tablet, Allen Tablet, Grave Creek,

The Kiefer Tablet, Wright, Lakin B and Meigs Tablets,

Berlin Tablet, Gaitskill Stone Tablet, The Low Tablet,

The Waverly Tablet, Metcalf Stone, and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

(updated Nov. 2018)

The Newark Decalogue Stone and Earthworks – Full Article PDF

Thank you for reading.

Here is the Newark Decalogue Stone and Earthworks: An Unraveling Mystery in PDF

Group of Four Mounds called the Bird within the Great Circle at Newark, OH.

Group of Four Mounds called the Bird within the Great Circle at Newark, OH.

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Ohh… Let It Not be True

By B.L. Freeborn © 2013

Burks drawing of Newark Earthworks

Burks drawing of Newark Earthworks

The story Newark Earthworks relates is the historic tale of Beltane. We begin in the upper left of the layout with the circle, a comet Baal, which impacts with Earth represented by a square. The union of male and female occurs. The square rotates, shatters and a translation occurs. The story continues at the bottom right. The Earth is reformed with a scar. The Old Testament uses the symbolic number 6 for the length of this re-creation of the world. The Earth absorbs Baal represented by the bird within the Great Circle with its crescent as the crater. The Earth’s relationship with the Sun is represented by the square. Earth’s orbit is slightly oval. The square tells us this with its slightly out of square shape. We take our measurement of length from the Sun’s diameter. A mile is 1/864,000 of the Sun’s diameter. We take our measurement of time from the Sun. There are 86,400 seconds in a day. The square’s area echoes this value. The Earth travels about the Sun at 66,624 miles an hour as depicted by the angle of the Great Circle’s neck at 66.6 degrees.

Does the Decalogue Stone depict Baal and the Earth? By B.L. Freeborn, 2013.

Does the Decalogue Stone depict Baal and the Earth? By B.L. Freeborn, 2013.

This is the dreadful message of forgotten Beltane and the great religion of Baal. The Baalist’s left us a message in Ohio.

Front Face of Newark Decalogue Stone

Their minds were full of geometry, numbers and long ago calculated celestial values. They traveled the planet in their angst, their woe, over this event that destroyed all mankind. They were the last of the educated survivors of a prior civilization and their determination to preserve what mankind had attained scientifically prior to Baal’s destruction is at the root of our civilization today. This is an amazing story. It is the cosmology that we will rediscover because “the truth will out.” And once we understand it, the miracle and fortitude of life upon this planet will seem all the more wondrous. We can fancy that this debate over the Decalogue Stones will not die easily because some of the magic of the incantations written upon them call to us still today. We can hope that the prayers put into the mounds as they were built protect us still from the return of Baal. These Angle builders have new modern names: Luwian, Adena, Hopewell, Celts, Irish, Picts, English, Cherokee and many others. We have forgotten who they were. We are rediscovering what they preserved for us. Shamans of long ago teach us our forgotten worldwide heritage. They wove the message into the Earth for us to find. They created simple, straightforward images. This is a warning to value what is truly important and that we too can be knocked back into the stone age. This is our history. It recalls the day a great civilization ended and a scattered few survived to repopulate the world.Side view of Great Circle

But we began with the debate over the Newark Decalogue Stones by questioning whether they are fake and if they are Jewish. Now we wonder if they are Baalist? Or are they Anglo? Were they left by visiting engineers? Did they belong to the High Shamans of the people who built the earthworks who were educated in surveying and of Baalist belief? We have explored these issues. It is time for a conclusion. Here are three images to help one form an opinion. The image above lies hidden in the Decalogue Stone. The next is Squier’s detail of the Great Circle and the last is from NASA. Their art reveals they had an excellent understanding of what transpired. They spelled it out for us in every manner possible. Can we grasp the horror of it all?

NASA image of crater

NASA image of crater

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Plain English Please

By B.L. Freeborn © 2013

Sketch of Decalogue Stone of Newark, Ohio. By B.L. Freeborn.

Sketch of Decalogue Stone of Newark, Ohio. By B.L. Freeborn.

The explanation of the Oval at the Newark Earthworks in Ohio is simple but of exceptional debate. We need to ask what elements in the Beltane story, Newark Earthworks and the Newark Decalogue have we left out? We have discussed the possibility that the oval was once filled seasonally with water. We have discussed how the Decalogue Stone appears to be a little ark. We might recall that the Oval is the shape of the egg at the Great Serpent Mound. In that respect, keeping with the story then Baal may be the serpent and the Oval would be another representation of the Earth since in fact the planet is just sightly oval not round. We have discussed the finding of meteoric iron and crescent shapes and the idea that the Great Circle shows a sideways impact of a comet into the Earth. Could the Oval be a further description? It would have been nice if they had just wrote it out in plain Old English so we would not have to guess. Ahhh, did they?

Recall the overall layout gave us the idea of 23 32 or “keg Baal.”  But 23 degrees 30′ is in fact the limit of the Arctic and Antarctic circles. The center of these two circles are the poles which relates back to the maypole.

Newark Oval as drawn by D. WyrickWe might ask what else the Ancients tried to portray here. All three maps of the site, Burks’, Squier’s and Wyrick’s, depict the oval with a U shaped appendage to the west. There are also several strange paths with bump-outs to the west. Is it possible that this large oval and projections are letters or words? It is possible that the east side of the oval had a similar appendage as on the west that has worn away with time and creek flooding. This would make the Oval similar in concept to the Luwian Hieroglyph shown below. This glyph is unnamed but is associated with the sound “la.” 1

Luwian symbol #445.

Luwian symbol #445.

This form of writing called Luwian or Hittite Hieroglyphs is from the area of Hattusa in present day region of Anatola, Turkey and northern Syria. Evidence that this writing dates from third and early second millennia BC exists. There is no evidence of its use after 7th century BC per academia.2 Its use has been previously demonstrated at Loughcrew, Ireland3 which is believed by some to be much older than the 5500 year old Knowth Tomb, Ireland where several examples have been demonstrated.4 An example of Luwian Hieroglyphics will be shown at the conclusion of this series from a much later period.

Oval with Hieroglyphic Words notedIt would seem this symbol of a circle with two ears is not the only Hieroglyph to be found at Newark. Since Wyrick’s map is believed to be the most accurate, the Oval portion of his map is redrawn here for our study. A comparison of the simple geometric figures with Luwian Hieroglyphs produces a translation as we see in this image.5 Three words are written out. The main oval is Symbol number 445 with sound “la.” Attached at the bottom is the line pronounced “ra,” Symbol number 383. Off the side of Ra is a hump or Symbol number 209 or 210 and sound “i” or “ia” which gives the word: La- Ra- I.

The middle set of lines with the circle and dot is Scutella 402 (Latin for shield) pronounced “sa”. The line beneath is “ra,” Symbol number 383. This forms the word Sa-Ra.

The third word is a combination of the hump out “i” and “ra” to form I-Ra.

We need a translation of “Larai Sare Ira.” How fortunate! This is written in English, Old English that is! 6 7

Larai provides these possibilities: lær = empty; læran = to teach (to fill the mind of someone who is empty); lar = lore, history; lareow = teacher; leorian = to vanish, die, become empty; lyre = hurt, lure; and leger = lair, lying, grave.

Sa-Ra provides: sar = to sear, or sare = sore. And I-Ra could be irre or ierre which means fierce, angry or ire.

The sentence then becomes “Ire sore lair” or in modern terms “An angry sore, an emptiness.” This provides us with a meaning for the Oval. It represents the place where we might presume the event of Bael-teon occurred or where the comet they are referring to as Baal impacted.

Is this sore in southern Ohio? Is it the .8 mile crater that forms the hills into strange sheared plains? Would this event motivate people from half way around the world to seek it out? Not likely. The construction so close to the creek so the Oval can be filled with water suggests they are referring to a watery grave and to have drawn the attention of the ancient world it must have been a significantly larger impact. What event do we find described world-wide that everyone scoffs at?

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References/ Footnotes:

  1. Freeborn, B.L., “Luwian Hieroglyph Reinterpretation,” 2013. See:  https://noahsage.com/2013/07/10/luwian-hieroglyph-reinterpretation/
  2. Wikipedia article: Anatolian Hieroglyphs. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anatolian_hieroglyphs
  3. Freeborn, B.L. “A Loughcrew Petroglyph Translation,” 2013. See:   https://noahsage.com/2013/07/05/a-loughcrew-neolithic-petroglyph-translation/
  4. Freeborn, B.L., “A Simple and Elegant Neolithic Oops,” 2013. See:  https://noahsage.com/2013/07/01/a-simple-and-elegant-neolithic-oops/
  5. Anders, Gunter, “Luwian Symbols.”  See: http://www.hethport.uni-wuerzburg.de/luwglyph/Signlist.pdf
  6. Hall, J.R. Clark , “A Concise Anglo-Saxon Dictionary.” Toronto: University of Toronto, 1894.
  7. “The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language,” Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1976.
  8. Gordon, Cyrus, “Forgotten Scripts,” New York: Dorset Press, 1987.

The New Debate Begins

By B.L. Freeborn © 2013

Stone bowl found with Decalogue Stone.

Stone bowl found with Decalogue Stone.

The old debate revolved around the authenticity of the Decalogue Stone, the Keystone, the Johnson-Bradner Stone and the little teacup size stone bowl. The new debate will be much more fierce. The presence of the little bowl from a specific point in time has much to say in the argument. When excavating at Qumran bowls of this nature were found and they are used to date sites to no later than 200 AD. Their original use was for ritual bathing before prayer. This concurs with the date given for construction of Newark Earthworks from 250 – 500 AD. Whether we like it or not, these objects are from the appropriate period which weighs heavily for their validity not only as being real but a true component of the Newark Earthworks. Discarding them because they just don’t fit our picture is grossly negligent science.

But as Feder points out there is little if any other surviving evidence that people from the Old World were in Ohio except for these random few objects and…..the artifacts hundreds of feet in diameter. Despite the cohesive numbering system, the identical nature of structures supposedly built thousands of years apart on different continents, which just happened to be aligned by longitude and latitude to sites a half a world away, despite all this, we are told that tribal people got up one day and said lets dig a ditch in the shape of a circle because …. we are inspired by….? by what?

Coincidences are explained away far too easily. We are told the early North Americans could not have understood latitude and longitude thousands of years before we did. The very, very early neolithic Englander had just mastered stone tools. Therefore, we take the stance they could not understand it either. These assumptions are then used as proof that they are not aligned. Period. Despite numerical evidence to the contrary this is the assumption we are asked to accept!

More difficult to understand about all these sites, and especially Newark where we have evidence that not one but perhaps three of these phylactery sets existed, is despite the obvious Jewish connection, there is no knowledge of any such connection in the Jewish Rabbinical sources. Further still, there is no acknowledgment that words such as mentioned above (Yahweh, Noah, Moses, Elohim) have any relationship to celestial measures as noted. Which in the end proves only that if the Decalogue Stone and Key Stone have been in Ohio for two thousand years they were not the property of a person of Jewish belief. But this statement contradicts the Johnson-Bradner stone’s presence in the skull. Finding it there suggests the person was ceremonially laid to rest with the stone in the correct position upon the forehead as a believer would use it.

There are other elements to this whole story we have let drop out of the argument. There were quartz balls found. Round pyrite balls have been found at other sites. The case of the Decalogue Stone when closed forms a rounded stone. Recently beneath Teotihuacan balls were found. From the Jewish Old Testament comes stories of execution of large numbers of Baalists. There is a celebration called Beltane that existed in early Irish culture the meaning of which is reduced to a fertility ceremony today. We have also discussed the resemblance of the Decalogue’s man in profile to a Ugaritic statue. And have we forgotten in our haste to return to status quo the idea that the site spells out via gematria 23 32 or Keg Baal?

Could Baal be a comet that left a crater like a keg? Let us follow this last idea and tell the story of Baal using Newark as an illustration and see how the debate proceeds from there.

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References:

  1. Alrutz, Robert W., “Newark Holy Stones: The History of an Archaeological Tragedy,” Coshocton, Ohio: The Johnson-Humrickhouse Museum, 2010.
  2. Rochelle Altman, “First,…recognize that it’s a penny”: Report on the “Newark” Ritual Artifacts.”  See:    http://www.bibleinterp.com/articles/Altman_Newark.shtml

Diameters, Radii and Other Great Numbers

By B.L. Freeborn © 2013

This study of Newark Earthworks and the Decalogue has created a significant list of numbers. Before we look at the cosmology we need to review the Great Circle and then apply some meaning to this growing list of numbers.

Side view of Great Circle. Newark, Ohio.

The Great Circle can fit entirely inside the Octagon. Its exterior dimension averages 1200 feet (measured with Daftlogic.com). Its shape is not perfectly round which may have been on purpose or a result of creep as described previously. The ditches surrounding its circular shape and neck were very deep. Within its middle is a shape called a bird mound which appears to be composed of four joined ovals. Its span is 200 feet. On the side opposing the neck is a crescent moon shape. Meteoric iron and crescent shapes have been found among recovered artifacts. This is what Feder would call legitimate garbage.

The Great Circle is essentially a series of numbers stated via the radii. A review of the diagram reveals the numbers: 528, 560, 580, 1056, 1200 and 600. The 528 we recognize as a tenth mile. The 1056 is a fifth mile and Hively’s OCD. The 1200 reminds us of the twelve houses in the Zodiac at 30 degrees per house. 600 reminds us of the seconds in an hour and minutes in a degree of latitude. The 560 is the essential part of the mystery. Which leaves only the 580 to explain from this list. Similarly, a study of the neck reveals the numbers 56.25 and 56.5. The neck opening was on an azimuth of 66.6 degrees which also needs to be explained. This brings us to the point of finding meaning for all the remaining numbers.

Detail of Neck of Newark Great CircleThe four inner most mounds of the Octagon are a good place to begin understanding the numbers. We can see in the next diagram these four mounds are so placed as to give us a reminder of the mile’s length and two dimensions that are key to understanding the whole layout. 914 and 945 sum to 1859 which we saw in the Wright Square and the East Fork side dimensions. These two numbers, 91,400,000 and 94,500,000 miles are quoted today by NASA as the closest and furthest distance of Earth to the Sun. The diameter created across Earth’s orbit at these two extremes is 186,000,000 miles. Wright Square had 8 inner mounds inside 1 square or put another way these two numbers, 1 square and 8 mounds, create 18. Further still this 1859 is another form of Millon’s 187′. The 1859 is usually seen rounded up to 1860 or stated as 186.

Octagon Inner MoundsThe largest diameter of the Octagon was 1728 feet or 2 x 864. This number, or its simpler form 86, was found in the square foot area of East Fork, the thickness of the Decalogue Stone, the value of the gematria of Elohim, the diameter of the two great circles at Thornborough in England, the area of Wright Square, the multiplication of the lengths of the sides of the neck of the Octagon-Circle and two times the azimuth angle between Wright Square and the Great Circle. We also find it today in the measurement of time, 86400 seconds in a day, and most importantly, it represents the diameter of the Sun at 864,337 miles (NASA). This is the value calculated by multiplying the 292′ and 296′ of the neck of the Octagon-Circle or 86432.

There were 256 letters on the Decalogue Stone or 16 x 16 letters. The distance Earth travels in any given day is roughly 1600,000 miles. It travels this distance at 66,624 miles and hour. This is the angle Hively could not explain at the Great Circle, 66.6 . It is used in our numbering system still today as shown in the East Fork work. Eight increments of 66 reminds us of 8 furlongs of 660′ equals a mile.

The Great Circle displays a radius of 580. In other places it appeared as 584. This value was found in the width of the Decalogue Stone as 2.9″, the gematria of Noah as 58, the distance between Wright Square and the Great Circle as 2920′, as 584 in the arc of the oil lamp at East Fork, in the distance between Giza and Newark, as 292′ in the throat of the Octagon-Circle, as the average length of the side mounds of the Octagon, and as a reminder in the 50-80-50 triangle. If the Earth continues to travel about the Sun at 66,624 miles per hour every day then each and every year it travels 584,000,000 miles. This is the circumference of Earth’s orbit.

Romain discovered the multiple 7 OCD. Seven multiplies with the azimuth angle, 52.2 degrees, of the Octagon to give us the days in a year. The numbers 76, 760, 77, 770, 2.72, 2.77 suggest such important numbers as the return period of Halley’s Comet.

The number 56 and its variants 56.5, 560 and its other form 32, appears at such distant sites as the much debated 56 Aubrey Holes at Stonehenge. It appears in the gematria of Yahweh and Baal. We found it at Thornborough in the radius 320′. Its appearance at Newark occurs repeatedly. We find it today preserved in our measurement of the acre as 43,560 feet. We will discover it in a few other places before we are done here.

And the last number that we found in the gematria of Moses, 345, was the half of 69. Its other versions are 69.18 and 69.2 and  it is often rounded up to 70. These were not observed as frequently in Newark. This is the distance between lines of longitude at the equator.

The diameter of the Earth represented by 79 and 792 was found at Newark. Each and every time the number 528 is used it also refers to 792. Using cubits of 18″ or 1½ feet, means 528 cubits is 792 feet. It was found in the distance in miles between Grave Creek Mound and Geller Hill. This was the same distance Thornborough lies from Lincoln Cathedral. Twice 792 is 1584. This is the distance Romain used between the Octagon-Circle. This number is always present yet often quite hidden. In Stonehenge it appears as its square root 89 and at Thornborough it was the difference in lengths between the two sides. On the Decalogue Stone it was the two unidentified symbols front and back that sum to 79. At East Fork it appeared boldly as the length of the base. At Newark, although reconstructed too often to confirm, it seems to have been the length of each of the 8 inner mounds of the Octagon.

All in all a masterful blending of these important numbers appears at each and every one of these ancient sites. The proof that they are all interrelated is apparent. There is no question that the Decalogue Stone and the gematria of the Torah are equally related. This then leads us to the important question as to how simple people with no “pertinent garbage” could have measured these celestial values of immense size.

Just when we should be upon a solution the problem grows exponentially! We have arrived back at the debate with even more things to debate!

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References

  1. Freeborn, B.L., “The Deep Mystery: The Day the Pole Moved,” Tiw & Elddir, 2013.
  2. Hively, Ray, and Horn, Robert, Geometry and Astronomy in Prehistoric Ohio, “Journal for the History of Astronomy, Archaeoastronomy,” Supplement, Vol. 13, p.S1; also Science History Publications, 1982.      See:   http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu
  3. Romain, William F., Ph.D., Newark Earthwork Cosmology: This Island Earth, “Hopewell Archeology: The Newsletter of Hopewell Archeology in the Ohio River Valley,” Vol.6 (2), March 2005.   See:  http://www.nps.gov/mwac/hopewell/v6n2/one.htm
  4. Romain, William F., Ph.D., Design and Layout of the Newark Earthwork Complex, “Hopewell Archeology: The Newsletter of Hopewell Archeology in the Ohio River Valley,” Vol.6 (2), March 2005.  See:   http://www.nps.gov/mwac/hopewell/v6n2/two.htm

What Fits Where?

By B.L. Freeborn © 2013

circle-octagon only

Circle and Octagon at Newark, Ohio from Squier -Davis drawing.

The most fascinating part of the Newark Earthworks is the Octagon and how very many things are going on inside it. It is mathematically a very busy place. In every respect this structure is a monument to mathematics and geometry.

It begins with a circle meeting an irregular octagon which is almost a distorted square. They join via a path or neck. Opposite this neck on the southwest side of the circle is an area dubbed the observation area due to its height and view it gives through this neck into the octagon. In addition, the circle has a slight ditch surrounding its exterior perimeter.

We have already noted that the square roots of 7.7 and 7.66 are 2.77 and 2.76. The outside distance of the neck is 270 – 274 feet on the north side and 278 to 281 feet on the south side. Assuming some form of creep is present the average of 270 and 281 is about 276 feet. The square of this value is 75900 feet or just shy of 76,000. The distance proposed between the two centers was 1540 or 2 x 770. The square root of 770 is 27.7. It would seem the original intention was to replicate the 770 in the neck as a multiple of its square root.

Hively/Horn, measuring from the middle top of the mounds, determined the neck measures 292 on the north and 296 on the south. The first number we saw as the distance from the Great Circle to Wright Square, 2920′, and twice this value is 584. The number 296 is the gematria value for Earth in Hebrew. The square root of 8.8 is 2.96. This 8.8 or 88 will appear again shortly. One final point, 292 x 296 = 86432 which reminds one of the diameter of the Sun at 864,337 miles and cannot even remotely be a coincidence.

The present distance across the throat at the base of the mounds measures somewhere in the range of 110 to 113.7 feet. Twice 56 is 112. Twice 56.5 is 113. This is a good indication of the original value.

The Observatory Circle at its southwestern extreme has an observation area. According to Hively the area was 170 feet long by 100 feet and 11 feet high in the year 1847. The number 170 is half of 340. Note that 90 degrees minus 34 is 56.

Octagon with 8 moundsThe octagon is composed of 8 long mounds that are separated at the corners. Within the Octagon there are 8 mounds, one at each break in the corners which seem to orbit within the Octagon. Recall that the earth is one of 8 planets orbiting the Sun. Wright Square also had 8 interior mounds. The eight sides plus the 8 inner mounds suggests the number 88. We have seen this number in the distance this Earthwork lies from The Great Serpent, 88.15 miles, and from Miamisburg Mound, 87.7 nautical miles. Each side averages in length from its mid-point 620 feet. Their sum is 4973 feet. This is a midpoint measurement. A measurement of the exterior perimeter is just over 5000 feet. The mounds measure on average 584 feet in length. The 8 interior mounds create an inner octagon. Measurement of the perimeter at the midpoints of the inner mounds measures 4400 feet.

The exterior circumference of 5000 x 88 = 440,000. This number, 440, appeared when the circumference of the earth in miles was divided by 56.5. It repeats in the perimeter of the inner mounds.Squares in the Newark octagon

The diameter of the Observatory Circle, or a fifth mile, is not restricted to the circle. It can be found twice in the Octagon. The diameter of the Great Circle can be found there as well. This is better explained by looking at the image above. Now we see the “circle inscribed in a square” and “the square inscribed in a circle.”  This is the beloved old world exercise explained earlier.

By way of the next image we can see that the two circumscribed squares have rotated with respect to each other. This will become important when we discuss the cosmology implied here.

Squares rotate

Hively and Horn show and Romain also proves that the diameter of a square 1056 feet (their OCD) is used to generate the shape of the octagon. The diameter of a 1056′ square is 1493′. By making an arc of radius 1493′ from each of the four corners as shown the four remaining corners of the octagon can be generated.

This does not create a regular octagon in a stop sign shape. Instead this creates a square with sides that are broken outwards at the midpoints which is also important in the cosmology implied here.

Building the Newark Octagon

The question as to how big this exterior square is remains. We can measure its dimensions as displayed in the earthwork but it needs to be confirmed. The diagonals are 1728 and 1717 feet. The sides measure roughly 1227, 1212, 1210, and 1213. (Hively) Compare this to a calculated diagonal of 1737 and side of 1228 feet. The largest side of the square is the end facing the circle. It is not an optical illusion that end is larger. The average length of each is then 1215 feet. This is 607′ per each of the 8 bars and 8 inner mounds. This might imply the relationship 6 x 88 = 5280 feet to the mile.

Largest Square within Newark OctagonThe two diameters 1728 and 1717 differ from the calculated 1737. The first differs by 9′ and the second by 20′. In other words, the most northern corner is pushed in considerably to create this number. The number 1717 repeats the 17 which appeared in the observation area. The number 1728 is 864 x 2.

Calculating the largest diameter at Newark Octagon All in all, a very pleasing geometric harmony is produced by continuously repeating the same numbers. The next image adds the largest square used and completes the Octagon.All the Squares within Newark Octagon

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References/Footnotes:

  1. Hively, Ray, and Horn, Robert, Geometry and Astronomy in Prehistoric Ohio, “Journal for the History of Astronomy, Archaeoastronomy,” Supplement, Vol. 13, p.S1; also Science History Publications, 1982.      See:   http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu
  2. Romain, William F., Ph.D., Newark Earthwork Cosmology: This Island Earth, “Hopewell Archeology: The Newsletter of Hopewell Archeology in the Ohio River Valley,” Vol.6 (2), March 2005.   See:  http://www.nps.gov/mwac/hopewell/v6n2/one.htm
  3. Romain, William F., Ph.D., Design and Layout of the Newark Earthwork Complex, “Hopewell Archeology: The Newsletter of Hopewell Archeology in the Ohio River Valley,” Vol.6 (2), March 2005.  See:   http://www.nps.gov/mwac/hopewell/v6n2/two.htm

Isosceles and Other Equals

By B.L. Freeborn © 2013

Because the Great Circle and Octagon are equally placed from Geller Hill an isosceles triangle is formed. (See image from Geller Hill at bottom.) The angle between them is 50 degrees. The line bisecting it is on the azimuth of 52.2  and this is said to be the same azimuth as the line running through the octagon-circle centerline making them parallel.

Isosceles triangles formed at Newark, Ohio Earthworks. Positions as located by satellite image. Drawing by B.L. Freeborn.

Isosceles triangles formed at Newark, Ohio Earthworks. Positions as located by satellite image. Drawing by B.L. Freeborn, 2013.

The line from Geller Hill to the center of the Observatory Circle creates an angle of 56 degrees as shown in the image. The triangle formed from the intersection of these two triangles is another isosceles triangle of degrees 50 80 50. These three numbers remind us of the numbers that compose 58.5 or very nearly the 584 we saw in the East Fork Works. In the same manner the 50 65 65 triangle reminds us of 5.6565.

It can be determined that the azimuth angle from the center of the Great Circle through the center of Wright Square is 43 degrees. Recall that we had 86 on our number list and 2 x 43 equals 86. Using this angle and 1540 foot distance between the centers of the Octagon-Circle and Hively/Horn’s lengths for the translation of the figures across the plane, we can calculate the distance between the center of the Great Circle and Wright Square as 2920 feet. The image below was created by drawing over a satellite image using what appears to be correct centers and the Square’s position shown by Romain in his diagrams. This distance does not appear to be all that important but in fact 2 x 2920 = 5840. The angle that closes the polygon is 93 degrees or virtually the angle 92.8  at which Wright Square is set. The final angle, 79.5, repeats the idea of 79.2.

All of which confirms the numbers on our list. But there is another set of numbers we should see before we move on to looking at the Octagon and its development.

Hively and Horn base their report on the idea that these structures were built on complex ideas of archaeoastronomy which include rise and set points of the sun, moon and other celestial occurrences. But at certain times they are confused by obvious angles that do not meet with their expectations. The angle through the Wright Square at 92.8 degrees is one and the angle which passes through the center of the Great Circle and out through the center of its neck is another. One might say that if these structures were built to verifiable celestial alignments that this is one very important angle that is off. They calculate its measured azimuth at 66.6  an error of .9 degrees or nearly one full degree from what they expect to find. This does not sound like very much but this sort of error adds up quickly in layouts of this magnitude.

Calculated distance between Great Circle and Wright Square. By B.L. Freeborn 2013.

Calculated distance between Great Circle and Wright Square. By B.L. Freeborn 2013.

But we have seen this number, 66, before. We saw it at East Forks. It is repeated no less than eleven times there. It is in the length and width of the square corner of East Fork, the radius of the top circle and it is used 8 times to space the candles. But this is the only time we have seen 66 in this earthwork … or maybe not!

Note that 7 OCD = 7/5ths mile = 1.4 miles = 7392 feet which equals 66 x 56 x 2 feet. This gives us not only 66 but 56.

Additionally, the distance 6 OCD = 6/5ths mile = 1.2 miles = 6336 feet = 56 x 56.5 x 2 feet. This gives both forms of 56. All of which is remarkably equal once again. And if we were in the habit of writing fractions as 5 of 7 or 5 of 6, then 56 appears again. The 57 is another number of importance. It is seen in the conversion from degrees to radians. There are 57.29 degrees to a radian. People who study objects that move in circles, like planets, prefer to calculate with radians.

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References/Footnotes:

  1. Hively, Ray, and Horn, Robert, Geometry and Astronomy in Prehistoric Ohio, “Journal for the History of Astronomy, Archaeoastronomy,” Supplement, Vol. 13, p.S1; also Science History Publications, 1982.      See:   http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu
  2. Romain, William F., Ph.D., Newark Earthwork Cosmology: This Island Earth, “Hopewell Archeology: The Newsletter of Hopewell Archeology in the Ohio River Valley,” Vol.6 (2), March 2005.   See:  http://www.nps.gov/mwac/hopewell/v6n2/one.htm
  3. Romain, William F., Ph.D., Design and Layout of the Newark Earthwork Complex, “Hopewell Archeology: The Newsletter of Hopewell Archeology in the Ohio River Valley,” Vol.6 (2), March 2005.  See:   http://www.nps.gov/mwac/hopewell/v6n2/two.htm
View from Geller Hill looking north towards Great Circle and Octagon. 2013

View from Geller Hill looking north towards Great Circle and Octagon. 2013

Perfection Lost, Perfection Found

By B.L. Freeborn © 2013, updated Nov. 2018

Right side of Newark Earthworks from Burks drawing.

Right side of Newark Earthworks from Burks drawing.

The most accurate existing map of the Newark Mounds was made by David Wyrick who found the much debated Holy Stones. It is similar in appearance to a map made by Burks and is found in Alrutz’s book. The most striking difference between the latter two and the Squier-Davis map is in the depiction of the large oval north of Wright Square which appears as a half circle in the Squier image. The structure lay very close to Raccoon Creek which was probably used to fill the oval for ceremonial use during spring festivals when the creek would have been full. The Squier survey gives a cross section of the neck of the oval that projects to the southwest towards the creek. It seems to be constructed in such a manner that water flow could have been restricted. (The east-west straight line is a railroad and the north-south wavy line is the canal built through the structures.)

Detail through neck of Oval at Newark Earthworks from Squier-Davis drawing.

Detail through neck of Oval at Newark Earthworks from Squier-Davis drawing.

The concept that this Oval could have been filled with water would be even more important to the Decalogue Debate if it can be shown to relate to the story of Noah, the ark and the flood as was suggested in the sideways “ark” appearance of the Decalogue Stone.

We leave the oval and notice that the square and oval are connected via mound lined paths to the Octagon very similar to those we saw at Thornborough. Those were about 200 feet across. These are also 200 feet across. The path from the Oval is different in that its middle is raised perhaps to allow foot traffic while the ditch on each side is flooded ceremonially.

new6paths

The paths at Newark Earthworks form angles as they meet at the Octagon. Drawing made from satellite image and blending in missing portions from Squier-Davis Drawing. By B.L. Freeborn.

Having arrived at the Octagon via the path we note that the paths form angles as they converge. They are depicted by each artist in a strikingly similar manner. Their angles and a bit of math is shown in the above image. We find a repeat of the number 56 and the reappearance of 584. The 140 is twice 70 which we have seen before. A new and simple number appears and that is an angle of 50 degrees.

Does 50 have any pertinence to our growing list? Indeed it does! The engineer of the past left no possible element in his design to chance. The sin 50 degrees = .766. We have seen this number in Newark’s distance from the Serpent Mound (76.6 nautical miles). We shall see it again. We might want to pause to note that the square root of 7.66 is 2.76767…. (repeating infinitely) which makes it quite interesting. While the root of 7.7 is a slightly less impressive 2.77 although the 7’s are repeated in the root. From Geller Hill, which sits rather quietly to the southwest of the Earthworks, it is 7.7 miles south to where Wyrick and others found the Decalogue stone at the site where the Great Stone Mound was. In other words, Geller Hill and Great Stone Mound are located 7.7 miles apart. We might want to add that from Grave Creek Mound it is 79.2 miles to Geller Hill, a strikingly important number! We shall look next at what else Romain discovered about this hill.

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