The Adena Tablets – The Grave Creek Stone

Smithsonian photo of Grave Creek Stone from McCulloch's site

Smithsonian photo of Grave Creek Stone from McCulloch’s site

© 2015 B. L. Freeborn

The Grave Creek Stone was found in the Grave Creek Mound close to the Ohio River in West Virginia. Translations have been done, one in jest, but none seem satisfying. An excellent place to review the controversy surrounding the stone is at J. Huston McCulloch’s site linked here. The original Smithsonian photo of the stone and Schoolcraft’s art are from his site and his efforts are greatly appreciated.

Seth Eastman drawing of stone from Schoolcraft's 1850 book.

Seth Eastman drawing of stone from Schoolcraft’s 1850 book.

There are several ideas that have been consistently overlooked in translating the stone. The lines on the stone are always assumed to be guides for writing such as ruled school paper. Since most persons attempting to translate this stone read and write English which is presented horizontally it has never occurred to anyone they are not guide lines and represent something else. Perhaps they represent lines of longitude and the stone should be rotated to be read in a vertical manner.

Grave Creek Mound, Moundsville, W. Virginia

Grave Creek Mound, Moundsville, W. Virginia

Continuing with the idea they represent longitude note that the Grave Creek Mound lies at 80 degrees 44 minutes and 40 seconds West longitude and 39 degrees 55 minutes North.  For easier understanding this is 80 44 40 and 39 55.  Twice the value of the latitude is 39.55 x 2 = 79.10.  The 80 44 and 40 all sound very even and if 80 is 4 x 20 then they all repeat 4 . The sum of 80, 44 and 55 is 179 which repeats 79 and 1. This brings to mind that the sum of 79 and 1 is 80 or the longitude. But we assume that measurement of location was beyond North Americans until the European influence. Perhaps it was. But the numbers suggest otherwise. They speak of an awareness of Greenwich, England and its zero significance. If the lines on the stone represent longitude and latitude then there is a very good reason to assume the longitude of this mound is not accidental. Compare the longitude and latitude of the Miamisburg Mound which is very similar and sits on the far side of Ohio below Dayton: 39 37 39.6 N which can be written 39.63. The radius of the Earth is 3960 miles. This number is found twice in this latitude. Double the number as done at Grave Creek and find 79.2. Both Grave Creek and Miamisburg demonstrate the radius of the planet in their positioning. The longitude: 84 16 51 repeats the 4 idea in two of the numbers. The sum of 84 and 16 is 100. The sum of 39, 37, and this 100 is 176 or twice 88 which once again emphasizes 4 as 4 x 22. A square of sides of 4 has a diagonal of 5.65. The mile is 60 x 88 feet.

Miamisburg Mound

Miamisburg Mound, Miamisburg, Ohio

Consider also the location of the Alligator Effigy Mound a few miles west of the extensive Newark Earthworks in mid-Ohio. They lie at 40 4 12 N and 82 30 4 W. The latitude is once again full of 4’s. However the longitude, although nearly on the half degree, does not seem that significant until one realizes it can be written as 82.50 W. The former repeats the 4’s as expected. The latter is 528 in reverse or a tenth mile. The sum of 40, 4, 82, and 30 is 156 with the ever significant 56 at the end. The sum of 40, 4 and 12 is 56. The sum of 82 and 30 is 112 or twice 56. It is improbable that this site was chosen at random and displays these unique numbers just a few miles from an enormous earthwork that uses a 1/5th mile (1056 feet) as one of its major dimensions.

Comparison with other art from Ireland and Georgia

Comparison with other art from Ireland and Georgia

The decipherment of the stone resolves itself quickly as seen here when it is compared to Kerbstone 86 from the ancient ruins in Knowth, Ireland (3000 BC) and when compared to the Metcalf stone from Georgia. The Metcalf Stone began this series. The kerbstone was studied in a prior posting as well. The comparison shows the symbols from the kerbstone are located in the middle line if the stone is rotated and read in a vertical manner. The top is confirmed by comparison to the Metcalf stone as shown in the image. The two symbols at the bottom of the columns are out of alignment intentionally. One indicates 3 and the other 2 for 32 or the square of 5.65 is where the misalignment lies.

Numbers of Grave Creek Stone, Par II

grave creek sketch mod 2bAlthough it is believed these glyphs are letters, it is more likely they are simple small pictures that tell the same story as the Metcalf and as depicted on the Mystery Stone from New Hampshire. It is the same story depicted on the other Adena Tablets. Several of the glyphs appear to be forerunners to Phoenician letters including the symbols interpreted here as numbers at the bottom of the middle row.

grave creek readingIt is as if this is all to commemorate a separation of the North Pole from Magnetic North. It is as if they honored it with phrases like:

Oh High Yew!  which still echoes in …………Ohio!

The stone is then translated as shown and reads:

The two eyes lie at 79 degrees and 56.5 degrees in the lake.

The object struck the pole at the top and pushed it down.

The pole was stricken by two arrows and craters.

It was split and shaken.

The one place of the mountain became a great valley.

It measured the heavens.

The numbers’ order rotated.

Arisen is a pole and it is the foot for measurement of angles.

Measure also from the stricken pole place.


The last stone in this translation series will be the Newberry Tablet. The numbers are easy. Yes, same old, same old numbers! Imagine that!


Much more Information at:

J. Huston McCulloch’s site


Back to the very beginning of series on Adena Tablets

Previous Post on the Bat Creek Stone

Posts on:  Shaman Stone, Adena Pipe,

Numbers and their Meaning, Ramey Peet Tablet, Gridley Stone

McKensie and Bainbridge Tablets, Cincinnati Tablet,

Egyptian Art Comparison, Wilmington Tablet, Lakin A Tablet,

The Gaitskill Clay Tablet, Allen Tablet, Grave Creek,

The Kiefer Tablet, Wright, Lakin B and Meigs Tablets,

Berlin Tablet, Gaitskill Stone Tablet, The Low Tablet,

The Waverly Tablet, Metcalf Stone, and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

The Ohio Adena Pipe – Art from Ancient Ohio

The Adena Effigy Pipe from Ancient Ohio

The Adena Effigy Pipe from Ancient Ohio

The Ohio effigy pipe is from Chillicothe in southern Ohio. It is attributed to the period 800BC to 1 AD. It is part of the Ohio Historical Society’s Collection in Columbus, Ohio.

The classic explanations are available at the Society’s page. (here) As part of this study we only need notice that some parts of the man’s depiction are symbolic rather than realistic. Compare his features to the men on the Ramey Pete Tablet (see below) and notice the unique hair style may be an attempt by the artist to make what had been symbolic into reality. In Luwian/Hittite Glyphs this symbol means a cubit or measurement.

Hittite/Luwian Glyph for cubitum/measure

Hittite/Luwian Glyph for cubitum/measure

Further symbolism is found in the loincloth. It depicts a snake and we may assume the snake overlays a ‘pole.’ This then symbolizes the comet that struck the North Pole. The feathered bustle is clearly a wing and the wing in Hittite/Luwian glyphs means army. Ironically, a wing in English, both old and new, means troops or a portion of an army.

Without need for much explanation notice the arrow carved on the chest points upwards towards the gaping open mouth like it’s pointing out ‘a crater.’

The two earrings represent the two craters of Baal. The mouthpiece, the functional part of the pipe, also suggests the crater on the crown of the Earth. Indeed, this cupped mouthpiece as crater has further symbolism if the two L hairpieces are considered to be symbols about measure. It suggests there is a crater and two poles. There are definitely two poles. If we are to believe this story there is at least one if not two craters also.

Ramey Peet Tablet from Cahokia Mound, obverse

Ramey Peet Tablet from Cahokia Mound, obverse

Numerically, the mouth with the two ears makes three and the eyes make two. This gives the 23,32 which suggests the Arctic Circle. The bustle has 10 feathers. Next to the bustle neatly placed are the two hands. Counting fingers as well as feathers find: 1, 4, 10,4,1 or 141 and 141. This recalls the value of the square root of 2 at 1.414. The sum of 141 and 141 is 282 and this is half of 564.

This then completes the essential knowledge of Baal and it is beautifully woven into the art of this functional object. Similarly lifelike and even more symbolic is the Ohio Shaman Bear Statue found in Newark, Ohio which is the topic of the next post.

See more at:

Back to the very beginning of series on Adena Tablets

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Posts on: Ramey Peet Tablet, Gridley Stone

McKensie and Bainbridge Tablets, Cincinnati Tablet,

Egyptian Art Comparison, Wilmington Tablet, Lakin A Tablet,

The Gaitskill Clay Tablet, Allen Tablet, Grave Creek,

The Kiefer Tablet, Wright, Lakin B and Meigs Tablets,

Berlin Tablet, Gaitskill Stone Tablet, The Low Tablet,

The Waverly Tablet, Metcalf Stone, and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

The Adena Tablets of Ancient Ohio – The Cincinnati Tablet

© 2014 B. L. Freeborn

The Cincinnati Tablet is a beautiful work of art that has come to us through the centuries because of the wisdom of our ancient elders. They knew that in time we would forget the important message this tablet carefully depicts. The wise knew that if enough significant works of art were buried with them that long after their bones had turned to dust and their societies had vanished the mounds would attract the attention of future grave robbers. This predictable curiosity would drive them to dig and rediscover this important message left to us. It is as if the mounds were intended to function as valuable time capsules. Finding the pieces is the second to last step in the process. The last step is pondering and understanding them. We are presented with this important message. Can we read it?

Cincinnati Tablet

The Cincinnati Tablet from Skinner’s 1885 report.

This tablet was found in a mound not too distant from where it currently resides. It is displayed in the Cincinnati Museum Center at Union Station – poorly. It is not to be found with artifacts from the people of the area in the Natural History wing but in a dim lonely corner of the urban exhibits in the Cincinnati History Museum wing. The lighting is dismal. The location suggests it is to be forgotten. So indeed! Not understanding how beautifully this artist portrayed the ancient but still vitally important message, the curators have buried it in plain sight.

Comparing it to the Wilmington Tablet, it can be seen the basic layout is the same. The comet is the center piece with its two wings along the top. Within its center body are two nested comets. Each comet has one tail and two eyes. The flower images are seen in the Waverly Tablet and in studying that tablet it was suggested they have a dual meaning. They represent both people and flowers. They are ‘shot’ through the head. There are four flowers. At the bottom are mirrored comets once again. Between them is a dot in the negative. On each outer side there is a vertical bar. The two bars represent the two poles, true north and magnetic north, as we know it today. This arrangement gives a number as we count across. One bar, one comet, center dot, etc. or the value 11111. This value squared is 123454321. This number itself can be found on the tablet. Count the dots from the bottom to top, (1, 2, 3), then the center bar (4), add the bottom dot for (5), then reverse the process and obtain 4,3,2,1.

Cincinnati Tablet

Cincinnati Tablet. Art from ancient Ohio as exhibited. Image darkened to add contrast.

If they understood longitude and latitude they should have understood where they were. The longitude and latitude of Cincinnati at the location where the tablet was found is North 39 degrees 6′, West 84 degrees 32′. The sum 39 + 84 is 123. The sum of 32 + 6 = 38. Twice 38 is 76.  (See 76 below.)The sum of the longitude and latitude values of nearby Milford where several complex mounds were built is 123.45. The sum at Fort Ancient is 123.5. The location of the Great Serpent Mound is 83 degrees 25′ 48″ W, 39 degrees 1’31” N and the location of the Newark Earthworks is 82 degrees 25′ 50″ W, 40 degrees 2′ 26″. This is exactly one degree of longitude apart. The location of the Seip Mounds is 83 degrees and zero minutes west and 39 degrees 22′ N. The sum of these two numbers is 122 and 22. Beyond coincidence?

Since we have begun counting we shall continue. Prominently at the top 7 spaces are marked out (or 8 lines). At the bottom there are 6 spaces (or 7 lines). This creates the number 76 and as noted in previous posts, it suggests the period of Halley’s Comet which is 76 to 77 years. This confirms the topic is about comets. Combine the numbers as 77 and obtain another reference to the comet. Combine them as 86 and obtain a reference to the diameter of the Sun (864,000 miles). Combine them as 78 and obtain the diameter of Earth through the pole (7899 miles). Sum the 6, 7, 7 and 8 and obtain 28 or half of 56.

Even more eloquent, notice that there are actually 9 spaces at the top but only 7 within the hash marks and 2 outside. Create 792 easily from them and compare this to the diameter of the planet at 7920 miles. Similarly, count the bottom as 8, 6 and 2 or create 862 which reminds one of the diameter of the Sun.

Side view of Cincinnati Tablet

Side view of Cincinnati Tablet

The very edge of the top and bottom are scored with small marks. J. Ralston Skinner counted the marks and reported them in his 1885-1886 report on this stone. He noted 24 spaces/ 25 hash marks on the top and 23 spaces/ 24 hash marks on the bottom. The sum of these numbers is 96 and the average is 24. There are 24 hours in a day. The top has 23 spaces. There are 23.934 hours in a sidereal day. Combining 23 and 96 obtain 23.96 or very nearly this number.

Count out the dots. There are 16. The Earth travels 1.6 million miles in a day. There are 2 bars. The 2 and 16 combined creates 216. The diameter of the Moon is 2160 miles.

There are 8 dots in the upper third. There are 6 dots in the middle third. There are 4 dots in the center. There are 2 dots at the bottom. This creates the series 8642 or it refers to the diameter of the Sun at 864,336 miles.

The upper third has 3 dots left and right and 2 in the center. From the center out then is found 23. Reversing it is 32. The Arctic Circle ends at 23 degrees and 30 seconds. The tilt of the planet is this same value. The square of 5.65 is 32.

The center third provides 222. A square of sides 2222 has a diagonal equal to the constant pi (3.14) times 1000. The sum of 22 and 22 is 44. Divide the circumference of the planet by 44 and obtain 565 miles. Forty-four is found in the center bar as well. Count the 4 dots and notice there are 4 bump outs. Recall also a square with sides of 4 has a diagonal of 5.65.

Cincinnati Tablet Museum View. Image darkened for contrast.

Cincinnati Tablet Museum View. Image darkened for contrast.

The dots on each side number 6 which creates 66. The velocity of the planet is 66,600 miles per hour. In the center there are 4 dots. Below this is the one dot in the negative. This creates the number 5. Combine this with the 6 on each side and obtain 56 once again. Or count it out as 1 and 4 which reminds us of the fingers in the Gaitskill Clay Tablet. Combine them and create 14 and then recall there are 4 bumps in the center. 4 x 14 is 56.

The exterior dimensions of the stone and its shape provide numbers that appear familiar. It was measured in 1885 by Skinner to be 3.00″ x 5.00″ x 5/8 inch thick. The width of the narrow middle is 2.5 inches. The sum of these three numbers is 3 + 5 + .625 or 8.625 which recalls the diameter of the Sun. The diagonal of the piece is 5.831 inches. The distance Earth travels in a year is 584 million miles. The thickness expressed as 5/8 repeats this value. The circumference of the piece is 16. The Earth travels 1.6 million miles in a day.

The curved portion on each side recalls the idea of a crater. They are 4.5 inches across and .25 inches deep. The area of the curve on each side is .563 inches. The ratio of the narrow width to the length is 2.5 to 5 or .5. The ratio of the width to the length is 3 to 5 or .6. The ratios are .5 and .6 or a reminder of 56 once again.

Cincinnati Tablet. Image before darkening for contrast.

Cincinnati Tablet. Image before darkening for contrast.

Overall, the tablet is extraordinary. It relates this ancient message to us with ease and symmetrical beauty. It tells us we did not crawl out of caves 10,000 years ago to create society as we know it. Indeed, it tells us great scientists once explored and measured the heavens. But the unimaginable happened.

Perhaps the Inch System of today was inherited from this distant prior time. The measure of length of a Hunab found at ancient Teotihuacan, Mexico is 41.66 inches. (1) Multiply this by the diameter of the Sun (.864) and obtain a simple yard of 36 inches.

Yet to be reviewed are the mysterious (next in series) Bainbridge and McKensie Mound Tablets, the Ramey Peet Tablet from Cahokia Mound, the way too accurate Gridley Stone, the beautiful Ohio Adena Pipe now a Ohio State symbol, and the Hopewell Shaman – Bear. Many interesting posts are to come.


(1) See Hugh Harleston, Jr. pg. 241-263 in “Mysteries of the Mexican Pyramids,” by Peter Tompkins, Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 1976.

From Harleston, Hugh, Jr.  “A Mathematical Analysis of Teotihuacan.” Mexico City: XLI International Congress of Americanists. October 3, 1974.


Back to the very beginning of series on Adena Tablets

Previous Post on Egyptian Art Comparison

Posts on: Wilmington Tablet, Lakin A Tablet, The Gaitskill Clay Tablet,

Allen Tablet, Grave Creek, The Kiefer Tablet,

Wright, Lakin B and Meigs Tablets,

Berlin Tablet, Gaitskill Stone Tablet, The Low Tablet,

The Waverly Tablet,  Metcalf Stone,

and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

J. Ralston Skinner’s articles from 1886.

The Adena Tablets of Ancient Ohio – The Kiefer Tablet

Kiefer Tablet: An Ancient Ohio Tablet

Art from Ancient Ohio: The Kiefer Tablet

© 2014 B. L. Freeborn

The Kiefer Tablet was found in Miami County, Ohio. Some people think it represents a bird’s tail and feet which is a change from the phallic stigma most ancient artwork suffers under.

This is an exercise in numbers and once again an opportunity to observe Luwian (La Ang-a) Hieroglyphics embedded in art half a world a way from where it should be found. The image is in the correct orientation to view this tablet. The Ohio History Museum displays it on its side. This is the lower portion and there is a very similar tablet that we will look at in the future that gives a good idea what else was inscribed on this sandstone piece.



On the left and right side are two designs described as feathers by some authors. They very well may be, but they also bear a strong resemblance to glyph #329 which has the sound ‘hwi.’ In this use the tail is pushed to the far side to allow it to look like a feather. Indeed, in the Grave Creek Tablet the words ‘seat, quarrel-seat, quarrel-seat’ were proposed and now we find ‘hwi’ which is easily translated to hwie or hwy in Old English. The modern spelling of the words: what, where, when and why places the w before the h. The original spellings placed the h before the w just as the glyph suggests. Now we have a double exclamation of ‘why, why’ and assuming both tablets relate to the same idea then whatever occurred at this ‘seat of quarrel’ was distressful.

Indeed, like a modern cartoon the image expresses a collision with clarity. The U shape appears to strike the lower shape and a ‘bang’ seems to emanate.

Although the above is conjecture the numbers are real. We begin taking note of numbers in this center shape. We can easily count 2 lines, 1 band, 2 lines and then it repeats. Or we can count it as 1, 1, 2 and then 2,1,1. Or if you prefer 1,1,2,1,1. Any way you please, we need to attach some meaning to at least one of these sets. The 212,212 sounds like the 21212 of the last tablet which suggested something that repeats. Multiplied by pi (3.1415) it is 66637. Multiply 212 by pi and it is exactly 666. The velocity of Earth is 66624 mph. The 112 is 2 x 56 which is a number often found in ancient art and sites. The 2,1,1 allows for someone to read it in reverse and obtain the same number or multiply by pi and obtain 663, a less accurate reminder of Earth’s velocity. Also possible is the sum of the two numbers which gives 333. This number was clearly expressed in the previously studied Grave Creek and Allen Tablets.

Next there is a whole series of numbers expressed around the bottom oval. They appear to start at the left and move around it. At the top left find the large black stripe as 1, then the exterior and interior triangles as 7 so 17. This is an important number to this message as well. Or perhaps it begins with the triangles and we find 3,4 or 4,3 triangles which gives us 34 which we saw on the previous tablets. It is also 2 x 17. We have seen 43 as well but it appeared as 2 x 43 or 86.

At the bottom find 12 black triangles and 12 white triangles. The sum 24 reminds us of the hours in a day, while 1212 is the reappearance of a repeating pattern. This pattern suggests 1 became 2 repeatedly.

On the right side there are 5 triangles and on the outside there are 4 so that we have 45 or 54 or maybe just plain 9. Twice 45 is 90 and twice 54 is 108. Both are significant. The number of degrees between north to east, east to south, etc. is 90. The distance between the Earth and the Moon is 108 Moon diameters.

Then it ends with 1 black area, 1 white and two triangles or 112 which is 2 x 56 again. This confirms it is to be read left to right as done here.

Considering the left side the triangles in white are 7 and on the right are 9. This creates 79. The sum of the bottom triangles is 24. Assembling these as 7,9,24 or 7924 reminds us of the diameter of this planet or 7920 miles. Summing them gives 7 + 9 + 24 or 40. A square of 40 to the side has 56.5 as a diagonal. The 56 reappears.

Other combinations can be argued but this gives us plenty to look at. In review then we have on this tablet 108, 112, 1212, 14, 17, 24, 333, 34, 40, 43, 54, 56, 56.5, 66624, 7, 79, 86, 9, 90, and 7924. This gives us a substantial list of numbers which is more than describing it as ‘feathers and a bird’s tail’ as some have done.

To keep a complete and updated list including the numbers previously found on tablets we have: 108, 112, 1212, 14, 17, 212, 21212, 23, 23 32, 23.5, 24, 26, 32, 33, 333, 34, 40, 43, 52, 54, 56, 56.5, 66, 66624, 7, 79, 86, 9, 90, 7924 and 8642.

This then leads us to look at the next tablet for a greater understanding of the Ancient Ohioan’s message, method of writing and their language.

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Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

The Adena Tablets of Ancient Ohio – The Grave Creek Tablet

© 2014 B. L. Freeborn

The Adena Tablet most similar in design to the Allen is the Grave Creek Tablet. The only existing drawings are from Henry R. Schoolcraft done in 1845 and a re-drawing done in 1851 by Eastman. It was found at the Grave Creek Mound which lies next to the Ohio River in West Virginia.

Grave Creek Tablet. after Eastman drawing and Schoolcraft 1851.

Grave Creek Tablet. after Eastman drawing and Schoolcraft 1851.

Once again we see the six circles aligned in two rows but this time there are details. Two squares are in the middle in alignment with two sets of vertical lines so that this design forms the center of the image. The exterior triangles are so placed to give the impression that if it was possible the stone would have been removed at these places so that it would have been six circles joined by the center bar. Additionally, the triangles in the upper/lower center are doubled so that there are four sets of two or 8 angles. There are six circles, four side angles and two inner squares. We might sum up the image by saying 8,6,4,2, or 8642, or at the very least a series of even numbers.

To go deeper into the meaning of this tablet we must interpret the symbols. This requires a translation of the most difficult type. The meaning and/or sounds associated with the symbols is unknown and so is the language of the people who made the symbols. However, we do have insight into the story that is being related by the stones if we accept the Metcalf Stone’s interpretation as accurate. But then again, Georgia is a long way from Ohio and there is no reason to think the artists were attempting to depict the same subject. More notably the resemblance to any other script does not mean the person who made the art was using it the way other persons have. With that caveat ….

Luwian Glyph: Sol #191.

Luwian Glyph: Sol #191.

This image is so strikingly similar to a Luwian Hieroglyph that it must be noted. These glyphs have been discussed in other posts and the point has been made that the word Luwian should actually be La Ang-a. The glyph is #191 and is called the Sun, or Sol in Latin. This is not the only glyph to be found on these tablets so its significance should be explored. Note that the diameter of the Sun is 864,322 and this is similar to the number 8642 above. The number of seconds in a day, 86400, is also similar.

Another glyph is clearly found and that is #402 Scutella meaning shield. This is simply the double concentric circle. Its sound is ‘sa.’ Could this be six sa or sores? The two diamonds in the center may be glyph #423. It is a small rhomboid and has the sound ‘ku.’ This then gives us the opportunity to sound out a few ancient (however improbable) words. So we have sa-sa, ku-sa-sa, ku-sa-sa. It has already been suggested that these are Luwian (or La Ang-a) words and a good source of La Ang-a might be an Anglo-Saxon dictionary. Thus these interesting words: sa-sa is ‘sess’ just like in sister which means ‘a seat.’ So a sister is a seat. (The ‘ter’ just means it is a noun.) We can also find the word ceac which means cauldron or vat. It is the root word of castle which comes from its variant ceas meaning quarrel. Either word ceac or ceas will do and in reality both are descriptive. It is ‘a cup or place of a quarrel’ which is reinforced by following it by a word which means seat (sa-sa or sess). So perhaps it reads sess, keas-sess, keas-sess. In modern terms it could be seat, quarrel-seat, quarrel-seat.

The Metcalf Stone supplies the answer to what a ‘quarrel-seat’ or ‘keas-sess’ might be. A comet crater is the seat of an impact or a quarrel between planet and comet. It also explains the association of cup to quarrel. We might also pause to note that the rhomboid had a ‘ku’ sound and both cup and quarrel preserve this sound.

This tablet does not reveal any details that confirm this in any way. What is very real though are the numbers clearly portrayed. Three circles and three circles creates 33. Six circles (concentric) and six more becomes 66. Two squares and three circles is 23 and its reverse is 32 for 23 32 as we saw in the last post. The pattern 2,1,2,1,2 as 21212 which can be looked at as something that repeats. Interestingly, 21212 x pi is 66637. Pi is used in circular measure such as measuring the velocity of Earth at 66624 mph.

Twenty-six is also dramatically formed by the circles and squares, and 2 x 26 is 52. The number 56 can be formed in the same manner as it was found on the Allen Tablet or 2 + 3 = 5 and 2 x 3 = 6.

This stone then gives us the following collection of numbers: 8642, 33, 66, 56, 23 32, 52 and 21212 which builds upon the prior list of 7, 33, 34, 23.5, 23 32 and 56.

To simplify, it has been previously found that the 33 and 34 relate to the same concept. The 23.5 and 23 32 as we saw in the prior post are equivalent. The 7 and 52 are also obviously interrelated as in days in a week and weeks in a year.

And here we must end, since this is a tablet which expects us to know the story to appreciate its message. We will look next at the bottom portion of a stone which still actually exists!!! and can be seen!!! The Kiefer Tablet is in the Ohio Historical Society Museum and we shall study it next.

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Beginning post and index on Adena Tablets:

Post on Metcalf Stone. Pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

The Adena Tablets of Ancient Ohio – The Allen Tablet

© 2014 B. L. Freeborn

There are about a dozen small stones decorated with art that are called the Adena Tablets. They were found in various places throughout Ohio and in neighboring states. Sometimes they were found lying on the surface of the ground, but most often they were associated with mound sites. There are several persons who have published translations such as David W. Penny in the Mid-Continental Journal of Archaeology in 1980, J. Ralston Skinner in the Cincinnati Society of Natural History in 1885, (Note the time span.) and Duncan Caldwell in 1997 in Ohio Archaeologist.

A new way of reading them will be suggested here. So, we begin with the easiest only because it is so obscured by time there is virtually nothing left and ultimately we will be reading such beautiful art as the Ohio Adena Pipe, now a Ohio State symbol, and the Hopewell Shaman – Bear. Check out the links at Ohio History to see these items.

The Allen Tablet, Art from Ancient Ohio

The first reading is of the Allen Tablet as shown in the sketch. (No better image was found.) It is unclear if David Penny drew this or if he took it from Ellis H. Holmes’ 1944 article. Either way, all that can be seen is six circular blurbs. The original is long missing so there is no way to verify its design further. Penny reports it is made of sandstone. It is only 2″ wide and 3 ½” tall so it easily fit within the palm of a hand. These were often covered with red ocher and some suggest they were used in printing or laying on designs. Based on reading Lena Lenape Indian traditions, it is possible the red ocher was used to make them more beautiful and to make the designs leap out.

So, …. how is it this stone just happened to be 2″ by 3 ½” ? Of all the random sizes available how did the artist just happen to use measurements that fall so close to standard English inch sizes? We shall examine this topic closer in the future. Also note it was 3/4 of an inch thick and then observe the numbers as noted in the diagram that can be made from these dimensions: 7, 34 and 23.5.

From the art itself other numbers can be created just by counting the circular blurbs. Find: 23 32, and 56. The most obvious should be noted: three circles and three circles creates 33.

These are seemingly six random meaningless numbers, yet we see 34 + 56 = 90 and there are 90 degrees from the equator to the pole and 90 degrees in each quadrant of direction North to East, East to South, etc. Degrees are composed each of 60 minutes and 23.5 degrees can be written as 23 degrees 30 minutes which looks remarkably like the 23 32 obtained from counting blurbs. The Arctic Circle is defined by this latitude.

Seven we realize is the number of days in a week but there is no way these people also had seven day weeks or perhaps they did. Either way, seven is of great importance throughout a vast number of old world religions.

But we saw this 23 32 before in the Newark Earthworks. And we saw it in the Scottish Pict’s Aberlemno Stone. We also saw 56 in both of those and we found 34 there as well. Could this art lend credence to that strange tale related about the validity of the Newark Decalogue Stone?

Perhaps…. this is more Baalist artwork. But what does it all mean?

The mystery unravels further one stepping stone at a time.


Index to posts on Adena Stones and beginning post:

Metcalf Stone

Next post on Grave Creek Tablet, and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

Great Serpent Mound of Ohio

Without commentary….. a video on the Great Serpent Mound Earthworks in Southern Ohio.

. . .

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A Visual Tour of Newark Earthworks

Without commentary….. a video on the Newark Earthworks including the Octagon, Observatory Circle, and Great Circle in Central Ohio.


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The Newark Decalogue Stone and Earthworks – Full Article PDF

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Group of Four Mounds called the Bird within the Great Circle at Newark, OH.

Group of Four Mounds called the Bird within the Great Circle at Newark, OH.


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What Fits Where?

By B.L. Freeborn © 2013

circle-octagon only

Circle and Octagon at Newark, Ohio from Squier -Davis drawing.

The most fascinating part of the Newark Earthworks is the Octagon and how very many things are going on inside it. It is mathematically a very busy place. In every respect this structure is a monument to mathematics and geometry.

It begins with a circle meeting an irregular octagon which is almost a distorted square. They join via a path or neck. Opposite this neck on the southwest side of the circle is an area dubbed the observation area due to its height and view it gives through this neck into the octagon. In addition, the circle has a slight ditch surrounding its exterior perimeter.

We have already noted that the square roots of 7.7 and 7.66 are 2.77 and 2.76. The outside distance of the neck is 270 – 274 feet on the north side and 278 to 281 feet on the south side. Assuming some form of creep is present the average of 270 and 281 is about 276 feet. The square of this value is 75900 feet or just shy of 76,000. The distance proposed between the two centers was 1540 or 2 x 770. The square root of 770 is 27.7. It would seem the original intention was to replicate the 770 in the neck as a multiple of its square root.

Hively/Horn, measuring from the middle top of the mounds, determined the neck measures 292 on the north and 296 on the south. The first number we saw as the distance from the Great Circle to Wright Square, 2920′, and twice this value is 584. The number 296 is the gematria value for Earth in Hebrew. The square root of 8.8 is 2.96. This 8.8 or 88 will appear again shortly. One final point, 292 x 296 = 86432 which reminds one of the diameter of the Sun at 864,337 miles and cannot even remotely be a coincidence.

The present distance across the throat at the base of the mounds measures somewhere in the range of 110 to 113.7 feet. Twice 56 is 112. Twice 56.5 is 113. This is a good indication of the original value.

The Observatory Circle at its southwestern extreme has an observation area. According to Hively the area was 170 feet long by 100 feet and 11 feet high in the year 1847. The number 170 is half of 340. Note that 90 degrees minus 34 is 56.

Octagon with 8 moundsThe octagon is composed of 8 long mounds that are separated at the corners. Within the Octagon there are 8 mounds, one at each break in the corners which seem to orbit within the Octagon. Recall that the earth is one of 8 planets orbiting the Sun. Wright Square also had 8 interior mounds. The eight sides plus the 8 inner mounds suggests the number 88. We have seen this number in the distance this Earthwork lies from The Great Serpent, 88.15 miles, and from Miamisburg Mound, 87.7 nautical miles. Each side averages in length from its mid-point 620 feet. Their sum is 4973 feet. This is a midpoint measurement. A measurement of the exterior perimeter is just over 5000 feet. The mounds measure on average 584 feet in length. The 8 interior mounds create an inner octagon. Measurement of the perimeter at the midpoints of the inner mounds measures 4400 feet.

The exterior circumference of 5000 x 88 = 440,000. This number, 440, appeared when the circumference of the earth in miles was divided by 56.5. It repeats in the perimeter of the inner mounds.Squares in the Newark octagon

The diameter of the Observatory Circle, or a fifth mile, is not restricted to the circle. It can be found twice in the Octagon. The diameter of the Great Circle can be found there as well. This is better explained by looking at the image above. Now we see the “circle inscribed in a square” and “the square inscribed in a circle.”  This is the beloved old world exercise explained earlier.

By way of the next image we can see that the two circumscribed squares have rotated with respect to each other. This will become important when we discuss the cosmology implied here.

Squares rotate

Hively and Horn show and Romain also proves that the diameter of a square 1056 feet (their OCD) is used to generate the shape of the octagon. The diameter of a 1056′ square is 1493′. By making an arc of radius 1493′ from each of the four corners as shown the four remaining corners of the octagon can be generated.

This does not create a regular octagon in a stop sign shape. Instead this creates a square with sides that are broken outwards at the midpoints which is also important in the cosmology implied here.

Building the Newark Octagon

The question as to how big this exterior square is remains. We can measure its dimensions as displayed in the earthwork but it needs to be confirmed. The diagonals are 1728 and 1717 feet. The sides measure roughly 1227, 1212, 1210, and 1213. (Hively) Compare this to a calculated diagonal of 1737 and side of 1228 feet. The largest side of the square is the end facing the circle. It is not an optical illusion that end is larger. The average length of each is then 1215 feet. This is 607′ per each of the 8 bars and 8 inner mounds. This might imply the relationship 6 x 88 = 5280 feet to the mile.

Largest Square within Newark OctagonThe two diameters 1728 and 1717 differ from the calculated 1737. The first differs by 9′ and the second by 20′. In other words, the most northern corner is pushed in considerably to create this number. The number 1717 repeats the 17 which appeared in the observation area. The number 1728 is 864 x 2.

Calculating the largest diameter at Newark Octagon All in all, a very pleasing geometric harmony is produced by continuously repeating the same numbers. The next image adds the largest square used and completes the Octagon.All the Squares within Newark Octagon






  1. Hively, Ray, and Horn, Robert, Geometry and Astronomy in Prehistoric Ohio, “Journal for the History of Astronomy, Archaeoastronomy,” Supplement, Vol. 13, p.S1; also Science History Publications, 1982.      See:
  2. Romain, William F., Ph.D., Newark Earthwork Cosmology: This Island Earth, “Hopewell Archeology: The Newsletter of Hopewell Archeology in the Ohio River Valley,” Vol.6 (2), March 2005.   See:
  3. Romain, William F., Ph.D., Design and Layout of the Newark Earthwork Complex, “Hopewell Archeology: The Newsletter of Hopewell Archeology in the Ohio River Valley,” Vol.6 (2), March 2005.  See: