Ancient Riddles to Test Our Wits: Ancient or Modern Copies?

Elephant Tablet found during construction of Cuenca Airport, Ecuador

Elephant Tablet found during construction of Cuenca Airport, Ecuador

© 2016 B. L. Freeborn, updated August 2022

This piece from the Crespi Collection found during construction of the Airport in Cuenca, Ecuador is obviously related to the three stones shown below. An image of the Cuenca stele was published in a book by Barry Fell in 1976. The other three are from Burrow’s Cave which was reportedly found in 1982. In a previous post this stone was translated. Can it be determined if the other three are copies of this stone and if the copies were made relatively recently?

Using transliteration into Paleo-Hebrew circa 200 to 100 BC and Hebrew Letters as derived by J. Huston McCulloch in his study of the Newark Decalogue Stone from Ohio, the Elephant Tablets are translated with the aid of the Anglo-Saxon Language.

These copies of the elephant stone are believed to be from Burrows Cave which means their authenticity is in question.

These copies of the elephant stele are believed to be from Burrow’s Cave which means their authenticity is in question.

Compare the detail in the elephant and Sun. The Sun should appear as a dual reference to Baal’s crater as an origin. The Cuenca shows two eyes and lines radiating from a central O. The trunk of the elephant does not show the all important crater shape in any of the other copies. The back of the mammoth does not appear broken and in the eyebrow shape of Hudson Bay. If it was copied from the Cuenca Stele then the ‘copier’ was far removed from the significance of the detail in it.

The overall presentation on circular and chipped tile shapes is consistent with the story of Baal. However, the stones on the left and right appear freshly machined. And finally, the inscriptions in line 1 and 2 are different than the Cuenca.

The letter ‘th’ in the first line is not reversed as in the Cuenca example which suggests two possibilities. The first is both lines are to be read left to right. The second possibility is the copier was unaware of why the ‘th’ was reversed in the first line and corrected it. The lifespan of the copier cannot be determined by this difference just that he might have thought it was an error in the original. The middle stone’s N (center of first line) is truer to the Paleo-Hebrew style. But it also appears to be an L which then gives the word BL or Baal when read right left.

Lastly, note the facing C’s in the middle line of all four. These were seen in other tablets from Ohio and in art from Knowth, Ireland. Previously, using Luwian glyphs the meaning Great Origin or Mighty Crater was derived from this pattern. It also leads one to another translation of the middle line. If the ‘Th’ stands alone to represent ‘the’ and the C is the Luwian symbol for ‘great’. This then reads ‘The Great cave of Baal’ which is totally plausible and in line with ancient wit to use two languages/alphabets within a text (as academics still do today) and two meanings within the same line.

The overall problem remains though. Because the image of the Cuenca stele was freely available, did Burrow’s make the other three by copying it with minor changes? Barry Fell himself stated the first image published of the stele had an incorrect letter. That mistake appears in the Burrow’s Cave steles.

Old and real? New and fake?

Or copies of secreted away originals?


Back to first post on Elephant Tablet          Ahead to    Next Post

Back to Newberry Tablet beginning or its conclusion.

Paleo-Hebrew at


See full article on the alphabet by J. Huston McCulloch at:

Ancient Riddles to Test Our Wits: Crespi’s Warrior

Carved Plate from Crespi Collection

Carved Plate from Crespi Collection

© 2016 B. L. Freeborn (updated Dec. 2018)

In this piece from the Crespi Collection find the words in italic:

The hoary ancient head of Earth was left low

as the two holes pressed through.

The sword struck near the foot of the tile foundation.

It walked and made a two footed foundation,

one magnetic and the other true.

The dagger of Baal with its two craters lies at the rightful pole.

It is the angle that parts longitude.

The pole wavered and split,

the collar dropped to the eye.

The new youthful Earth was thus clothed.


Compare this art to the Narmer Palette from Egypt, c. 3100 BC as displayed at the Royal Ontario Museum:

Narmer Palette, Egypt, c. 3100 BC - Royal Ontario Museum

Narmer Palette, Egypt, c. 3100 BC – Royal Ontario Museum


Read about Father Crespi and see more art:

“The Crespi Ancient Artifact Collection of Cuenca Ecuador”

Back to Beginning of posts on Newberry Tablet

Back to Beginning of posts on Adena Art

The next riddle is here!

The Message of the Newberry Tablet – Part 3

© 2015 B. L. Freeborn

Smithsonian Photo of Newberry Tablet, compliments of Roger Jewell

Smithsonian Photo of Newberry Tablet, compliments of Roger Jewell

To the first post on the tablet – To the previous post on the tablet.

In the last posts we looked at the overall layout of the Newberry Tablet and a few symbols.

In this post six symbols are studied: the glyphs found at the bottom corners, the cross, the symbol at 1, 3 and the similar symbol at 3,9. The last symbol to be studied combines the cup symbol found in the upper left corner with what looks like a bird foot print and is found at 10,10. There are two of the latter. The second is found at 14,5. It combines the idea of the cup with sound ‘ni’ with glyph #451 with sound ‘hur.’ This sounds remarkably like the word ‘hour’ and if the craters in Hudson Bay were used as the start line for longitude then the ‘hours’ of Earth’s rotation are marked off from this place. We should recall that the word ‘ni’ means ‘here, now, and/or upon us’ and is today spelled ‘nigh.’

This idea is repeated in the bottom left corner. There is a double loop with a line on top of it. It is a combination of glyphs #368 and #380 from the Luwian Glyph list. The double loop was determined to mean ‘evil’ which a double crater would certainly represent. This symbol would then repeat the idea of the line of longitude index point. It is used four times in the table.

Again the idea is reinforced by the symbol in the bottom right corner which is found in the glyph list at #17 and represents the ruler. This glyph is repeated five times in the table. So then the four corners, which should define the topic of the tablet, are: a cup (crater), an eye, a line at evil and the ruler.

The last three symbols are the cross which is used seven times and is found in the glyph list at #309. It likely represents the idea of ‘a place’ or ‘an intersection.’ The other two symbols are the upside down trident at 1, 3 and the related symbol that puts a hook on top of the glyph. The first symbol is #455 and has sound ‘la’ or we might say in both modern and old English it is the word ‘lay.’ The similar symbol combines this with the hook glyph #378. So, it expresses the idea of ‘laid with the hook’ or ‘at/by’.

The table is filling in!

The study will continue in the next post.

The Newberry Tablet's decipherment continues in this image as six more glyphs are filled in.

The Newberry Tablet’s decipherment continues in this image as six more glyphs are filled in.


The Message of the Newberry Tablet – Part 2

© 2015 B. L. Freeborn, updated September 2022

Smithsonian Photo of Newberry Tablet, compliments of Roger Jewell

Smithsonian Photo of Newberry Tablet, compliments of Roger Jewell

To see the first post on the tablet – To see the previous post on the tablet.

In the last posts we looked at the overall layout of the Newberry Tablet and a few symbols.

In this post four symbols are studied. We begin with the hook or staff symbol because it involves the least argument as to its meaning. Whether or not a particular sound is associated with it cannot be determined. It is found in the Luwian Glyph list at #378. It appears 7 times on the tablet. Notice the double staves in the third row just above the two blank spaces which imply its importance. They are in positions: 3,4 and 3, 5.  Count within this line from both directions and find a stave at 4,7 and the second at 5,6. Recall 4 x 7 is 28 or half 56. The other totally suggests 56.

The other staves are located at: 1,8; 6,2; 9,1; 9,10; and 11,4.

One of the next two symbols of interest is found at 1, 9 and it is an X with an extra down stroke and the other is at 1,2 which is an X with an extra upstroke and side stroke. These symbols are not found in the glyph list. Barry Fell thought they were Cypriot Letters for vowels i, a, and e but it takes little effort to confirm that few other letters are found in that script. If it is compared to prior Adena Tablets studied such as the Waverly and Cincinnati the idea of a dead man is suggested then by the first symbol. This leads to the idea the second is also a man. Perhaps he is doing something that was common then such as shooting an arrow. So for our purposes here, the first represents death and the second shooting, shot, arrow or battle. This death symbol is used three times at: 1,9; 4,9; 9,6. The battle symbol is used seven times at: 1,2; 4,5; 6,6; 9,5; 10,7; 13,3; 13,8. Indeed, they follow each other in line 9 as if to say ‘shot dead.’

The next symbol studied (at 2, 4) is distinct and impossible to find anywhere repeated except in the Luwian Glyph list at #313. Although not a perfect match every element of the symbol is represented in the glyph. It is said to mean the verb ‘does’ with sound ‘pi.’ It is used four times in the tablet at positions: 2,4; 5,2; 7,6; and 13,9.

The last symbol is at 1,4 and looks like the head of a shovel or a D with a side bar. It also appears in the glyph list at #66 and is said to mean men or hero with sound ‘zi.’ It appears five times at: 1,4; 3,6; 5,9; 7,7; and 11,6.

In Luwian Hieroglyphs the glyphs can take on the sound or the meaning of the object as in a rebus. Theses glyphs are also called Hittite and were used heavily between the 14th to 13th centuries BC and fell into disuse by 7th century BC. Decipherment of the glyphs did not begin until the early 1900’s with most work being done since 1930 and the language associated with them was confirmed in 1973 to be Luwian not Hittite. The Newberry Tablet was discovered in 1896 with three figurines that weighed close to 1000 lbs. See Betty Sodders “Michigan Prehistory Mysteries.”

More symbols to follow!

Identification of Newberry Tablet symbols.

Identification of Newberry Tablet symbols.

On to the next post on the tablet.

The Adena Tablets of Ancient Ohio – The Numbers

© 2014 B. L. Freeborn, updated Sept. 2022

Scattered throughout the previous posts on ancient art have been numbers. The compiled list is:

108, 111, 11111, 112, 12, 1212, 12321, 123454321, 14, 1414, 16, 17, 21, 212, 2121, 21212, 216, 2166, 222, 23, 23 32, 23.5, 24, 241, 2486, 26, 28, 3, 31, 32, 33, 333, 34, 3.8, 38, 4, 40, 43, 4.4, 44, 52, 54, 5.65, 56, 56.5, 565, 58, 6, 61, 64, 6.5, 65, 66, 66624, 67, 6.9, 7, 72, 76, 77, 777, 79, 792, 7924, 86, 8642, 8.8, 88, 9, 90, 912, 92, 93, 93.3.

This is a substantial list. To make understanding it easier they are grouped by the first digit and explained below.

All the numbers can be related back to values associated with the planet or the solar system. They were either defined, calculated, or determined by measurement. The 12 Houses of the Zodiac or 12 months of the year are defined. Numbers such as 108 are calculated. It is the distance from the Earth to the Moon divided by the diameter of the Moon, or it is how many ‘moons fit’ between the Earth and Moon. The original values must be determined by direct measurement. Someone had to have the mathematical skills and tools to make an accurate determination that the diameter of the Moon is 2160 miles. This person did not necessarily have to live in ancient Ohio or even in that time period. The values could have been passed down to them just as they are to us today through education and sharing.

The question becomes how far distant in the past were they first measured? The story told by the tablets suggests people were well able to measure longitude, latitude, and determine celestial values long before the comet impact. Neither the artists nor the population needed to know how to obtain the values just as the average person today cannot calculate them. That these concepts and measurement units have existed for eons of human history becomes apparent when one learns they are simply not as arbitrary as the length of some man’s foot 3000 years ago. Indeed, they were chosen with extraordinary care so that the repetitiveness and harmony of the numbers is revealed when the Mile System is used for measurement in the sciences.

To illustrate how the numbers of the mile system repeat, a few examples follow. The diameter of the planet is 7920 miles. The number of protons in Gold is 79. The length of a surveyor’s chain is 792 inches long or 66 feet. A furlong is 7920 inches or 660 feet. The velocity of Earth is 66,624 mph. A Sumerian inch was .66 inches long. A mile is 5280 feet or 660 x 8 feet long (8 furlongs). Noah’s age was 950 years. Divide this by 12 and obtain 79.17.

The ratio of the distance from the Earth to Sun: Earth to Moon is 400. The last letter in the Hebrew Alphabet is Tau or ‘th’ with value 400. By –definition- there are 86400 seconds in a day and equally be definition, there are 86400 seconds of longitude in the measurement of Earth. The diameter of the Sun is approximately 864,000 miles. Using those same seconds 1000 of them are required for light to travel the distance equivalent to Earth’s orbital diameter. This nominal value cannot be coincidental. Each of those miles marking out the Sun’s diameter is 5280 feet. The diameter of this planet can be obtained by multiplying 5280 by 1.5 or 7920 miles. Conversely it can be said there are 109 Earth diameters in the diameter of the Sun which brings us back to the distance between the Earth and Moon. The average distance can be said to be 109 moons. The Earth travels 1,599,000 miles or essentially 1,600,000 miles in a day and there are 16 cups in a gallon. There are 16 ounces in a pound. Oxygen’s molecular weight is 15.99.

Consider further the mile of 5280 feet. There are 12 Houses in the Zodiac. 5280 feet / 12 is 440. There are 1584,000 seconds in 440 degrees. Compare this number to the distance Earth travels in a day given above. The circumference of the planet divided by 440 is 565 miles. Furthermore, the area of an acre appears arbitrary until it is examined. An acre is 44,000 -440 square feet or 43560 square feet. Observe this 43560 is composed of two values. Twice 43 is 86 or it repeats the diameter of the Sun. The 56 is the value just discussed related to the circumference of Earth.

If the year is divided into 7 day weeks there are 52.14 weeks in a year. If we think of this number in terms of degrees and convert it to degrees and minutes we obtain 52 and 8.4 minutes. Compare this to 5280 feet in a mile. Indeed, the Astronomical Unit (AU) or what is considered scientifically to be the average distance between the Earth and Sun is 92,956,050 miles. (NASA) The mile is 88 x 60 feet. Divide the AU by 88 and obtain 1056,318 or 2 x 528,160. In other words, the AU is approximately 5280 x 88 x 2 x 1000 miles. And the mile is 5280 = 88 x 60 feet. Working the values in reverse 5280 x 88 x 2 x 1000 gives an Ancient AU of 929280,000 which for all intents and purposes is the same as the modern value except it is easier to remember with its repetition of 92.

This whole repetitive process can be continued ad nauseam. In other words, a lot of thought went into choosing the length of an inch, foot, and mile and the number of seconds in a day in order to make this system synchronize with the Solar System.

Let us take a moment to look at the metric system. The diameter of the planet is 12,742 km. There are 86400 seconds in a day. The diameter of the Sun is approximately 1,390,570 km. The circumference of the planet is 40,000 km. The Earth travels 2,534,400 km in a day. The AU is 148,729,680 km. Nothing repetitive appears.

Interestingly, the metric system uses nautical miles to calculate longitude and latitude. There are 60 nautical miles per each degree of longitude at the equator. There are 6076 feet in a nautical mile. The length of a nautical foot is 13.8 inches. This is twice 6.9 inches. There are 69.17 statute miles between degrees of longitude at the equator.  There are 21600 nautical miles in the Earth’s circumference which sounds remarkably like the Moon’s diameter of 2160 statute miles.

The numbers as found in the tablets…….

108……….. The distance in moons from the Earth to the Moon. The radius of the Moon is 1080 miles.

…………….. The distance in Suns from the Earth to the Sun. The radius of the Sun is 1080 miles x 400.

111, 11111 ……….A suggestion of infinity and the power of 1. Multiply 11 x 11 and obtain 121. Multiply 11111 x 11111 and obtain 123454321. The longitude of Barringer Crater, Arizona is 111.

112………… Twice 56.

12 ………Houses in the Zodiac. Months in a year.

1212 ……….Times pi is 3807 or half of 76. There are 76 years in the period of Halley’s Comet.

12321, and 123454321 ………See 111 above.

14……….. 4 x 14 is 56.

1414 ……… The square root of 2 is 1.414. The diagonal of any square is this number times its side length.

16 ………..The distance Earth travels in a day is 1.6 million miles. The number of cups in a gallon.

17 ………Twice 17 is 34.

21, 212, 2121, 21212…….. Multiply by pi and obtain the velocity of the planet at 666,24 mph.

216, 2166 ………..The diameter of the Moon is 2160 miles.  Years in an ecliptic House of the Zodiac (30 degrees) is 2160.

222…….. A square of sides 2222 has a diagonal of pi x 1000.

23, 23 32, 23.5 ……….The Arctic Circle ends at 23.5 degrees or 23 degrees 30 minutes. This is also the angle of tilt of the planet. The angle varies from 23.5 to 24.5 degrees over 40,000 years.

24 …………..Hours in a day. Was this chosen to coincide with the average tilt of the planet?

241 ……….The square of 241 is 58081. The Earth travels 584 million miles in a year.

2486 …….. Circumference of Earth is 24880 miles.

26 ……….Twice 26 is 52. There are 52 weeks in a year.

28 ……….Twice 28 is 56.

31 ……….The cube of pi is 31.

32 ………The square of 5.65 is 32.

3, 33, 333, 34 ………….. The latitude change of the old pole.

34………….. Twice 17 is 34. The maximum difference between the magnetic pole and true north after the pole was displaced.

3.8, 38 …………….. Twice 38 is 76 or the period of Halley’s comet.

4, 40 …………….A square of sides of 4 (or 40) has a diagonal of 5.65 (or 56.5) units.

43 ………….The radius of the Sun is 432,000 miles.

4.4, 44 …………. The circumference of Earth divided by 44 is 565.5 miles.

52……..The number of 7 day weeks in a year.

54………… Twice 27. The distance to the asteroid belt beyond Mars is 2.77 AU (Astronomical Units). Twice 54 is 108. See 108 above. The latitude of England and Denmark. The circumference of a circle of diameter 17.

5.65, 56, 56.5 ……..Latitude of Hudson Bay and mouth of St. Lawrence seaway.

58…………… The Earth’s orbital circumference is 584 million miles.

6, 61 ………….Time and distance are both measured 60 minutes to the hour and 60 seconds to the minute. The solar system is interestingly enough 60 AU wide!

64 ………….Four cubed is 64. The diagonal of a square of 4 units is 5.65. Twice 32 is 64. 5.65 squared is 32.

6.5, 65 ………….The value 56 reversed. Latitude of Hudson Bay.

66, 66624 …………The velocity of Earth is 66624 mph.

67 ………..The velocity of light 671 million mph.

6.9 ……….The distance between two degrees of longitude at the equator is 69.17 miles.

7 ………..Days in a week.

72 ……….The number of years for the north pole to precess one degree.

76, 77 ………The period of Halley’s Comet.

777 ………The square of 27.9 or the approximate distance to Neptune is 2790 million miles. The distance to the asteroid belt is 2.79 AU. 777 squared is the number of seconds in 7 days or 604800.

79, 792, 7924 ………Diameter of Earth varies from 7899 to 7927 miles.

86, 8642 ………Diameter of the Sun is 864,200 miles roughly or exactly 864336 miles.

8.8, 88 ………… There are 88 x 600 feet in a mile. The square root of 7920 is 88.99. The square root of 7900 is 88.88.

9, 90 ………..There are 90 degrees from the equator to the pole. There are 90 degrees in a quarter of the circumference of Earth. The longitude of Cahokia Mounds is 90 degrees 3 minutes. Minimum and average distances between Earth to the Sun is 91.4 million miles.

92, 93, 93.3 …………The average distance between Earth and Sun is 93 million miles.

Without a doubt someone with skill measured these celestial and earthly values long ago and diligently through time they were preserved. The values and measures as they come down to us give testament to a prior technical civilization. Without a doubt this is the reason these values are preserved over and over in ancient art. The numbers serve a phenomenally important purpose and tell a good portion of the story of the tablets.

The beautiful Ohio Adena Pipe now a Ohio State symbol is up next. After that, we have yet to explore the Hopewell Shaman – Bear and translate the Grave Creek Stone. Many interesting posts are to come.

Back to the very beginning of series on Adena Tablets

Previous Post on the Gridley Stone

Posts on: Ramey Peet Tablet, McKensie and Bainbridge Tablets, Cincinnati Tablet,

Egyptian Art Comparison, Wilmington Tablet, Lakin A Tablet,

The Gaitskill Clay Tablet, Allen Tablet, Grave Creek,

The Kiefer Tablet, Wright, Lakin B and Meigs Tablets,

Berlin Tablet, Gaitskill Stone Tablet, The Low Tablet,

The Waverly Tablet, Metcalf Stone, and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

The Adena Tablets of Ancient Ohio – The Cincinnati Tablet

© 2014 B. L. Freeborn

The Cincinnati Tablet is a beautiful work of art that has come to us through the centuries because of the wisdom of our ancient elders. They knew that in time we would forget the important message this tablet carefully depicts. The wise knew that if enough significant works of art were buried with them that long after their bones had turned to dust and their societies had vanished the mounds would attract the attention of future grave robbers. This predictable curiosity would drive them to dig and rediscover this important message left to us. It is as if the mounds were intended to function as valuable time capsules. Finding the pieces is the second to last step in the process. The last step is pondering and understanding them. We are presented with this important message. Can we read it?

Cincinnati Tablet

The Cincinnati Tablet from Skinner’s 1885 report.

This tablet was found in a mound not too distant from where it currently resides. It is displayed in the Cincinnati Museum Center at Union Station – poorly. It is not to be found with artifacts from the people of the area in the Natural History wing but in a dim lonely corner of the urban exhibits in the Cincinnati History Museum wing. The lighting is dismal. The location suggests it is to be forgotten. So indeed! Not understanding how beautifully this artist portrayed the ancient but still vitally important message, the curators have buried it in plain sight.

Comparing it to the Wilmington Tablet, it can be seen the basic layout is the same. The comet is the center piece with its two wings along the top. Within its center body are two nested comets. Each comet has one tail and two eyes. The flower images are seen in the Waverly Tablet and in studying that tablet it was suggested they have a dual meaning. They represent both people and flowers. They are ‘shot’ through the head. There are four flowers. At the bottom are mirrored comets once again. Between them is a dot in the negative. On each outer side there is a vertical bar. The two bars represent the two poles, true north and magnetic north, as we know it today. This arrangement gives a number as we count across. One bar, one comet, center dot, etc. or the value 11111. This value squared is 123454321. This number itself can be found on the tablet. Count the dots from the bottom to top, (1, 2, 3), then the center bar (4), add the bottom dot for (5), then reverse the process and obtain 4,3,2,1.

Cincinnati Tablet

Cincinnati Tablet. Art from ancient Ohio as exhibited. Image darkened to add contrast.

If they understood longitude and latitude they should have understood where they were. The longitude and latitude of Cincinnati at the location where the tablet was found is North 39 degrees 6′, West 84 degrees 32′. The sum 39 + 84 is 123. The sum of 32 + 6 = 38. Twice 38 is 76.  (See 76 below.)The sum of the longitude and latitude values of nearby Milford where several complex mounds were built is 123.45. The sum at Fort Ancient is 123.5. The location of the Great Serpent Mound is 83 degrees 25′ 48″ W, 39 degrees 1’31” N and the location of the Newark Earthworks is 82 degrees 25′ 50″ W, 40 degrees 2′ 26″. This is exactly one degree of longitude apart. The location of the Seip Mounds is 83 degrees and zero minutes west and 39 degrees 22′ N. The sum of these two numbers is 122 and 22. Beyond coincidence?

Since we have begun counting we shall continue. Prominently at the top 7 spaces are marked out (or 8 lines). At the bottom there are 6 spaces (or 7 lines). This creates the number 76 and as noted in previous posts, it suggests the period of Halley’s Comet which is 76 to 77 years. This confirms the topic is about comets. Combine the numbers as 77 and obtain another reference to the comet. Combine them as 86 and obtain a reference to the diameter of the Sun (864,000 miles). Combine them as 78 and obtain the diameter of Earth through the pole (7899 miles). Sum the 6, 7, 7 and 8 and obtain 28 or half of 56.

Even more eloquent, notice that there are actually 9 spaces at the top but only 7 within the hash marks and 2 outside. Create 792 easily from them and compare this to the diameter of the planet at 7920 miles. Similarly, count the bottom as 8, 6 and 2 or create 862 which reminds one of the diameter of the Sun.

Side view of Cincinnati Tablet

Side view of Cincinnati Tablet

The very edge of the top and bottom are scored with small marks. J. Ralston Skinner counted the marks and reported them in his 1885-1886 report on this stone. He noted 24 spaces/ 25 hash marks on the top and 23 spaces/ 24 hash marks on the bottom. The sum of these numbers is 96 and the average is 24. There are 24 hours in a day. The top has 23 spaces. There are 23.934 hours in a sidereal day. Combining 23 and 96 obtain 23.96 or very nearly this number.

Count out the dots. There are 16. The Earth travels 1.6 million miles in a day. There are 2 bars. The 2 and 16 combined creates 216. The diameter of the Moon is 2160 miles.

There are 8 dots in the upper third. There are 6 dots in the middle third. There are 4 dots in the center. There are 2 dots at the bottom. This creates the series 8642 or it refers to the diameter of the Sun at 864,336 miles.

The upper third has 3 dots left and right and 2 in the center. From the center out then is found 23. Reversing it is 32. The Arctic Circle ends at 23 degrees and 30 seconds. The tilt of the planet is this same value. The square of 5.65 is 32.

The center third provides 222. A square of sides 2222 has a diagonal equal to the constant pi (3.14) times 1000. The sum of 22 and 22 is 44. Divide the circumference of the planet by 44 and obtain 565 miles. Forty-four is found in the center bar as well. Count the 4 dots and notice there are 4 bump outs. Recall also a square with sides of 4 has a diagonal of 5.65.

Cincinnati Tablet Museum View. Image darkened for contrast.

Cincinnati Tablet Museum View. Image darkened for contrast.

The dots on each side number 6 which creates 66. The velocity of the planet is 66,600 miles per hour. In the center there are 4 dots. Below this is the one dot in the negative. This creates the number 5. Combine this with the 6 on each side and obtain 56 once again. Or count it out as 1 and 4 which reminds us of the fingers in the Gaitskill Clay Tablet. Combine them and create 14 and then recall there are 4 bumps in the center. 4 x 14 is 56.

The exterior dimensions of the stone and its shape provide numbers that appear familiar. It was measured in 1885 by Skinner to be 3.00″ x 5.00″ x 5/8 inch thick. The width of the narrow middle is 2.5 inches. The sum of these three numbers is 3 + 5 + .625 or 8.625 which recalls the diameter of the Sun. The diagonal of the piece is 5.831 inches. The distance Earth travels in a year is 584 million miles. The thickness expressed as 5/8 repeats this value. The circumference of the piece is 16. The Earth travels 1.6 million miles in a day.

The curved portion on each side recalls the idea of a crater. They are 4.5 inches across and .25 inches deep. The area of the curve on each side is .563 inches. The ratio of the narrow width to the length is 2.5 to 5 or .5. The ratio of the width to the length is 3 to 5 or .6. The ratios are .5 and .6 or a reminder of 56 once again.

Cincinnati Tablet. Image before darkening for contrast.

Cincinnati Tablet. Image before darkening for contrast.

Overall, the tablet is extraordinary. It relates this ancient message to us with ease and symmetrical beauty. It tells us we did not crawl out of caves 10,000 years ago to create society as we know it. Indeed, it tells us great scientists once explored and measured the heavens. But the unimaginable happened.

Perhaps the Inch System of today was inherited from this distant prior time. The measure of length of a Hunab found at ancient Teotihuacan, Mexico is 41.66 inches. (1) Multiply this by the diameter of the Sun (.864) and obtain a simple yard of 36 inches.

Yet to be reviewed are the mysterious (next in series) Bainbridge and McKensie Mound Tablets, the Ramey Peet Tablet from Cahokia Mound, the way too accurate Gridley Stone, the beautiful Ohio Adena Pipe now a Ohio State symbol, and the Hopewell Shaman – Bear. Many interesting posts are to come.


(1) See Hugh Harleston, Jr. pg. 241-263 in “Mysteries of the Mexican Pyramids,” by Peter Tompkins, Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 1976.

From Harleston, Hugh, Jr.  “A Mathematical Analysis of Teotihuacan.” Mexico City: XLI International Congress of Americanists. October 3, 1974.


Back to the very beginning of series on Adena Tablets

Previous Post on Egyptian Art Comparison

Posts on: Wilmington Tablet, Lakin A Tablet, The Gaitskill Clay Tablet,

Allen Tablet, Grave Creek, The Kiefer Tablet,

Wright, Lakin B and Meigs Tablets,

Berlin Tablet, Gaitskill Stone Tablet, The Low Tablet,

The Waverly Tablet,  Metcalf Stone,

and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

J. Ralston Skinner’s articles from 1886.

The Adena Tablets of Ancient Ohio – The Waverly Tablet

© 2014 B. L. Freeborn, updated Sept. 2022

Art from ancient Ohio - The Waverly Tablet

Art from ancient Ohio – The Waverly Tablet

The Waverly Tablet was created by an artist with a very skilled hand. The image is clear, sharp and symmetrical. It is located in the Cincinnati Art Museum.

The tablet displays the four panel style with the center bar which by now we understand immediately. In fact there is little about this tablet that the reader cannot discern for themselves. In the upper left Baal, the comet, appears in its two tailed form. The man seems to exclaim ‘oh’ or ‘no!’ upon seeing it. In this image his mouth forms the round empty crater. His face spells out wa-ur (where) just as in the Low Tablet. The pole is represented with a rounding at the top and bottom. The bottom gives a very definite negative shape like water waves or mountain peaks. I suggest it is the latter since the story relates to a prior era when great ice mountains laid over Ohio so heavily it was 800 feet lower in elevation and completely uninhabitable. It is also suggested by the name of the goddess Isis which was studied in Berlin Tablet post. There it was suggested Isis means ‘ice-sess’ or ‘ice-seat.’

On the right side there is disarray as two people ornately designed to double as flowers lie dead, shot through the head as if to say all was destroyed. The short bar at the top provides a sound. It appears to be symbol #383 or ‘ra’. The center bar is a form of ‘I’ and combining them we have the word ‘i-ra’ which remains unchanged through the centuries. It is ire or anger which is appropriate to the scene. Anger was clearly portrayed in the spider-like Gaitskill Tablet. ‘Ire’ also means to wander. So, it doubly suggests movement of the pole.

Numbers are supplied by punch marks and the four panel layout. We find 1, 4 provided by the layout and 4 x 14 = 56. In the top left panel there is 1 punch. The face panel provides 3, the upper right provides 2, and lower right provides 3 for a total of 9. This provides the 9 in 792. The two dots on the bar provide the 2. The remaining 7 are in the images. Hence, 792 is found.

On the left side between the upper-lower panels is a punch provided in the negative which allows 23 32 to be found on both halves. The short bar at the top provides 1, the bar 1 and the two dots complete 1,1,2. Each flower person provides 1,1,2 by using the dot, the head and then the two arms surrounding each head. If the bulb of the nose is counted as 1 then the left side provides 6 and the right side 5 for 56. The upper most center dot gives 1, the lower dot 1 and the sides of the bar gives 2 for 1,1,2 again or 2 x 56.

On the right side if the dots are counted left to right from top to bottom a group of 3 is found followed by 2. Reading from bottom to top there are 3 lines of 3 for 333. This number we have seen many times on the tablets. There are 9 distinct dots. If the nose and negative dot are added to the sum there are 11 or write this as 92. The latter suggests the distance Earth lies from the Sun. Or if you prefer 29 and this is half of 58. The distance Earth travels in a year is 584 million miles.

The Baal panel, upper left, seems to provide a line on the left which might have formed a dish or crater. This would have then given 1,1,2 as 1 crater, 1 eye, 2 tails.

The tablet measures 3 3/8 x 2 5/8 x 13/16 inches. The sum of the sides is 6 inches. The area of the face is then 8.86 sq. in. and a volume of 7.2 cubic inches. The product of 6 and 88 is 528. There are 5280 feet in a mile. The tenth mile appears at earthwork sites such as Newark. The diagonal calculates to 4.3 inches and twice this is 8.6.

These are all numbers we have seen before but their importance is contingent on the inch being in use by the artist. The ratio of the side lengths however eliminates units. The ratio is .777 which is significant.

Since this tablet portrays so many numbers it might be time to recall the number list and update it. The updated list includes: 108, 111, 112, 1212, 14, 16, 17, 212, 21212, 2166, 222, 23, 23 32, 23.5, 24, 241, 2486, 26, 31, 32, 33, 333, 34, 40, 43, 52, 54, 56, 56.5, 56.564, 58, 6, 66, 66624, 7, 72, 76, 777, 79, 792, 86, 88, 9, 90, 92, 93.3, 7924 and 8642. Now that they are getting easy to read let us try something a wee bit more complex.

Next post on Gaitskill Clay Tablet


See David Penny’s Article on these stones here.


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Posts on: Allen Tablet, Grave Creek, The Kiefer Tablet,

Wright, Lakin B and Meigs Tablets, Berlin Tablet,

Gaitskill Stone Tablet , Metcalf Stone, and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

The Adena Tablets of Ancient Ohio – The Low Tablet

© 2014 B. L. Freeborn

low tablet alternate

Low Tablet. Art from ancient Ohio.

The Low Tablet was found by Edward Low in Parkersburg, West Virginia and can be viewed at the Ohio Historical Society. Its message provides a important link in understanding the symbolism on other tablets.

Center stage and in mirror image is a man with a distinctive hat made of two side appendages. Most would call him a shaman or medicine man. He might be more appropriately called a Prophet. This is the name of the Luwian (La Angle) Hieroglyph from ancient Turkey (3000-2000 BC) that portrays the same concept – a man with a hat with two appendages which appear to be feathers in a flame shape- is #524 Propheta. The idea that great leaders on far sides of the planet wore feather hats is easily accepted. That they are depicted as adorned by -two- feathers in opposite directions is interesting.

Prophet Symbol

Prophet Symbol

We find as usual the symmetry in the design and the appearance of the two eyed, two tailed Baal portrayed in each corner which confirms the topic. On each side of the prophet’s head we find two comets lying in their nests or, more aptly described, craters. If we focus directly on the face of the prophet we see the nose-forehead is a sort of upright object. At the ear positions are short strong straight lines. Similar lines above and below the faces give the impression of the cardinal directions. The chin is etched in as an over accented cup and looking at the face again we see the nose is then the comet and the chin is its crater. The feathers upon the head are then the two tails of the comet which suggests why the Anatolian Luwian glyph for Prophet has just two feathers in his hat. The remembrance and discussion of a two tailed comet appears to have been worldwide. That the conversation spanned two hemispheres is evident by the similar symbols.

Symbols 'wa' and "Magnus'

Symbols ‘wa’ and “Magnus’

The face suggests with its nose pillar and two eyes, symbol #439 with sound ‘wa.’ The deep chin suggests Magnus or great, symbol #363 which has sound ‘ur.’ Sounding out this simple word creates wa-ur in which we cannot help but hear ‘where.’ For sure, this is just what the interpretation suggests. When we hear of two comets striking Earth, we immediately ask, “Where?” Presumably the image answers the question it asks.

Low Tablet shown twice

Ala 78

Ala 78

Wing (Ala) on Lowe Tablet

Wing Symbol (Ala) on Lowe Tablet

There is another important glyph here that appears on other tablets. Symbol #78 Ala meaning ‘wing of army’ is shown. The wing of the Army of Baal can be none other than meteorites and other smaller masses which accompanied the comet that changed the world. Each wing is formed by four bars. Each section has two end to end Baals, four bars in the wing and the center line creates 2,4,1 or 241 which reminds us of the 24 hours in a day, 24 hours of longitude and that 241 x 241 = 58081. This number 241 provided the layout for the insect shape of the Gaitskill Stone Tablet. The distance Earth travels in a year around the Sun is 584 million miles.

The center bar repeats the idea of two and within it is found the series of numbers marked by diamonds 1,4,1,4,1 which when multiplied by 4 is the number 56564. The number is also the square root of 2. ( 2 = 1.4142 x 1.4142) This reminds us that a square of side 4 units has a diagonal of 5.65 units. The number is obtained by multiplying 4 times this pattern 1.4141. The series also creates the sum 11.

The overall layout of the piece is 2 (Baal at the top), 3 (craters and face), 1, 3, 2. This gives again the 23 32 pattern about a central pole. The doubling of the face suggests two such places that are identical or that the pole moved. Perhaps this answers the question “Where?” The comet struck at the original pole which caused it to move.

The number 2 is portrayed everywhere. The meaning of Deus in Latin is god while the meaning of duo is two. The glyph which represents Deus in the Hieroglyphs is a circle divided in two. Two Baal, a symbol split in two, Deus meaning god and duo meaning two all suggests a strong relationship between them. Or perhaps we should use the word ‘bi’ instead for two and confirm there are Bi-Baal at the top and bottom of the image. Each Baal has two tails so that 2,2,2,2 is created top and bottom which sums to 8. The total sum is 16 and the distance Earth travels in a day is 1,600,000 miles.

Across the face portion there are 2 Baal, 1 line (at the ear), 2 eyes, 1 line, 2 Baal which makes 2,1,2,1,2 or exactly the pattern displayed by the Grave Creek Tablet. The sum of 2,1,2,1,2 is 8. Interestingly 21212 x pi is 66637. The velocity of Earth is 66624 mph. However, pi which equals 3.1415 is not represented, or perhaps it is! Those 2’s at the top created 2222. A square of sides 2222 has a diagonal equal to pi x 1000.

The center bar also provides 56. Counting diamonds left to right, count five and stop at the middle and then from the middle to the far side is six. The four dots on the top panel are complemented by four dots on the bottom panel which represent the number 44. Divide the circumference of Earth in miles by 44 and obtain 565.5 once again. The numbers then are consistent from tablet to tablet and were not randomly chosen which reinforces that they are intrinsic to understanding the message and the culture.

What else might these tablets tell us about ourselves and what is missing from the history books?

The Waverly Tablet has the same little man face so we study it next.

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Posts on: Allen Tablet,  Grave Creek Tablet,  The Kiefer Tablet,

Wright, Lakin B and Meigs Tablets,  Berlin Tablet,

Metcalf Stone, and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

The New Debate Begins

By B.L. Freeborn © 2013

Stone bowl found with Decalogue Stone.

Stone bowl found with Decalogue Stone.

The old debate revolved around the authenticity of the Decalogue Stone, the Keystone, the Johnson-Bradner Stone and the little teacup size stone bowl. The new debate will be much more fierce. The presence of the little bowl from a specific point in time has much to say in the argument. When excavating at Qumran bowls of this nature were found and they are used to date sites to no later than 200 AD. Their original use was for ritual bathing before prayer. This concurs with the date given for construction of Newark Earthworks from 250 – 500 AD. Whether we like it or not, these objects are from the appropriate period which weighs heavily for their validity not only as being real but a true component of the Newark Earthworks. Discarding them because they just don’t fit our picture is grossly negligent science.

But as Feder points out there is little if any other surviving evidence that people from the Old World were in Ohio except for these random few objects and…..the artifacts hundreds of feet in diameter. Despite the cohesive numbering system, the identical nature of structures supposedly built thousands of years apart on different continents, which just happened to be aligned by longitude and latitude to sites a half a world away, despite all this, we are told that tribal people got up one day and said lets dig a ditch in the shape of a circle because …. we are inspired by….? by what?

Coincidences are explained away far too easily. We are told the early North Americans could not have understood latitude and longitude thousands of years before we did. The very, very early neolithic Englander had just mastered stone tools. Therefore, we take the stance they could not understand it either. These assumptions are then used as proof that they are not aligned. Period. Despite numerical evidence to the contrary this is the assumption we are asked to accept!

More difficult to understand about all these sites, and especially Newark where we have evidence that not one but perhaps three of these phylactery sets existed, is despite the obvious Jewish connection, there is no knowledge of any such connection in the Jewish Rabbinical sources. Further still, there is no acknowledgment that words such as mentioned above (Yahweh, Noah, Moses, Elohim) have any relationship to celestial measures as noted. Which in the end proves only that if the Decalogue Stone and Key Stone have been in Ohio for two thousand years they were not the property of a person of Jewish belief. But this statement contradicts the Johnson-Bradner stone’s presence in the skull. Finding it there suggests the person was ceremonially laid to rest with the stone in the correct position upon the forehead as a believer would use it.

There are other elements to this whole story we have let drop out of the argument. There were quartz balls found. Round pyrite balls have been found at other sites. The case of the Decalogue Stone when closed forms a rounded stone. Recently beneath Teotihuacan balls were found. From the Jewish Old Testament comes stories of execution of large numbers of Baalists. There is a celebration called Beltane that existed in early Irish culture the meaning of which is reduced to a fertility ceremony today. We have also discussed the resemblance of the Decalogue’s man in profile to a Ugaritic statue. And have we forgotten in our haste to return to status quo the idea that the site spells out via gematria 23 32 or Keg Baal?

Could Baal be a comet that left a crater like a keg? Let us follow this last idea and tell the story of Baal using Newark as an illustration and see how the debate proceeds from there.

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  1. Alrutz, Robert W., “Newark Holy Stones: The History of an Archaeological Tragedy,” Coshocton, Ohio: The Johnson-Humrickhouse Museum, 2010.
  2. Rochelle Altman, “First,…recognize that it’s a penny”: Report on the “Newark” Ritual Artifacts.”  See: