The Message of the Newberry Tablet – Part I

© 2015 B. L. Freeborn

Smithsonian Photo of Newberry Tablet, compliments of Roger Jewell

Smithsonian Photo of Newberry Tablet, compliments of Roger Jewell

From the previous post:  The Newberry Tablet’s authenticity, like all inscribed artifacts found in North America, is much debated. The best place to see it as it exists today is to watch Scott Wolter’s episode in “America Unearthed.” Virtually destroyed, there are few pictures of it in existence. The best pictures are in Roger Jewell’s book, “Ancient Mines of Kitchi Gummi” which is a well thought out explanation of the copper mines in the Lake Superior area and worth reading.

We continue: The images here are compliments of Roger Jewell. Thank you.

In the last post the overall number layout of the tablet was discussed and now it is time to look at some of the symbols. They may be viewed as letters by some and hieroglyphs by others. Barry Fell viewed them as letters from the Cypriot Alphabet and translated it accordingly. The two letters that led him to think it was of that alphabet are seen (counting from left, top)  in box 1,9 (next to the dot) and 13,3. Beyond these two there is little resemblance. These two symbols repeat in the array but we begin not with them but the symbols in the first box that looks like a C since it would seem the topic should be announced first.

This C symbol repeats at 6,1; 11,2 and 14,9 (or 1,2 from the bottom corner). Note these numbers are formed 11 or 1, 61, 16, 112, 914 and 1 to 2. The last (1 to 2) is what the overall image suggests as discussed previously. The 112 is twice 56. The ones and 11 speak of creation but what of the 16, 61 and 914? The first number in the Torah is 913. The number of miles the Earth travels in a day is 1600,000. The Earth at its closest approach to the Sun is 91.4 million miles from the Sun. But is there another relationship?

Sketch of Kerbstone 86

Sketch of Kerbstone 86

Perhaps its shape gives us a clue. It is a cup. It is the shape of the center of Stonehenge’s main uprights. The first sound of cup is K and this sound in Hebrew is denoted by a C shape. The word cup is repeated in the word copper which was mined heavily in the region where this tablet was found. This C shape is the symbol for ‘great’ with sound ‘ur’ from Luwian Hieroglyphs (see number 363). It was repeated four times on Kerbstone 86 at ancient Knowth in Ireland. The word ‘origin’ begins with this ‘ur’ sound and the Old English word ‘or’ means origin and ore. Does the cup indicate the origin of copper ore?

Previously Hudson Bay has been discussed and geographically this tablet is from Michigan rather close to the bay with its TWO large cup shapes at 56.5 N and 79.2 W. Hmmmm. As it says there are 2 at 1 the origin.

What then is in box 5,6? (row 5, column 6). The symbols should be consistent with the suggested meaning. There is a Y at 5, 6 and the cup shape repeats with a double box in it at column 5 row 6. The former suggests this is the split which confirms the idea of origin and the latter suggests tiles/grid in the cup once again confirming the idea. Opposed to the cup in the far corner is a dot, or an eye, or the repeating of the idea of ‘here it begins’ in box 1,10 or 1,1.

This is a good beginning. After all there are 138 symbols or 2 x 79 or maybe 79.2 and that is the longitude of Hudson Bay. But!!!!!! That longitude is measured from England where lies Stonehenge with its large ‘cup’ configured monoliths and more recently discovered identical CUP inscription. (See this well written paper.) And what’s more! The diameter of Earth is 7920 miles. Coincidence! Or is it? Remember that number 914 from above and the 913 from the first number in the Torah? 914/565 is????  And its inverse is??? (Hint: Golden _ _ _ _ _ )

More to follow……… on the message of the Newberry Tablet.

Study of symbols of Newberry Tablet

Study of symbols of Newberry Tablet

Back to the very beginning of series on Adena Tablets

Previous Post on the  Newberry Tablet

Posts on:  Batcreek Stone, Shaman Stone,

 Adena Pipe, Numbers and their Meaning,

Ramey Peet Tablet, Gridley Stone

McKensie and Bainbridge Tablets, Cincinnati Tablet,

Egyptian Art Comparison, Wilmington Tablet, Lakin A Tablet,

The Gaitskill Clay Tablet, Allen Tablet, Grave Creek,

The Kiefer Tablet, Wright, Lakin B and Meigs Tablets,

Berlin Tablet, Gaitskill Stone Tablet, The Low Tablet,

The Waverly Tablet, Metcalf Stone, and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin!!!!

See also Luwian Symbols by: Gunter Anders at http://www.hethport.uni-wuerzburg.de/luwglyph/Signlist.pdf

The Newberry Tablet – A New Way to Read It

© 2015 B. L. Freeborn (updated Nov. 2018)

Newberry Tablet, photo Smithsonian

Newberry Tablet, photo Smithsonian

The Newberry Tablet’s authenticity, like all inscribed artifacts found in North America, is much debated. The best place to see it as it exists today is to watch Scott Wolter’s episode in America Unearthed. Virtually destroyed, there are few pictures of it in existence. The best pictures are in Roger Jewell’s book, “Ancient Mines of Kitchi Gummi” which is a well thought out explanation of the copper mines in the Lake Superior area and worth reading.

The Tablet was translated by Barry Fell as how to obtain omens using birdseed and is available in Betty Sodders’, “Michigan Prehistory Mysteries.”

The translation done here of this tablet begins with looking at the square grid as essential to its meaning. The Earth is divided by longitude and latitude in a grid like manner. This then gives a starting point for translation. The numbers revealed by the grid are the same as those found in studying the Adena Tablets. It is highly unlikely a modern trickster would have known to incorporate these same numbers and this suggests the Tablet was authentic.

In the coming weeks the meaning of the 138 (twice 69) symbols will be explored but for now ….. the numbers reveal a great deal!

Translation of Newberry Tablet, Part IThe tablet is a 10 x 14 grid. Here in the first image, notice that the upper right corner only has a dot or an eye. There are two empty boxes in the middle. Counting from the left and then right obtain 5,6 for the right box. Count it again as if the box is translated left 5 spaces and down 6 spaces so that 56 is obtained again. In this case, if the dot is at 1,1 it has translated to 5,6.

Other numbers can be found depending on how one counts such as 7,8; 6,7; 7,6; 4,6; 6, 4; 7,8 and 7,7. In this grouping notice 76 and 77 both appear and the return period of Halley’s comet is 76 to 77 years. Combining the two ideas it suggests the pole moved to latitude 56 because of a comet. This interpretation will be supported by further study of the symbols.

Translation of Newberry Tablet, Part 2

The next number study reveals the grid can be divided by the central boxes into sections. The number of boxes in each section are indicated and sums of these numbers reveal Earth related values. The three most plausible numbers from this study are found in the cross, top and bottom. The cross has 36 boxes which suggests the 360 degrees of longitude, 360 seconds in a degree of measure, and 360 seconds in an hour.

The top has 60 boxes suggesting the 60 minutes in a degree of latitude and longitude. The bottom has 70 boxes suggesting the 69.2 miles per degree of longitude at the equator.

The other number arrangements are left for your consideration

Translation of Newberry Tablet, Part 3The third and last figures both reveal Earth related values and that the positioning vertically in the grid of the empty boxes was intentional.

Translation of Newberry Tablet, Part 4Finally, note the overall 10 by 14 grid. Recall the square root of 2 is 1.414 and note that 14 x 10 assembled as 1410 resembles this number.

The story this tablet reveals continues in coming posts. Next up then is the beginning study of the symbols.

Back to the very beginning of series on Adena Tablets

Previous Post on the Batcreek Stone

Posts on:  Shaman Stone,

 Adena Pipe, Numbers and their Meaning, Ramey Peet Tablet, Gridley Stone

McKensie and Bainbridge Tablets, Cincinnati Tablet,

Egyptian Art Comparison, Wilmington Tablet, Lakin A Tablet,

The Gaitskill Clay Tablet, Allen Tablet, Grave Creek,

The Kiefer Tablet, Wright, Lakin B and Meigs Tablets,

Berlin Tablet, Gaitskill Stone Tablet, The Low Tablet,

The Waverly Tablet, Metcalf Stone, and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

The Adena Tablets – The Grave Creek Stone

Smithsonian photo of Grave Creek Stone from McCulloch's site

Smithsonian photo of Grave Creek Stone from McCulloch’s site

© 2015 B. L. Freeborn

The Grave Creek Stone was found in the Grave Creek Mound close to the Ohio River in West Virginia. Translations have been done, one in jest, but none seem satisfying. An excellent place to review the controversy surrounding the stone is at J. Huston McCulloch’s site linked here. The original Smithsonian photo of the stone and Schoolcraft’s art are from his site and his efforts are greatly appreciated.

Seth Eastman drawing of stone from Schoolcraft's 1850 book.

Seth Eastman drawing of stone from Schoolcraft’s 1850 book.

There are several ideas that have been consistently overlooked in translating the stone. The lines on the stone are always assumed to be guides for writing such as ruled school paper. Since most persons attempting to translate this stone read and write English which is presented horizontally it has never occurred to anyone they are not guide lines and represent something else. Perhaps they represent lines of longitude and the stone should be rotated to be read in a vertical manner.

Grave Creek Mound, Moundsville, W. Virginia

Grave Creek Mound, Moundsville, W. Virginia

Continuing with the idea they represent longitude note that the Grave Creek Mound lies at 80 degrees 44 minutes and 40 seconds West longitude and 39 degrees 55 minutes North.  For easier understanding this is 80 44 40 and 39 55.  Twice the value of the latitude is 39.55 x 2 = 79.10.  The 80 44 and 40 all sound very even and if 80 is 4 x 20 then they all repeat 4 . The sum of 80, 44 and 55 is 179 which repeats 79 and 1. This brings to mind that the sum of 79 and 1 is 80 or the longitude. But we assume that measurement of location was beyond North Americans until the European influence. Perhaps it was. But the numbers suggest otherwise. They speak of an awareness of Greenwich, England and its zero significance. If the lines on the stone represent longitude and latitude then there is a very good reason to assume the longitude of this mound is not accidental. Compare the longitude and latitude of the Miamisburg Mound which is very similar and sits on the far side of Ohio below Dayton: 39 37 39.6 N which can be written 39.63. The radius of the Earth is 3960 miles. This number is found twice in this latitude. Double the number as done at Grave Creek and find 79.2. Both Grave Creek and Miamisburg demonstrate the radius of the planet in their positioning. The longitude: 84 16 51 repeats the 4 idea in two of the numbers. The latitude of Greenwich, England is just less than 51.51 degrees N. The 51 is the number of seconds of the longitude here. The sum of 84 and 16 is 100. The sum of 39, 37, and this 100 is 176 or twice 88 which once again emphasizes 4 as 4 x 22. A square of sides of 4 has a diagonal of 5.65. The mile is 60 x 88 feet.

Miamisburg Mound

Miamisburg Mound, Miamisburg, Ohio

Consider also the location of the Alligator Effigy Mound a few miles west of the extensive Newark Earthworks in mid-Ohio. They lie at 40 4 12 N and 82 30 4 W. The latitude is once again full of 4’s. However the longitude, although nearly on the half degree, does not seem that significant until one realizes it can be written as 82.50 W. The former repeats the 4’s as expected. The latter is 528 in reverse or a tenth mile. The sum of 40, 4, 82, and 30 is 156 with the ever significant 56 at the end. The sum of 40, 4 and 12 is 56. The sum of 82 and 30 is 112 or twice 56. It is improbable that this site was chosen at random and displays these unique numbers just a few miles from an enormous earthwork that uses a 1/5th mile (1056 feet) as one of its major dimensions.

Comparison with other art from Ireland and Georgia

Comparison with other art from Ireland and Georgia

The decipherment of the stone resolves itself quickly as seen here when it is compared to Kerbstone 86 from the ancient ruins in Knowth, Ireland (3000 BC) and when compared to the Metcalf stone from Georgia. The Metcalf Stone began this series. The kerbstone was studied in a prior posting as well. The comparison shows the symbols from the kerbstone are located in the middle line if the stone is rotated and read in a vertical manner. Top is confirmed by comparison to the Metcalf stone as shown in the image. The two symbols at the bottom of the columns are out of alignment intentionally. One indicates 3 and the other 2 for 32 or the square of 5.65 is where the misalignment lies.

Numbers of Grave Creek Stone, Par II

 

grave creek sketch mod 2bAlthough it is believed these glyphs are letters, it is more likely they are simple small pictures that tell the same story as the Metcalf and as depicted on the Mystery Stone from New Hampshire. It is the same story depicted on the other Adena Tablets. Several of the glyphs appear to be forerunners to Phoenician letters including the symbols interpreted here as numbers at the bottom of the middle row.

grave creek readingIt is as if this is all to commemorate a separation of the North Pole from Magnetic North. It is as if they honored it with phrases like:

Oh High Yew!  which still echoes in …………Ohio!

The stone is then translated as shown and reads:

The two eyes lie at 79 degrees and 56.5 degrees in the lake.

The object struck the pole at the top and pushed it down.

The pole was stricken by two arrows and craters.

It was split and shaken.

The one place of the mountain became a great valley.

It measured the heavens.

The numbers’ order rotated.

Arisen is a pole and it is the foot for measurement of angles.

Measure also from the stricken pole place.

………………

The last stone in this translation series will be the Newberry Tablet. The numbers are easy. The translation is not finished. After that there are two other stones I have come upon but have to obtain photos which may take some months. So next up is the numbers of Newberry. Yes, same old, same old numbers! Imagine that!

__________________

Much more Information at:

J. Huston McCulloch’s site

http://economics.sbs.ohio-state.edu/jhm/arch/grvcrk.html

___________________

Back to the very beginning of series on Adena Tablets

Previous Post on the Bat Creek Stone

Posts on:  Shaman Stone, Adena Pipe,

Numbers and their Meaning, Ramey Peet Tablet, Gridley Stone

McKensie and Bainbridge Tablets, Cincinnati Tablet,

Egyptian Art Comparison, Wilmington Tablet, Lakin A Tablet,

The Gaitskill Clay Tablet, Allen Tablet, Grave Creek,

The Kiefer Tablet, Wright, Lakin B and Meigs Tablets,

Berlin Tablet, Gaitskill Stone Tablet, The Low Tablet,

The Waverly Tablet, Metcalf Stone, and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

 

The Adena Tablets of Ancient Ohio – The Numbers

© 2014 B. L. Freeborn

Scattered throughout the previous posts on ancient art have been numbers. The compiled list is:

108, 111, 11111, 112, 12, 1212, 12321, 123454321, 14, 1414, 16, 17, 21, 212, 2121, 21212, 216, 2166, 222, 23, 23 32, 23.5, 24, 241, 2486, 26, 28, 3, 31, 32, 33, 333, 34, 3.8, 38, 4, 40, 43, 4.4, 44, 52, 54, 5.65, 56, 56.5, 565, 58, 6, 61, 64, 6.5, 65, 66, 66624, 67, 6.9, 7, 72, 76, 77, 777, 79, 792, 7924, 86, 8642, 8.8, 88, 9, 90, 912, 92, 93, 93.3.

This is a substantial list. To make understanding it easier they are grouped by the first digit and explained below.

All the numbers can be related back to values associated with the planet or the solar system. They were either defined, calculated, or determined by measurement. The 12 Houses of the Zodiac or 12 months of the year are defined. Numbers such as 108 are calculated. It is the distance from the Earth to the Moon divided by the diameter of the Moon, or it is how many ‘moons fit’ between the Earth and Moon. The original values must be determined by direct measurement. Someone had to have the mathematical skills and tools to make an accurate determination that the diameter of the Moon is 2160 miles. This person did not necessarily have to live in ancient Ohio or even in that time period. The values could have been passed down to them just as they are to us today through education and sharing.

The question becomes how far distant in the past were they first measured? The story told by the tablets suggests people were well able to measure longitude, latitude, and determine celestial values long before the comet impact. Neither the artists nor the population needed to know how to obtain the values just as the average person today cannot calculate them. That these concepts and measurement units have existed for eons of human history becomes apparent when one learns they are simply not as arbitrary as the length of some man’s foot 3000 years ago. Indeed, they were chosen with extraordinary care so that the repetitiveness and harmony of the numbers is revealed when the Mile System is used for measurement in the sciences.

To illustrate how the numbers of the mile system repeat a few examples follow. The diameter of the planet is 7920 miles. The number of protons in Gold is 79. The length of a surveyor’s chain is 792 inches long or 66 feet. A furlong is 7920 inches or 660 feet. The velocity of Earth is 66,624 mph. A Sumerian inch was .66 inches long. A mile is 5280 feet or 660 x 8 feet long (8 furlongs). Noah’s age was 950 years. Divide this by 12 and obtain 79.17.

The ratio of the distance from the Earth to Sun: Earth to Moon is 400. The last letter in the Hebrew Alphabet is Tau or ‘th’ with value 400. By –definition- there are 86400 seconds in a day. The diameter of the Sun is approximately 864,000 miles. Using those same seconds 1000 of them are required for light to travel the distance equivalent to Earth’s orbital diameter. This nominal value cannot be coincidental. Each of those miles marking out the Sun’s diameter is 5280 feet. The diameter of this planet can be obtained by multiplying 5280 by 1.5 or 7920 miles. Conversely it can be said there are 109 Earth diameters in the diameter of the Sun which brings us back to the distance between the Earth and Moon. The average distance can be said to be 109 moons. The Earth travels 1,599,000 miles or essentially 1,600,000 miles in a day and there are 16 cups in a gallon. There are 16 ounces in a pound. Oxygen’s molecular weight is 15.99.

Consider further the mile of 5280 feet. There are 12 Houses in the Zodiac. 5280 feet / 12 is 440. There are 1584,000 seconds in 440 degrees. Compare this number to the distance Earth travels in a day given above. The circumference of the planet divided by 440 is 565 miles. Furthermore, the area of an acre appears arbitrary until it is examined. An acre is 44,000 -440 square feet or 43560 square feet. Observe this 43560 is composed of two values. Twice 43 is 86 or it repeats the diameter of the Sun. The 56 is the value just discussed related to the circumference of Earth.

If the year is divided into 7 day weeks there are 52.14 weeks in a year. If we think of this number in terms of degrees and convert it to degrees and minutes we obtain 52 and 8.4 minutes. Compare this to 5280 feet in a mile. Indeed, the Astronomical Unit (AU) or what is considered scientifically to be the average distance between the Earth and Sun is 92,956,050 miles. (NASA) The mile is 88 x 60 feet. Divide the AU by 88 and obtain 1056,318 or 2 x 528,160. In other words, the AU is approximately 5280 x 88 x 2 x 1000 miles. And the mile is 5280 = 88 x 60 feet. Working the values in reverse 5280 x 88 x 2 x 1000 gives an Ancient AU of 929280,000 which for all intents and purposes is the same as the modern value except it is easier to remember with its repetition of 92.

This whole repetitive process can be continued ad nauseam. In other words, a lot of thought went into choosing the length of an inch, foot, and mile and the number of seconds in a day in order to make this system synchronize with the Solar System.

Let us take a moment to look at the metric system. The diameter of the planet is 12,742 km. There are 86400 seconds in a day. The diameter of the Sun is approximately 1,390,570 km. The circumference of the planet is 40,000 km. The Earth travels 2,534,400 km in a day. The AU is 148,729,680 km. Nothing repetitive appears.

Interestingly, the metric system uses nautical miles to calculate longitude and latitude. There are 60 nautical miles per each degree of longitude at the equator. There are 6076 feet in a nautical mile. The length of a nautical foot is 13.8 inches. This is twice 6.9 inches. There are 69.17 statute miles between degrees of longitude at the equator.  There are 21600 nautical miles in the Earth’s circumference which sounds remarkably like the Moon’s diameter of 2160 statute miles.

The numbers as found in the tablets…….

108……….. The distance in moons from the Earth to the Moon. The radius of the Moon is 1080 miles.

…………….. The distance in Suns from the Earth to the Sun. The radius of the Sun is 1080 miles x 400.

111, 11111 ……….A suggestion of infinity and the power of 1. Multiply 11 x 11 and obtain 121. Multiply 11111 x 11111 and obtain 123454321. The longitude of Barringer Crater, Arizona.

112………… Twice 56.

12 ………Houses in the Zodiac. Months in a year.

1212 ……….Times pi is 3807 or half of 76. There are 76 years in the period of Halley’s Comet.

12321, and 123454321 ………See 111 above.

14……….. 4 x 14 is 56.

1414 ……… The square root of 2 is 1.414. The diagonal of any square is this number times its side length.

16 ………..The distance Earth travels in a day is 1.6 million miles. The number of cups in a gallon.

17 ………The supposed maximum difference in the magnetic angle between the magnetic and true north after the impact.

21, 212, 2121, 21212…….. Multiply by pi and obtain the velocity of the planet at 666,24 mph.

216, 2166 ………..The diameter of the Moon is 2160 miles.  Years in an ecliptic House of the Zodiac (30 degrees) is 2160.

222…….. A square of sides 2222 has a diagonal of pi x 1000.

23, 23 32, 23.5 ……….The Arctic Circle ends at 23.5 degrees or 23 degrees 30 minutes. This is also the angle of tilt of the planet. The angle varies from 23.5 to 24.5 degrees over 40,000 years.

24 …………..Hours in a day. Was this chosen to coincide with the average tilt of the planet?

241 ……….The square of 241 is 58081. The Earth travels 584 million miles in a year.

2486 …….. Circumference of Earth is 24880 miles.

26 ……….Twice 26 is 52. There are 52 weeks in a year.

28 ……….Twice 28 is 56.

31 ……….The cube of pi is 31.

32 ………The square of 5.65 is 32.

3, 33, 333, 34 ………….. The latitude change of the old pole.

34………….. Twice 34 is 17.  See 17 above. The maximum difference between the magnetic pole and true north after the pole was displaced.

3.8, 38 …………….. Twice 38 is 76 or the period of Halley’s comet.

4, 40 …………….A square of sides of 4 (or 40) has a diagonal of 5.65 (or 56.5) units.

43 ………….The radius of the Sun is 432,000 miles.

4.4, 44 …………. The circumference of Earth divided by 44 is 565.5 miles.

52……..The number of 7 day weeks in a year.

54………… Twice 27. The distance to the asteroid belt beyond Mars is 2.77 AU (Astronomical Units). Twice 54 is 108. See 108 above. The latitude of England and Denmark. The circumference of a circle of diameter 17.

5.65, 56, 56.5 ……..Latitude of Hudson Bay.

58…………… The Earth’s orbital circumference is 584 million miles.

6, 61 ………….Time and distance are both measured 60 minutes to the hour and 60 seconds to the minute. The solar system is interestingly enough 60 AU wide!

64 ………….Four cubed is 64. The diagonal of a square of 4 units is 5.65. Twice 32 is 64. 5.65 squared is 32.

6.5, 65 ………….The value 56 reversed. Latitude of Hudson Bay.

66, 66624 …………The velocity of Earth is 66624 mph.

67 ………..The velocity of light 671 million mph.

6.9 ……….The distance between two degrees of longitude at the equator is 69.17 miles.

7 ………..Days in a week.

72 ……….The number of years for the north pole to precess one degree.

76, 77 ………The period of Halley’s Comet.

777 ………The square of 27.9 or the approximate distance to Neptune is 2790 million miles. The distance to the asteroid belt is 2.79 AU. 777 squared is the number of seconds in 7 days or 604800.

79, 792, 7924 ………Diameter of Earth varies from 7899 to 7927 miles.

86, 8642 ………Diameter of the Sun is 864,200 miles roughly or exactly 864336 miles.

8.8, 88 ………… There are 88 x 600 feet in a mile. The square root of 7920 is 88.99. The square root of 7900 is 88.88.

9, 90 ………..There are 90 degrees from the equator to the pole. There are 90 degrees in a quarter of the circumference of Earth. The longitude of Cahokia Mounds is 90 degrees 3 minutes. Minimum and average distances between Earth to the Sun is 91.4 million miles.

92, 93, 93.3 …………The average distance between Earth and Sun is 93 million miles.

Without a doubt someone with skill measured these celestial and earthly values long ago and diligently through time they were preserved. The values and measures as they come down to us give testament to a prior technical civilization. Without a doubt this is the reason these values are preserved over and over in ancient art. The numbers serve a phenomenally important purpose and tell a good portion of the story of the tablets.

The beautiful Ohio Adena Pipe now a Ohio State symbol is up next. After that, we have yet to explore the Hopewell Shaman – Bear and translate the Grave Creek Stone. Many interesting posts are to come.

Back to the very beginning of series on Adena Tablets

Previous Post on the Gridley Stone

Posts on: Ramey Peet Tablet, McKensie and Bainbridge Tablets, Cincinnati Tablet,

Egyptian Art Comparison, Wilmington Tablet, Lakin A Tablet,

The Gaitskill Clay Tablet, Allen Tablet, Grave Creek,

The Kiefer Tablet, Wright, Lakin B and Meigs Tablets,

Berlin Tablet, Gaitskill Stone Tablet, The Low Tablet,

The Waverly Tablet, Metcalf Stone, and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

The Adena Tablets of Ancient Ohio – The Gridley Stone

Drawing of Gridley Stone which was found in a Mound in Cincinnati, Ohio

Drawing of Gridley Stone which was found in a Mound in Cincinnati, Ohio

This is the only image of the Gridley Stone in existence and J. Ralston Skinner’s report is the only documentation remaining as to its size. Entrusted in the late 1880’s to The Cincinnati Society of Natural History by C. P. Gridley it has been lost or tossed. We might easily speculate that this was essential to maintaining the prevailing dogma of the time (almost identical to today’s). It might be added that it is essential to certain parties today that the existence of Anglo/Celtic influence and descendants not come to light because then they would no longer own the entire ancient history of the continent and so also any archeological and anthropological discoveries.

It might also have disappeared because the stone just does not appear to be that fantastically important. However, it is. Its drab shape hides so very much. In fact, its mathematical proportions are ingenious and confirm an Anglo presence in this continent long ago.

The words of Mr. Skinner penned some 130 years ago amply describe the topic. The following are excerpts from the “Cincinnati Society of Natural History,” pages 51-55.

THE IDENTIFICATION OF THE BRITISH INCH AS THE UNIT OF MEASURE OF THE MOUND BUILDERS OF THE OHIO VALLEY.

Paper Contributed by J. RALSTON SKINNER, Dec. 1, 1885.

Very fortunate conditions seem to make the identification of the unit of measure of the Mound Builders of the Ohio valley both simple and easy of demonstration. One may go further, and say certain of demonstration, because certainty rests upon but two matters of fact, which on examination will probably be pronounced established. The first of these facts is this : That the measures of a great number of these mounds in the river valleys, and on the river terraces of the State of Ohio, as reported by E. G. Squier and E. H. Davis in their great and now somewhat famous work, “Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley,” published by the Smithsonian Institution in the year 1848, are to be relied on. It is but fair to say that they are reliable;. . . .The second of these facts is as follows : The key to this matter is a stone measure now in possession of The Cincinnati Society of Natural History. This stone was found in and dug out of the Sixth and Mound street mound in the City of Cincinnati at the time of its removal, by Mr. C. P. Gridley, now of the City of Springfield, Ohio. He deposited it in the collection of The Western Academy of Natural Sciences, where it was labeled as contributed by him; the original label being now on the stone. The collection of The Western Academy of Natural Sciences, this stone being part of it, passed into the possession of the present society. . . . . The elliptical mound in which this stone was found is the same in which was recovered the ” Gest Tablet” (Known as the Cincinnati tablet today.) as to which so much has been said and written.

. . .

It happened fortunately, that Mr. R. B. Moore, a member of The Cincinnati Society of Natural History, and former President thereof, became interested in the various discoveries set forth in the works of the writer as to the origin and ancient use of the British measures; as also in the suggestion of their use in the construction of the Mound Builder remains. Having his attention turned that way, it occurred to him to take the measure of the Gridley stone, the outlines of which are here given:

Caption to Gridley Stone image as it appears in Skinner's article.

Caption to Gridley Stone image as it appears in Skinner’s article. Copy repeated below for reading ease.

Caption reads:

Around the curve from the shoulder of the stone above B in direction of the arrows to E is 12 standard inches. The right line face between these is 9 standard inches. The stone is the half of the ellipse and drawn twice, reversing it. The figure is reduced one-half size from the exact fac simile. The edge of the stone on diameter is beveled, and right line CF is 9 inches also. From E to D to fill the space of the worn point is 11/50 of an inch. The measure of the curve was made December 21, 1882, by use of a strip of firm paper, and referred to a standard rule.

. . . .

The fact that this unit of measure so fits in this exceedingly curious mode of making, showing and preserving a standard of measure is proof of the general intention of the contriver. Couple this fact with another, viz., that the mound in which it was found was an elliptical one “about 440 feet in circumference” a peculiar division of 5280 feet, (for 5280/12 = 440) used much in Mound structure. (An English mile consists of 5280 feet.)

End of excerpt.

On page 237 of the report the thickness of the piece is noted to be 4 /12 or .33 inches thick. The size of the stone is then 9 exact inches along the straight edge. Twelve along the curve and .33 inches thick. This gives us several numbers immediately: 9, 12 and .33. Part of Mr. Skinner’s paper deals with the numerical relationships that can be developed. More have been found and are listed below. These three numbers can be used to find the following:

9 + 12 = 21 …………reverse 21 and find 12

12 – 9 = 3 ………..  it is .33 inches thick

9 + 12 x .33 = 7 ………..Days in a week.

(9 + 12) /.33 = 63.6363………..a repeating decimal which in reverse reads 3636.36

………………………………………….Multiply 63.6363… by pi and obtain 200.

9 x 12 x .33 = 36 ………….Inches in a yard.

9 x 12 = 108 …………….The average distance from the Earth to the Moon is 108 Moon diameters.

12 x .33 = 4  and  9 x .33 = 3

The ratio of 9 to 12 is 3/4 and 12 to 9 is 4/3. This gives the 34 and 43 found in other tablets and art in this series.

9 + 12 – .33 = 20.67 Multiply this by 9 and find 186. …………The diameter of Earth’s orbit is 186 million miles.

Instead multiply this 20.67 by 12 and find 248. ……………..The circumference of the planet is 24880 miles.

Assemble them as 912 and obtain the closest distance Earth travels to the Sun or 91.2 million miles.

Assemble them as 129 and note that a square of sides 912 has a diagonal of 1290.

Since one half of the stone’s exterior measures 12 the entire circumference of the ellipse measures 24 plus the distance across the beveled edges. The worn point is noted to measure 11/50″ or .22 inches. Assuming this distance times four is required to complete the circumference, the total becomes 24.88 inches. Compare this to the circumference of the Earth at 24880 miles.

There are other numbers to be found. The following measures were found by scaling the image:

The length from the tip to the furthest end of the round end is 9.12 inches which repeats the 9 and 12 and this repeats the idea of the closest distance Earth travels around the Sun.

The length of oval made of two halves is 9.36″ (scaled). This suggests the average distance from Earth to the Sun. The width across the image is 5.53″ (scaled). This is so close to 5.6 that it is likely this is what this length should measure. The mound in which this was found was 440 feet in diameter. The circumference of the planet divided by 440 is 56.5 miles. The difference between the dimensions 9.36 and 5.53 is 3.83 or one half of 7.66. If the value 5.53 is corrected to 5.6 the difference doubled is 7.52. More likely the values should be, based on significant digits, 9.4 and 5.6 which gives a doubled difference of 7.6. The period of Halley’s Comet is 76 years.

The long axis of the ellipse scales to 9.73″ and the short axis to 4.80″. This is twice 4.88 x twice 2.40. The latter suggests the hours in a day. The difference between the two is 2.48 and this suggests the circumference of Earth. The product of the two is twice 5.85. The distance Earth travels in a year in its elliptical orbit is 584 million miles.

Consider the symbolism contained in the half ellipse. Does it represent half of Earth’s elliptical orbit? Or does it represent a crater? Does the full ellipse represent the eye of the comet Baal or does it represent Earth’s full orbit? Does the wedge shape represent a shard that struck Earth? Or was it made just to record accurately 9″ and 12″? One measure is random coincidence. The Wilmington Stone measures 5″ by 3.8″. The Cincinnati Tablet measured in 1885 by Skinner is 3.00″ x 5.00″ x 5/8 inch thick. The width of the narrow middle is 2.5 inches. The evidence cannot be overcome. There is no coincidence. Units of measure in common with ancient England implies trade and commerce with ancient Ohioans. The austere stone provided too much proof of this common heritage. And so, it had to go.

The beautiful Ohio Adena Pipe now a Ohio State symbol is up after the list of numbers arrived at during this study is examined. After that, we have yet to explore the Hopewell Shaman – Bear and translate the Grave Creek Stone. Many interesting posts are to come.

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Posts on: McKensie and Bainbridge Tablets, Cincinnati Tablet,

Egyptian Art Comparison, Wilmington Tablet, Lakin A Tablet,

The Gaitskill Clay Tablet, Allen Tablet, Grave Creek,

The Kiefer Tablet, Wright, Lakin B and Meigs Tablets,

Berlin Tablet, Gaitskill Stone Tablet, The Low Tablet,

The Waverly Tablet, Metcalf Stone, and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

The Adena Tablets of Ancient Ohio – The Ramey Peet Tablet

© 2014 B. L. Freeborn

The Ramey Peet Tablet is from Mound 18 at the Cahokia Mound Site in Collinsville, Illinois very near St. Louis. Comparing and analyzing this tablet as has been done with the Ohio Tablets does not disappoint. It is generally assumed that only half the tablet has been found. However, the first thing that should be noted is that as presented the tablet forms a cup shape and that in and of itself indicates the topic. The shape suggests this is about a great event which involved a crater despite the fact that to a casual observer the front face appears to depict two chanting men and the obverse two woodpeckers. So, we shall look closer and discover not only two comets and lots of numbers but some rather familiar Luwian/Hittite Hieroglyphs from ancient Turkey.

Ramey Peet Tablet found at Cahokia Mounds, Illinois

Ramey Peet Tablet found at Cahokia Mounds, Illinois

Ramey Peet Tablet from Cahokia Mound, obverse

Ramey Peet Tablet from Cahokia Mound, obverse

The woodpecker side positioned as shown can be described as two panels divided by a center bar with cross pieces. In other words there is a ‘T’ here. The ‘T’ is found in Egyptian art as the lower portion of the Ankh in the hand of Isis. (See Iuny Stele)

At the top of each half of the woodpecker side are crater shapes just below the T side bars. Emanating from or pointing towards the center are the tear drop shapes surrounding the ‘sa’ symbol often seen on the Ohio Tablets. This can be interpreted as before. It reads two comets struck the center of the pole and/or that two comets divided from one larger comet. Each of these figures overlap what appears to be double (comet) tails. On the right side there seems to be a hook shape around the tail implying once again as seen on other tablets the symbol for a hook or staff. The left side shows the twirl symbol seen on the New Hampshire Mystery Stone suggesting something turned.

Combined the symbols relate the identical story as deciphered before. A great comet broke into two parts and after striking the pole the staff/pole was turned.

From the New Hampshire Mystery Stone

From the New Hampshire Mystery Stone

Notice the numbers indicated on the center bar. It is divided into 6 portions but only one contains a dot. There are 5 without dots out of 6 portions or the number 56 appears again. Notice on the left panel there are 4 bars beneath the crater but only 3 on the right side for 43 or 34. The sum of 34 and 56 is 90. There are 90 degrees from the pole to the equator. The 43 reminds us the radius of the Sun is 432,000 miles.

Overall, this side is a simple statement of the basic numbers and narration. The obverse side is a bit more challenging but as seen in the examination of the Egyptian Iuny Stele these distorted faces are composed of numbers and glyphs making the fellows look rather unique.

An overall description of the second side would be two men chanting with a ‘T’ shape dividing the image. Beginning with this T notice it is divided into three sections at the top with a center knot. There are four sections in the vertical portion. This gives us three familiar numbers immediately: 33, 34 and 43. The first two refer to the change in the lay of the pole and the latter to the radius of the Sun. Count the sections with dots and without. There are 5 with dots and 6 without. The number 56 is easily created. Count the dots on the vertical and then the crossbar, and find 2 then 3. The numbers 23 or 32 can be created or the latitude at which the Arctic Circle ends. The ‘T’ then represents the north pole and the large dot-knot at the top suggests a large crater.

Luwian/Hittite Hieroglyphs from ancient Turkey

Luwian/Hittite Hieroglyphs from ancient Turkey

Notice there are dots in the faces as well. Each man has two circles at the forehead and those circles have tails. Instead of viewing them as headdress ornaments perhaps they should be viewed as a statement that ‘two objects struck at the crown of the head.’ The image once again describes a comet striking the planet on the ‘crown of its head.’ Each man wears a large circular earring beneath his ear. This recalls something present on the McKensie Tablet. The whorls within the average ear are an orderly disarray of circles around the central canal and that is a good description of the McKensie Tablet. The placement of the large circle below the ear suggests that circular disorder radiated out from the central crater. Hence, we might recall that the Egyptian Iuny Stele also made use of the ear. In that instance it is carved with great care and skill to accurately portray an ear yet the eye is shown from the wrong angle. This striking difference must be intentional. The ear in the Egyptian art suggests radiating disorder from a central eye. The symbolism reveals a common theme. Taking it one step further, in Old English the word ‘ear’ means wave.

By counting dots find there are three upon each man so that there are 3 and 3 or 33 repeating the angle of rotation. Each man’s dots can be counted as 1 and 2 for 12. The number of houses in the heavenly Zodiac is 12. Count them as two ear dots and four forehead dots for the 24 hours in a day. There are 5 dots on the bar. There are 6 dots on the men. The 56 reappears. There are 3 dots on the top bar. There are 8 dots below the bar. The number 38 is formed which is half of 76. This number is the period of years of Halley’s Comet.

The hats demonstrate more numbers. The left side has three sections. The right has two. Create 32 and 23 again. The dots with tails differ. The left side shows one tail and the right shows two tails. The Wilmington showed a two tailed comet on one side and only one tail on the opposing side. So then the statement a ‘comet split into two’ is suggested by this image as well. Now those odd strong lips have meaning. The two comets created two craters.

The nose is interesting. It is bold and is making a statement in a notably Old English way. The word ‘nose’ derives from the word ‘ness’ which means prominence, headlands. It is the most prominent feature on the face, hence the association. The image, by exaggerating the nose, makes it clear that it is part of the story. A mountain can be called a ness. The image suggests the crater lies near the ‘ness.’ The north pole or headlands was once overlain by mountains of ice.

Notice that the eye is portrayed in the Egyptian manner and in this full on view rather than sideways it is the glyph for ‘eye.’ The image with its large nose, accented crater mouth and sideways eye tells us the eye (of the comet) is near the crater and ness/mountain.

Hittite/Luwian Glyoh for cubitum/measure

Hittite/Luwian Glyoh for cubitum/measure

Another glyph is clearly present. The Iuny Stele used symbol #243 in both forms to indicate Cubit/measure. This is the distinct shape the hair of these men forms. Each ‘head measures’ and this is a true statement. The north pole and the magnetic pole acting as heads of the planet are both used to measure.

The study is completed by counting. The odd formation of the neck gives 2 nubs. The projections on the face give 3 if the nose is not counted and 4 if it is. This gives us the familiar 23, 32, 24, and 43.

The last number to be found is on the right head. He has four portions to his hair. It appears the man on the left has one or none. The hair is divided to make a count just as was done in the Iuny Stele. Recall that a square of 4 unit sides has a diagonal of 5.65 units. Similarly, 1 and 4 as 14 make 56 since 4 x 14 = 56.

Like the previous tablets this one tells the same important story to initiates. To all others, it is just two men chanting and woodpeckers. The famous statement ‘they have eyes to see but do not see’ is now understood.

The Gridley Stone is up next. It is also a half circle shape and what it reveals is exactly why it has come up missing.

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Posts on: Cincinnati Tablet, Egyptian Art Comparison,

Wilmington Tablet, Lakin A Tablet, The Gaitskill Clay Tablet,

Allen Tablet, Grave Creek Tablet, The Kiefer Tablet,

Wright, Lakin B and Meigs Tablets, Berlin Tablet,

Gaitskill Stone Tablet, The Low Tablet, The Waverly Tablet,

Metcalf Stone, and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

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Further Information on the Ramey Peet Tablet:

The link to the museum site with a great deal of information is here:

http://cahokiamounds.org/explore/archaeology/bird-man-peet-tablets

Vince Barrows has written extensively on the mounds and his work with many diverse links can be found here: http://www.bibliotecapleyades.net/arqueologia/monks_mound03.htm

The Adena Tablets of Ancient Ohio – The Bainbridge and McKensie Mound Tablets

© 2014 B. L. Freeborn

Bainbridge Tablet

Sketch of Bainbridge Tablet after Caldwell photo.

The Bainbridge and McKensie Mound Tablets are both owned by Duncan Caldwell. View actual photos and read his analysis on line here. (Also see link below.)

The Bainbridge Tablet is from Ross County, Ohio and the McKensie Tablet is from Pike, County, Ohio. The latter was found in 1899. The Bainbridge is studied first here.

The Bainbridge is similar in design concept to the Cincinnati and Wilmington. It has sides bowed in as does the Cincinnati Tablet. All three have the feathers of the Prophet glyph giving us the correct orientation for reading it. The feathers were also present on the Lakin A Tablet. The Prophet glyph’s presence suggests the abstractness of the diagram is just a series of combined glyphs. With some effort the glyphs are identified as shown in the diagram below. It tells of a two eyed comet and the staff of guidance. It is where the ‘eye lays.’ The upended Pes/foot glyph on the right side gives us the idea of a base which is turned and the sound ‘ti.’ Two joined craters lie below it with the symbol for ‘ra’ between them forming the word ti-sa-ra-sa or tessarace which appeared in the Lakin A Tablet. A tessarace is the summit of a four sided pyramid. The north pole is the summit of a world divided into square tiles. The word can also be translated into Old English as ti-sa or tease, and ra-sa or raes which is a violent storm or a course. This suggests further meanings to the word tessarace. It describes a place that was harmed by a violent storm which is marked by a line.

Glyph map of the Luwian/Hittite glyphs found on the Adena Tablet known as the Bainbridge from ancient Ohio glyph map

Glyph map of the Luwian/Hittite glyphs found on the Adena Tablet known as the Bainbridge from ancient Ohio.

Below this are two joined symbols. It describes ‘a vast number sown.’ In the center are two craters or ‘sa-sa’ suggesting the word ‘sess’ which means seat in Old English. The symbol for ‘great’ surrounds the highest of the two craters. On the left, three joined symbols suggest flaming-thunder-crater and below this is a praying man turned away from the center. To his back is the symbol for evil and in the center is the pole. The right side is a mirror image of the evil symbol. This symbol creates the legs of a man who is presumably dead since he seems decapitated. This would be appropriate since the message suggests the planet ‘lost its head’ or guiding north pole.

Numbers are indicated on the Bainbridge Tablet by the placement of the dots in the image.

Numbers are indicated on the Bainbridge Tablet by the placement of the dots in the image.

This message is not complete without imbedded numbers. The dots provide them. On the left are four dots. In the middle there are three and on the right are two for a sum of nine. So it can be said there are 7 on the left/center, 9 total, and 2 on the right which can be used to create the 792 seen on many tablets studied already. It refers to the diameter of the planet at 7920 miles. The center 3 and right 2 create 32 or the square of 5.65. If seen as 23 then it reminds us of the latitude at which the Arctic Circle ends. The number 432 can also be created and this reminds us of the radius of the Sun at 432 thousand miles.

The dimensions of the tablet provide more numbers: 2 7/8″ x 4 3/4″ x 2/3″ or 2.87″ x 4.72″ x .66″. The sum of the length and the width is the ever important number 7.6. The period of Halley’s Comet is 76 years. The width provides both 23 (from 2/3) and 66. The velocity of Earth is 66,600 mph.

Turning now to the McKensie Tablet it is found it repeats the typical message. (See actual photo here) Right side up can be determined by observing that two diamonds appear at the top of the Gaitskill Clay Tablet. One triangle begins the Metcalf Stone and diamonds are present on the Grave Creek Tablet. So the stone should be read as positioned in the image shown here.

Mckenzie Mound sketch

The Adena tablet from ancient Ohio known as the Mckenzie Mound. The sketch is from a photo by Caldwell.

To the right is the circle with hash marks. Hash marks appeared on the Wilmington, and on the Gaitskill Stone Tablet. The Earth when divided by longitude and latitude appears to be overlain by such a grid. Another way to look at this circular glyph is that the hash marks are a separate glyph suggesting ‘ha or pa’ or the old words ‘heah and pea.’ Heah is high or a high power. The symbol also suggests an object such as corn which is composed of many pieces. Then the combination becomes a powerful comet of many pieces. The story then reads: ‘a powerful comet came to Earth.’

The left upper panels says literally ‘two eyes lay at the staff’ or two comets struck the north pole. Below this are two glyphs that suggest there are ‘ma’ which translates from Old English to ‘more.’ The two symbols suggest ‘there are more in heaven.’ Above this series of glyphs is the horn in 9 sections. The planet’s latitude is marked off in 90 degrees equator to pole. The bottom left corner suggests ‘sow’ but the rest of the corner is illegible.

Within the center is a Pastor symbol identical to the one seen on the Bainbridge Tablet just studied above. Next to it is a large ‘sa’ or crater. Above these two symbols is the symbol for heaven and below them is a wedge. This suggests the reading: ‘the crater from the heavenly comet guides.’

Mckenzie Tablet glyph map

The Adena Tablet from ancient Ohio known as the McKensie Tablet can be deciphered into Luwian/Hittite hieroglyphs from ancient Turkey.

The far right provides three glyphs: mi, tu and sa. The first suggests the Old English word ma for more or mighty, while the latter two are grouped together in the art suggesting tu-sa. The Old English word teosa meaning harm or the modern word tease is then formed. The phrase is then ‘a mighty harm.’

The overall layout of the stone suggests disorder in circular sweeping patterns. It imitates exactly what is observed in areas of comet collisions such as we see on the Moon’s surface. The Bainbridge Tablet also suggests disorder around circular crater marks. They may actually be attempts to depict the aftermath of such an impact with the planet just as the Berlin Tablet did.

If the McKensie Tablet is examined for numbers then several are found. The double triangle, center top, provides 2 triangles of 3 sides or 23. The center panel is grouped in such a way as to count out 1,1,2 as if to say 112 or twice 56. The right side gives 1 and 2 or 12. Some might say it gives 1,1, and 1 for 111. The square of this number is 12321. The number series 123454321 was found on the Cincinnati Tablet. The left upper grouping gives 3 filled in figures and 3 carved out for 33. The overall measurements of the stone are 2.76″x 3.75″ x .394″. The square of the width is 7.6 recalling the period of Halley’s Comet. The sum of the length and width is 6.5. The sum 6.5 is 56 in reverse. The sum of all three measures is 6.90. The distance between two degrees of longitude at the equator is 69 miles.

The overall shape of both tablets is a tile with bent in sides. The story suggests the grid array of longitude – latitude shifted or perhaps twisted as the shape suggests. Most importantly, the two very round carved out circles suggest Two Balls or Bi-Baals. The pun ‘Holy Bible’ was noted in the Wilmington post.

The cumulative list of numbers from all tablets follows. Those in bold were also found on these tablets. 108, 111, 11111, 112, 12, 1212, 12321, 123454321, 14, 1414, 16, 17, 21, 212, 2121, 21212, 216, 2166, 222, 23, 23 32, 23.5, 24, 241, 2486, 26, 28, 3, 31, 32, 33, 333, 34, 3.8, 38, 4, 40, 43, 4.4, 44, 52, 54, 5.65, 56, 56.5, 56.5, 58, 6, 61, 64, 6.5, 65, 66, 66624, 67, 6.9, 7, 72, 76, 77, 777, 79, 792, 86, 8.8, 88, 9, 90, 912, 92, 93, 93.3, 7924 and 8642.

It can be concluded, despite the differences in the artist’s style, the message of the Bainbridge and McKensie Tablets is consistent with previously studied art. The Ramey Peet Tablet (next post) from Cahokia Mound indicates by repeating this now familiar message and style of numbering that this knowledge and iconography was not restricted to the areas of Georgia, Ohio, West Virginia and Egypt.

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The Gaitskill Clay Tablet, Allen Tablet, Grave Creek, The Kiefer Tablet,

Wright, Lakin B and Meigs Tablets, Berlin Tablet, Gaitskill Stone Tablet,

The Low Tablet, The Waverly Tablet, Metcalf Stone, and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

Article by Duncan Caldwell at:  asaa-persimmonpress.com/…/bainbridge_mckensie_adena_tablets.pdf

The Adena Tablets of Ancient Ohio – The Cincinnati Tablet

© 2014 B. L. Freeborn

The Cincinnati Tablet is a beautiful work of art that has come to us through the centuries because of the wisdom of our ancient elders. They knew that in time we would forget the important message this tablet carefully depicts. The wise knew that if enough significant works of art were buried with them that long after their bones had turned to dust and their societies had vanished the mounds would attract the attention of future grave robbers. This predictable curiosity would drive them to dig and rediscover this important message left to us. It is as if the mounds were intended to function as valuable time capsules. Finding the pieces is the second to last step in the process. The last step is pondering and understanding them. We are presented with this important  message. Can we read it?

Cincinnati Tablet

The Cincinnati Tablet from Skinner’s 1885 report.

This tablet was found in a mound not too distant from where it currently resides. It is displayed in the Cincinnati Museum Center at Union Station – poorly. It is not to be found with artifacts from the people of the area in the Natural History wing but in a dim lonely corner of the urban exhibits in the Cincinnati History Museum wing. The lighting is dismal. The location suggests it is to be forgotten. So indeed! Not understanding how beautifully this artist portrayed the ancient but still vitally important message, the curators have buried it in plain sight.

Comparing it to the Wilmington Tablet, it can be seen the basic layout is the same. The comet is the center piece with its two wings along the top. Within its center body are two nested comets. Each comet has one tail and two eyes. The flower images are seen in the Waverly Tablet and in studying that tablet it was suggested they have a dual meaning. They represent both people and flowers. They are ‘shot’ through the head. There are four flowers. At the bottom are mirrored comets once again. Between them is a dot in the negative. On each outer side there is a vertical bar. The two bars represent the two poles, true north and magnetic north, as we know it today. This arrangement gives a number as we count across. One bar, one comet, center dot, etc. or the value 11111. This value squared is 123454321. This number itself can be found on the tablet. Count the dots from the bottom to top, (1, 2, 3), then the center bar (4), add the bottom dot for (5), then reverse the process and obtain 4,3,2,1.

Cincinnati Tablet

Cincinnati Tablet. Art from ancient Ohio as exhibited. Image darkened to add contrast.

If they understood longitude and latitude they should have understood where they were. The longitude and latitude of Cincinnati at the location where the tablet was found is North 39 degrees 6′, West 84 degrees 32′. The sum 39 + 84 is 123. The sum of 32 + 6 = 38. Twice 38 is 76.  (See 76 below.)The sum of the longitude and latitude values of nearby Milford where several complex mounds were built is 123.45. The sum at Fort Ancient is 123.5. The location of the Great Serpent Mound is 83 degrees 25′ 48″ W, 39 degrees 1’31” N and the location of the Newark Earthworks is 82 degrees 25′ 50″ W, 40 degrees 2′ 26″. This is exactly one degree of longitude apart. The location of the Seip Mounds is 83 degrees and zero minutes west and 39 degrees 22′ N. The sum of these two numbers is 122 and 22. Beyond coincidence?

Since we have begun counting we shall continue. Prominently at the top 7 spaces are marked out (or 8 lines). At the bottom there are 6 spaces (or 7 lines). This creates the number 76 and as noted in previous posts, it suggests the period of Halley’s Comet which is 76 to 77 years. This confirms the topic is about comets. Combine the numbers as 77 and obtain another reference to the comet. Combine them as 86 and obtain a reference to the diameter of the Sun (864,000 miles). Combine them as 78 and obtain the diameter of Earth through the pole (7899 miles). Sum the 6, 7, 7 and 8 and obtain 28 or half of 56.

Even more eloquent, notice that there are actually 9 spaces at the top but only 7 within the hash marks and 2 outside. Create 792 easily from them and compare this to the diameter of the planet at 7920 miles. Similarly, count the bottom as 8, 6 and 2 or create 862 which reminds one of the diameter of the Sun.

Side view of Cincinnati Tablet

Side view of Cincinnati Tablet

The very edge of the top and bottom are scored with small marks. J. Ralston Skinner counted the marks and reported them in his 1885-1886 report on this stone. He noted 24 spaces/ 25 hash marks on the top and 23 spaces/ 24 hash marks on the bottom. The sum of these numbers is 96 and the average is 24. There are 24 hours in a day. The top has 23 spaces. There are 23.934 hours in a sidereal day. Combining 23 and 96 obtain 23.96 or very nearly this number.

Count out the dots. There are 16. The Earth travels 1.6 million miles in a day. There are 2 bars. The 2 and 16 combined creates 216. The diameter of the Moon is 2160 miles.

There are 8 dots in the upper third. There are 6 dots in the middle third. There are 4 dots in the center. There are 2 dots at the bottom. This creates the series 8642 or it refers to the diameter of the Sun at 864,336 miles.

The upper third has 3 dots left and right and 2 in the center. From the center out then is found 23. Reversing it is 32. The Arctic Circle ends at 23 degrees and 30 seconds. The tilt of the planet is this same value. The square of 5.65 is 32.

The center third provides 222. A square of sides 2222 has a diagonal equal to the constant pi (3.14) times 1000. The sum of 22 and 22 is 44. Divide the circumference of the planet by 44 and obtain 565 miles. Forty-four is found in the center bar as well. Count the 4 dots and notice there are 4 bump outs. Recall also a square with sides of 4 has a diagonal of 5.65.

Cincinnati Tablet Museum View. Image darkened for contrast.

Cincinnati Tablet Museum View. Image darkened for contrast.

The dots on each side number 6 which creates 66. The velocity of the planet is 66,600 miles per hour. In the center there are 4 dots. Below this is the one dot in the negative. This creates the number 5. Combine this with the 6 on each side and obtain 56 once again. Or count it out as 1 and 4 which reminds us of the fingers in the Gaitskill Clay Tablet. Combine them and create 14 and then recall there are 4 bumps in the center. 4 x 14 is 56.

The exterior dimensions of the stone and its shape provide numbers that appear familiar. It was measured in 1885 by Skinner to be 3.00″ x 5.00″ x 5/8 inch thick. The width of the narrow middle is 2.5 inches. The sum of these three numbers is 3 + 5 + .625 or 8.625 which recalls the diameter of the Sun. The diagonal of the piece is 5.831 inches. The distance Earth travels in a year is 584 million miles. The thickness expressed as 5/8 repeats this value. The circumference of the piece is 16. The Earth travels 1.6 million miles in a day.

The curved portion on each side recalls the idea of a crater. They are 4.5 inches across and .25 inches deep. The area of the curve on each side is .563 inches. The ratio of the narrow width to the length is 2.5 to 5 or .5. The ratio of the width to the length is 3 to 5 or .6. The ratios are .5 and .6 or a reminder of 56 once again.

Cincinnati Tablet. Image before darkening for contrast.

Cincinnati Tablet. Image before darkening for contrast.

Overall, the tablet is extraordinary. It relates this ancient message to us with ease and symmetrical beauty. It tells us we did not crawl out of caves 10,000 years ago to create society as we know it. Indeed, it tells us great scientists once explored and measured the heavens. But the unimaginable happened.

Perhaps the Inch System of today was inherited from this distant prior time. The measure of length of a Hunab found at ancient Teotihuacan, Mexico is 41.66 inches. (1) Multiply this by the diameter of the Sun (.864) and obtain a simple yard of 36 inches.

Yet to be reviewed are the mysterious (next in series) Bainbridge and McKensie Mound Tablets, the Ramey Peet Tablet from Cahokia Mound, the way too accurate Gridley Stone, the beautiful Ohio Adena Pipe now a Ohio State symbol, and the Hopewell Shaman – Bear. Many interesting posts are to come.

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(1) See Hugh Harleston, Jr. pg. 241-263 in “Mysteries of the Mexican Pyramids,” by Peter Tompkins, Harper & Row, Publishers, New York, 1976.

From Harleston, Hugh, Jr.  “A Mathematical Analysis of Teotihuacan.” Mexico City: XLI International Congress of Americanists. October 3, 1974.

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Back to the very beginning of series on Adena Tablets

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Allen Tablet, Grave Creek, The Kiefer Tablet,

Wright, Lakin B and Meigs Tablets,

Berlin Tablet, Gaitskill Stone Tablet, The Low Tablet,

The Waverly Tablet,  Metcalf Stone,

and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

J. Ralston Skinner’s articles from 1886.

The Adena Tablets of Ancient Ohio – Compared to Egyptian Art

© 2014 B. L. Freeborn

In previous posts a good many Hittite or Luwian Hieroglyphs from the Anatolian region of Turkey were pointed out in the ancient Ohio art of the Wilmington and Lakin A Tablets. The question remains as to whether this same style of incorporating glyphs into art can be found in ancient art from other regions such as Egypt?

Iuny Stele

The Iuny Stele. An Egyptian funerary stone. Louvre. Dated to New Kingdom Period.

The Iuny Stele from Egypt is shown here. In particular the depiction of Osiris and Isis found in the upper left section of the stele is examined in this post. Begin by observing that Isis on the left holds the arm of Osiris with almost a disembodied arm and upturned hand. Osiris’ body is turned in the traditional pose of rotated at the waist. This exaggeration with the hands two fisted at the center imitates the symbol for the sound ‘hwi.’ This sound we have seen expressed in many of the Adena Tablets suggesting the Anglo word ‘hwy.’ The feet of Osiris supply another sound ‘ta.’ Combining these two sounds the word hwa-ta is formed. The modern spelling of this word is ‘what.’ The headdress supplies the answer to ‘what and why.’ Baal is the origin of the cause as the oval or glyph for Femina suggests. On each side of the headdress is the Magnus symbol ‘great.’ Along the sides are numerous lines. Numbers are typically indicated by lines in this glyph system. Two ways to think of the lines then are ‘numerous’ or the glyph for Ala/wings of an army.

The headdress illustrates the idea further. The lines are drawn upwards and banded together. Longitude is banded together at the North Pole. There are seven lines below the bands and six above it. This creates the number 76 which is easily associated with the period of Halley’s Comet reinforcing the idea the art is about a comet. So then, this can be read as a ‘great many comets struck the place where the lines of longitude gather at the North Pole.’ The four bands give one further number. A square with 4 units to a side has a diagonal of 5.65 units. This gives us that very important number seen repeatedly in the Adena art.

Other numbers can be easily found. The headdress of Isis is three steps. Latitude is a series of steps towards the pole. Her hair has three curls in front of her shoulder and eight curls behind. This creates the number 38 which is half 76 and repeats the reference to Halley’s comet.

Below Osiris’ headdress we find the symbol for Propheta depicted in very much the same manner as it was depicted on the Adena tablets. Between the two feathers is a second circular glyph also suggesting Baal or the origin. This second Baal completes the idea of ‘two comets.’ To the right is a circle glyph that represents the concept of rotate. The idea of rotation is expressed two other times in the image. Osiris always appears rotated at the waist and the appearance of the eye is rotated whereas the mouth and nose are portrayed correctly. The degree of rotation is indicated by the flail. Three vertical lines broken into five sections or perhaps it should be seen as 3,3,3,3. This number was seen in the tablets. The idea of rotation was found on the New Hampshire Mystery Stone with the twirl symbol.

From the New Hampshire Mystery Stone - the idea of turning

New Hampshire Mystery Stone glyph

The face with its typical Egyptian turned eye and odd beard gives further information. The eye is the glyph Ocular/eye and comets are known to be composed of masses often called the eye. The beard suggests the letter ‘ra’ in the glyphs. Combining the sounds ‘i’ and ‘r’ we find both the old and new Anglo word ‘ire’ which means to wander, to be angry. The face itself is the glyph for Caput or head. It can also be interpreted as the glyph for Prae which means ‘before.’ The face then is relating that the ‘previous pole/head of the planet wandered.’

The collars give another number. Two segments on Isis’ collar and three segments of Osiris’ collar form the number 23. The arctic circle ends at latitude 23 degrees and 30 seconds. It forms a ‘collar around the head of the planet.’

Furthering the idea that the North Pole is the place to which is being referred is the flail and hook held at an angle by two fists. The pole is the place from which the angles of longitude are marked out. Two firm fists suggest two places are involved: the north pole and the magnetic pole. It also suggests the idea of both latitude and longitude which are measured from the north pole. This is reiterated by the embracing arm of Isis under Osiris’ arm. Furthermore, Isis’ hand is in the form of the glyph for Manus/power over the people. Certainly, standards of measure such as measurement from the pole hold power over the people. Another repetition of the idea of union is found in the Ankh within Isis’ hand. It is the union of two glyphs: Femina/origin and the Cross. The Ankh then refers to the place from which measurements begin. Repeating again this duality of two poles is the two feet of Isis but only one shown for Osiris. If the face of Osiris suggests the glyph for Prae or ‘before’ then they are relating that previously there was only one place of measurement and now there are two.

Glyph map of Iuny Stele

The images of Isis and Osiris on the Iuny Stele demonstrate the use of Luwian/Hittite Hieroglyphs. The glyphs used and the message is identical to that found on the Adena Tablets of ancient Ohio.

The throne itself provides more information. A blanket is laid over the back of the chair and this is typical in Egyptian art. The chair is composed of several symbols. These are Argentum /shining, silvery; throne; cubitum/measurement, and aedificium/structure. Altogether they describe the polar ice cap that once overlaid the North Pole as a shining white blanket from which measurements were taken providing structure.

The name Isis was discussed in previous posts and that it is depicted in the Adena tablets as Ice-sess. Sess in Anglo means ‘seat’ and is the root of the modern word sister. Mythology tells us Isis was Osiris’ sister. What then might the name Osiris mean? In Latin ‘os’ means opening or origin. Spelled as ‘aes’ it means food in Old English and is associated with the word mouth or once again the idea of an opening. Spelled as ‘ease’ it means a beaker or lipped vessel. Perhaps this is a reference to a crater. Spelled as ‘os’ it means god. Ire as noted above means to wander, to be angry. ‘Is’ in Anglo means ice. Osiris is then a compound of three words: os-ire-ice.  The word could then mean ‘an opening in the wandering ice.’ In other words it confirms the analysis above. The story related is the same as in the Adena Tablets which is summarized as follows: Two great comets with many others struck the pole and the pole wandered (ire) and rotated. Previously there was one place of measurement whereas now there are two. Longitude is referenced from this old pole where there is a crater.

The rotation of the pole from an engineering standpoint is discussed within this site here (pdf).

The origin of longitude measurement (the zero line lies at Greenwich today) is described by the Ankh. Hence, its prevalence in Egyptian art. We might understand further if the gematria of Ankh is examined using Hebrew equivalents. ‘A’ gives us 1, ‘n’ give 50, ‘k’ gives 20, and ‘h’ gives 8. The sum is 79. If the word is examined further the first two letters give 51 and the last two give 28. What lies at latitude 51 degrees 28 minutes and 40.12 seconds? And what is 79 degrees of longitude distant from it?

The importance of this word is not confined to Egypt. It is found boldly in our own language. Consider these two important words: thank you. Are they not ‘the-ankh yew’? If the ‘yew’ is the north pole then this is truly a very important statement the true meaning of which has been forgotten through time.

Next we continue with the fabulous Cincinnati Tablet.

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Allen Tablet, Grave Creek, The Kiefer Tablet,

Wright, Lakin B and Meigs Tablets,

Berlin Tablet, Gaitskill Stone Tablet, The Low Tablet,

The Waverly Tablet, and Metcalf Stone,

and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

The Adena Tablets of Ancient Ohio – The Wilmington Tablet

© 2014 B. L. Freeborn

The Wilmington Tablet is only 5″ by 3.8″ by .6″ thick. It is made of sandstone and resides in the Ohio History Museum, Columbus, Ohio. This artist could not have been more clear in his depiction yet it is displayed on its side and usually is described as a phallic image.

Wilmington Tablet

Wilmington Tablet, Ohio History Museum, Columbus, Ohio shown in its correct orientation.

Baal and his twin self are depicted at the top with one tail on the right and twin tails on the left. Central to the image is a massive comet projecting towards Earth. It is so enormous it dwarfs the mountains depicted at the bottom. Recall all of northeastern Canada down to Ohio was once covered by ice mountains two miles high. The swirling shapes to each side of the comet depicts the destruction that followed the impact. Hidden in these swirls are Hittite/Luwian glyphs from the Anatolian region of Turkey. Within every part of this image there are many numbers.

This is the essential and important story this tile relates in a blatantly realistic fashion. What is it that keeps us from seeing this clear depiction of an enormous comet?

The remainder of the message is told through glyphs and numbers. We began with a one tailed Baal and a two tailed Baal, or a comet that split into two. One and two helps us recall there are 12 houses in the heavenly Zodiac. Continue counting by noticing it is actually divided into four panels. The planet can be said to have four quadrants. A square of 4 units to the side has a diagonal of 5.65 units. At the middle horizontal line count across the comet and find 6 lines above but only 5 lines below for 56. Reverse this and obtain 65 or nearly the velocity of the planet at 66624 mph. Similarly, count 6 dot holes on the right half and 7 on the left half for 67. Reverse the number and obtain 76. The period of Halley’s comet is 76 years. Count 9 holes on the upper half but only 3 on the lower half for 93. The average distance between Earth and the Sun is 93 million miles. There is 1 hole in the left lower square and 6 in the upper left for 16. The Earth travels 1.6 million miles in a day. Reverse the number and find 61. There are 60 minutes in an hour and a square of 61 units to the side has a diagonal of 86.3 which suggests the Sun’s diameter of 864 thousand miles. The right side has 3 holes above and 3 below for 33 which gives the maximum change in latitude caused by the impact.

Side view showing double headed arrow on Wilmington Tablet

Side view showing double headed arrow on Wilmington Tablet

The 2 holes in the upper left Baal are next to 3 small fingers on the edge for 23. The upper sweeps of the comet’s tail are composed of 3 on one side and 2 on the other for 32. The square of 5.65 is 32. Reverse the number and find 23. Recall the Arctic Circle ends at 23 degrees and 30′ or approximately 23 degrees and 32 minutes.

There is a half circle on the centerline at the top. The tail on that side is one strong piece between two which makes 112. Or count the strong tail line as 1, the half circle as 1 and the other side of the tail supplies the 2 for 112. Above the middle line there is 1 hole below 1 hollow half circle and opposite there are 2 half circles for 112. The bottom left panel gives 1 half circle, 1 dot and 2 loops for 112. Each and every 112 is twice 56.

On the right lower there are 3 dots and 1 half circle for 31. This is pi³. Continue the count from 3,1 and then 5 lines and 1 half circle for 3151 which is close but off. It should be 3141 which is pi at 3.1415.

Surrounding the piece on the narrow edge is an arrow with a doubled arrowhead which repeats the idea of a double comet. A circle with a dot in the center is in the mid-shaft suggesting the crater or the all seeing eye of the north pole. Then it ends with fletching. This end has hash marks that alternate to make 8 per side or 4 per side depending on how it is viewed. Divide the circumference of the planet in miles by 44 and obtain 565.5 miles.

Sketch of Wilmington Tablet

Sketch of Wilmington Tablet from J. Ralston Skinner’s 1885 article.

At the bottom of the piece there is fringe which wraps up the left side. There are 2 on the left, then 10, then 9 to the right. Summing the last two obtain 19. Multiply this by the 2 from the side and obtain 38 which is half 76 or the period of Halley’s Comet of 76 years.

Alternatively, begin with the 9 and affix the 12 to obtain 912 which is just under Earth’s minimum distance to the Sun of 9.14 million miles. If a simple sum of 9 and 12 is taken, find 21 which when multiplied by pi is a hair under 66. The velocity of Earth is 66624 mph.

The next few numbers are important because they are arrived at by using the Inch System of measurement. The dimensions of the piece in inches is 5″ x 3.8″ x .6″. The sum of the length and thickness is 5.6 which repeats 56 again. Twice 3.8 is 7.6 which recalls the period of Halley’s Comet. The sum of the 3.8 and .6 is 4.4. The circumference of the planet is 565.5 miles x 44. Sum 3.8 and 5 and obtain 8.8. A mile is 880 feet times 6.

Before moving on to the glyphs let us take note of all the numbers found on this piece and compare it to the numbers found on prior tablets. Here we found: 12, 16, 21, 23, 23 32, 31, 32, 3, 33, 3.8, 38, 4, 4.4, 44, 5.65, 56, 61, 65, 66, 67, 76, 8.8, 9, 93, 112, 912.

The cumulative list from previous tablets follows. Those in bold were also found on this tablet. 108, 111, 112, 1212, 12321, 14, 1414, 16, 17, 212, 2121, 21212, 2166, 222, 23, 23 32, 23.5, 24, 241, 2486, 26, 31, 32, 33, 333, 34, 40, 43, 44, 52, 54, 56, 56.5, 56.5, 58, 6, 64, 66, 66624, 7, 72, 76, 777, 79, 792, 86, 88, 9, 90, 92, 93.3, 7924 and 8642.

Glyphs for Malleus (hammer or disease), Calleum (heaven), Mille (vast number), and sound 'sa'

Glyphs for Malleus (hammer or disease), Caelum (heaven), Mille (vast number), and sound ‘sa’

Next the artwork is examined to see if any hieroglyphs can be found. Begin with the upper left Baal and find the Luwian/ Hittite symbols for Malleus, Caelum and Mille all joined. The first means a mallet or disease, the second means heaven, and the last which is doubled means a vast number. The image suggests then a disease from heaven in vast numbers or in modern terms: comets and meteorites.

Luwian/Hittite Glyphs

Luwian glyph for Deus (god), glyph number 502, Ala (wing of army), sound ‘i’, and sound ‘sa’

Opposite this we find another Baal which is described by glyphs Caelum #182 (heaven) and the right side is a variation on Deus #360 (god). This symbol is very close to glyph #502 which has no meaning attached to it. The tail repeats the Mille glyph suggesting again a vast number. This is easily translated as ‘gods came from heaven’ and is just another way of saying in modern terms many powerful comets came.

Prophet Symbol

Prophet Symbol

The sweeping tails of the central comet are the feathers on the head of the prophet glyph.

Wing symbol meaning troops - Ala 78

Wing symbol meaning troops – Ala 78

Beneath this in the upper right panel the idea is expounded upon. Glyph # 78 for ‘wing’ is an army wing or troops. It lies above a circle-dot. This suggests the two comets arrived with troops making craters.

Glyph for sound 'i'

Glyph for sound ‘i’

 

The upper left panel explains more. The first is the upright with the dot for sound ‘i’ found in glyph #209. The two connected circle-dots form two ‘sa’. This ‘sa-sa’ suggests repeated ‘s.’ This spells out i-s-s or the name of the Egyptian god Isis. But it also resembles two Anglo words, ice and sess. The first we understand and the second we hear in sis-ter. Sess is a seat. Ice-sess than implies an ice-seat and so we may hazard to guess that Isis is ‘ice-sess.’ These glyphs are followed by another circle-dot for another ‘sa’ such as we hear in ‘see.’ It is next to the glyph for Caelum or heaven which is connected to the comet or the central pole. Putting this together we have ‘the seat within the ice from which all heaven can be seen at the pole.’ This is the North Pole. A long distant ancestor tells us the meaning of a Goddess in a far distant land with symbols long forgotten and words we still use.

Luwian Glyphs for Halpa (help), sound 'hwi', Cornu (horn) or sound 'su', and sound 'sa'

Luwian Glyphs for Halpa (help), sound ‘hwi’, Cornu (horn) or sound ‘su’, and sound ‘sa’

In the lower left panel find the glyph for ‘hwi’ #329 in the two twirls. The original way the word why was spelled was hwy. So it asks very clearly, “Why?” The symbol for Halpa or help lies above it which reiterates the exclamation. Towards the pole is the symbol for ‘sa’ #402. Above this is symbol #108 Cornu meaning a horn with sound ‘su’ probably meaning ‘to sow.’ The sequence suggests “Help! Why! A comet sown”

Luwian Glyphs

Glyphs for Lituus (a staff), sound ‘ha’ or ‘pa’, and Malus (evil))

The bottom right panel gives us once again the ‘sa’ for ‘see’ with Lituus #378, a staff. Then there is cross hatching which suggests glyph #224 with sounds ‘pa’ or ‘ha.’ ‘Pa’ begins the words pole, power, and post. While ‘ha’ is the Anglo word ‘heah’ which we know as high. The reversed 3 towards the edge is glyph #368 Malus or evil. Putting this together we have ‘to the seeing staff of the pole on high came evil.’

The image on The Wilmington Tablet is composed of many Luwian Hieroglyphs which tell a story.

The image on The Wilmington Tablet is composed of many Luwian Hieroglyphs which tell a story.

This is the same message people on both sides of the world knew, understood, discussed and shared as revealed by their common knowledge of the subject, manner of depiction, and embedded numbers. They ask “Why! On high did this great evil come?”

This leaves the reader still wondering. Could it be? And where? Where is the evidence of this evil? But they tell us. Baal (Deus or god) struck at 56.5 as the Hebrew word for god, Yahweh, echos in its number gematria. Transcribing this word into numbers gives 5,6,5,10 or 56.5. Indeed, further still one must hear the word ‘why’ pronounced the original way ‘hwy’ in the word Yahweh.

But we need a second reference to find a location and this they provide. Recall in our prior number list (see Meigs Tablet and Kiefer Tablet) was the number 792 and this is the length of the diagonal of a square of sides 56. It also recalls the diameter of the Earth at 7920 miles. From the line of longitude of greatest displacement they traveled east 79.2 degrees and defined the zero longitude point at Greenwich, England at the same place it is today. This number of degrees was chosen to honor the diameter of the planet. So, reverse their journey! Travel back due west 79.2 degrees of longitude and find the home of Bi-Baal. The reader is encouraged to discover the place for himself. It is summed up by this pun: Holy Bible. Find the holy bible (hole lay bi-Baal) or the hole laid by two Baals.

More to learn about ourselves in upcoming posts.

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and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.