The Adena Tablets of Ancient Ohio – The Gaitskill Clay Tablet

© 2014 B. L. Freeborn

Art from ancient Ohio - Gaitskill Clay Tablet

Art from ancient Ohio – Gaitskill Clay Tablet

Art from ancient Ohio - Gaitskill Clay Tablet

Art from ancient Ohio – Gaitskill Clay Tablet. Clay copy.

Preserved from ancient Ohio is the Gaitskill Clay Tablet which gives us much to ponder. This stone has been described as having anthropomorphic and/or zoomorphic characteristics. Another author describes it as Avian with four world quarters. If we reflect on the open mouthed man who seemed to be crying ‘no’ in the Waverly Tablet and the angst of the Gaitskill Stone Tablet then it follows that what the artist is portraying is two hands held up as if to say, “Stop!” Above the hands appears two triangles which suggest this is another way of expressing the double eye of the comet Baal. Up and over on each side is the double tail of the comet. The two tails are similar in style to the feathers in the hat of the Prophet Glyph and the curved down feathers seen on the men in the Low Tablet. If the center line is taken as the pole then the reference to four quarters of the world is correct.

There are other details we might notice. In the lower quadrants notice the three lobed wings above the large circle that are like those in the Low Tablet. The Luwian Hieroglyph Symbol #78 Ala meaning ‘wing of army’ is similar. The wing of the Army of Baal would be the debris that preceded, followed and was created by the comet. The image shows multiple circles suggesting many craters of various sizes occurred.

Prophet Symbol

Prophet Symbol

Wing symbol meaning troops - Ala 78

Wing symbol meaning troops – Ala 78

In a prior post the name of the goddess Isis was discussed. It was suggested it means ‘ice-seat.’ At the base of the center pole on the tablet the lines fan out. Perhaps this symbolizes a mountain of ice or the mountain Isis at the seat of the North Pole. But the story these tablets relate is that the pole has a mirror image, a second location to which it moved. ‘Where?’ was the question asked by the Low and Waverly Tablets. Presumably the tablets answer the question. Perhaps this tablet will reveal the answer to us.

The quoted dimensions of the stone are 4.4″ x 2.95″ x .55″. The last number is .01 off from 56 suggesting this was the desired thickness. But these stones vary too much in thickness to be so exact so 4.4″ x 2.9″ x .6″ is a better way to describe it. The 4.4 we will see repeated in the stone and discussed later. The sum of these terms is 7.9 inches. The diagonal of the stone squared is 28 and twice this is 56.

The abstraction of the drawing is distracting to say the least. By counting the message becomes clearer. There are 8 large dot-circles. Of these, 6 are on the bottom. On the top there are 4 dots without outer circles and 2 remaining large circles. This gives us 8,6,4,2 which is a descending even series. When combined the familiar 86420 that is reminiscent of the diameter of the Sun at 864322 miles appears.

Those 6 bottom circles can be counted out as 3,3. The top circles as 12, 21 or perhaps it is 1212 or 2121. This all seems familiar and the abstraction begins to make sense. The fingers on each hand give 4 and 4 for 44. The thumb finger combination gives 1414 which we have seen before. Recall 4 x 14 is 56. The bottom fringe can be counted out as 5 upward nips and then the center plus the other side (assumed to be a mirror image) makes 6 for 56. This was found in the same manner on the center strip of the Low Tablet.

In the lower half the 3 wings to the left and 2 in the opposite direction makes 32 23. The 2, 3 pattern repeats in the two lower tails and the three circles. It repeats again on the left with two side tails and above it lies three lobes of the wing. Counting the 2 lower tails and the 2 side tails creates 22 which is half of 44.

In the top half move around the exterior of the hand and count 2 lower tails, 4 fingers, 1 thumb for 241. Also count 2 lower tails, 1 large circle, 2 dots for 212. The 5 fingers on the hands plus 2 tails creates 52 suggesting weeks in a year. The total sum is 7 for the days in a week.

The only number listed above that is new to our long list of numbers from the previous tablets is 44 but then again it is not so new. We already have 2486 suggesting the circumference of the Earth at 24881 miles and the very repetitive 56.5 listed. Divide the circumference of the planet by 565 and the term 44 appears.

Thus the abstraction is a rather clever way to relate numbers to a people who are both distant in place and time with no common language. It is clear from this list that these numbers and the story related involves the Earth and that someone had advanced scientific knowledge which they wished to share with someone of similar mind. That would be us.

The next tablet is equally abstract but rewarding to study.

Back to very first post on Adena Tablets

Previous Post on The Waverly Tablet

Posts on: Allen Tablet, Grave Creek, The Kiefer Tablet,

Wright, Lakin B and Meigs Tablets,

Berlin Tablet, Gaitskill Stone Tablet,

The Low Tablet, Metcalf Stone, and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

The Adena Tablets of Ancient Ohio – The Waverly Tablet

© 2014 B. L. Freeborn, updated Sept. 2022

Art from ancient Ohio - The Waverly Tablet

Art from ancient Ohio – The Waverly Tablet

The Waverly Tablet was created by an artist with a very skilled hand. The image is clear, sharp and symmetrical. It is located in the Cincinnati Art Museum.

The tablet displays the four panel style with the center bar which by now we understand immediately. In fact there is little about this tablet that the reader cannot discern for themselves. In the upper left Baal, the comet, appears in its two tailed form. The man seems to exclaim ‘oh’ or ‘no!’ upon seeing it. In this image his mouth forms the round empty crater. His face spells out wa-ur (where) just as in the Low Tablet. The pole is represented with a rounding at the top and bottom. The bottom gives a very definite negative shape like water waves or mountain peaks. I suggest it is the latter since the story relates to a prior era when great ice mountains laid over Ohio so heavily it was 800 feet lower in elevation and completely uninhabitable. It is also suggested by the name of the goddess Isis which was studied in Berlin Tablet post. There it was suggested Isis means ‘ice-sess’ or ‘ice-seat.’

On the right side there is disarray as two people ornately designed to double as flowers lie dead, shot through the head as if to say all was destroyed. The short bar at the top provides a sound. It appears to be symbol #383 or ‘ra’. The center bar is a form of ‘I’ and combining them we have the word ‘i-ra’ which remains unchanged through the centuries. It is ire or anger which is appropriate to the scene. Anger was clearly portrayed in the spider-like Gaitskill Tablet. ‘Ire’ also means to wander. So, it doubly suggests movement of the pole.

Numbers are supplied by punch marks and the four panel layout. We find 1, 4 provided by the layout and 4 x 14 = 56. In the top left panel there is 1 punch. The face panel provides 3, the upper right provides 2, and lower right provides 3 for a total of 9. This provides the 9 in 792. The two dots on the bar provide the 2. The remaining 7 are in the images. Hence, 792 is found.

On the left side between the upper-lower panels is a punch provided in the negative which allows 23 32 to be found on both halves. The short bar at the top provides 1, the bar 1 and the two dots complete 1,1,2. Each flower person provides 1,1,2 by using the dot, the head and then the two arms surrounding each head. If the bulb of the nose is counted as 1 then the left side provides 6 and the right side 5 for 56. The upper most center dot gives 1, the lower dot 1 and the sides of the bar gives 2 for 1,1,2 again or 2 x 56.

On the right side if the dots are counted left to right from top to bottom a group of 3 is found followed by 2. Reading from bottom to top there are 3 lines of 3 for 333. This number we have seen many times on the tablets. There are 9 distinct dots. If the nose and negative dot are added to the sum there are 11 or write this as 92. The latter suggests the distance Earth lies from the Sun. Or if you prefer 29 and this is half of 58. The distance Earth travels in a year is 584 million miles.

The Baal panel, upper left, seems to provide a line on the left which might have formed a dish or crater. This would have then given 1,1,2 as 1 crater, 1 eye, 2 tails.

The tablet measures 3 3/8 x 2 5/8 x 13/16 inches. The sum of the sides is 6 inches. The area of the face is then 8.86 sq. in. and a volume of 7.2 cubic inches. The product of 6 and 88 is 528. There are 5280 feet in a mile. The tenth mile appears at earthwork sites such as Newark. The diagonal calculates to 4.3 inches and twice this is 8.6.

These are all numbers we have seen before but their importance is contingent on the inch being in use by the artist. The ratio of the side lengths however eliminates units. The ratio is .777 which is significant.

Since this tablet portrays so many numbers it might be time to recall the number list and update it. The updated list includes: 108, 111, 112, 1212, 14, 16, 17, 212, 21212, 2166, 222, 23, 23 32, 23.5, 24, 241, 2486, 26, 31, 32, 33, 333, 34, 40, 43, 52, 54, 56, 56.5, 56.564, 58, 6, 66, 66624, 7, 72, 76, 777, 79, 792, 86, 88, 9, 90, 92, 93.3, 7924 and 8642. Now that they are getting easy to read let us try something a wee bit more complex.

Next post on Gaitskill Clay Tablet


See David Penny’s Article on these stones here.


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Previous Post on The Low Tablet

Posts on: Allen Tablet, Grave Creek, The Kiefer Tablet,

Wright, Lakin B and Meigs Tablets, Berlin Tablet,

Gaitskill Stone Tablet , Metcalf Stone, and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

The Adena Tablets of Ancient Ohio – The Low Tablet

© 2014 B. L. Freeborn

low tablet alternate

Low Tablet. Art from ancient Ohio.

The Low Tablet was found by Edward Low in Parkersburg, West Virginia and can be viewed at the Ohio Historical Society. Its message provides a important link in understanding the symbolism on other tablets.

Center stage and in mirror image is a man with a distinctive hat made of two side appendages. Most would call him a shaman or medicine man. He might be more appropriately called a Prophet. This is the name of the Luwian (La Angle) Hieroglyph from ancient Turkey (3000-2000 BC) that portrays the same concept – a man with a hat with two appendages which appear to be feathers in a flame shape- is #524 Propheta. The idea that great leaders on far sides of the planet wore feather hats is easily accepted. That they are depicted as adorned by -two- feathers in opposite directions is interesting.

Prophet Symbol

Prophet Symbol

We find as usual the symmetry in the design and the appearance of the two eyed, two tailed Baal portrayed in each corner which confirms the topic. On each side of the prophet’s head we find two comets lying in their nests or, more aptly described, craters. If we focus directly on the face of the prophet we see the nose-forehead is a sort of upright object. At the ear positions are short strong straight lines. Similar lines above and below the faces give the impression of the cardinal directions. The chin is etched in as an over accented cup and looking at the face again we see the nose is then the comet and the chin is its crater. The feathers upon the head are then the two tails of the comet which suggests why the Anatolian Luwian glyph for Prophet has just two feathers in his hat. The remembrance and discussion of a two tailed comet appears to have been worldwide. That the conversation spanned two hemispheres is evident by the similar symbols.

Symbols 'wa' and "Magnus'

Symbols ‘wa’ and “Magnus’

The face suggests with its nose pillar and two eyes, symbol #439 with sound ‘wa.’ The deep chin suggests Magnus or great, symbol #363 which has sound ‘ur.’ Sounding out this simple word creates wa-ur in which we cannot help but hear ‘where.’ For sure, this is just what the interpretation suggests. When we hear of two comets striking Earth, we immediately ask, “Where?” Presumably the image answers the question it asks.

Low Tablet shown twice

Ala 78

Ala 78

Wing (Ala) on Lowe Tablet

Wing Symbol (Ala) on Lowe Tablet

There is another important glyph here that appears on other tablets. Symbol #78 Ala meaning ‘wing of army’ is shown. The wing of the Army of Baal can be none other than meteorites and other smaller masses which accompanied the comet that changed the world. Each wing is formed by four bars. Each section has two end to end Baals, four bars in the wing and the center line creates 2,4,1 or 241 which reminds us of the 24 hours in a day, 24 hours of longitude and that 241 x 241 = 58081. This number 241 provided the layout for the insect shape of the Gaitskill Stone Tablet. The distance Earth travels in a year around the Sun is 584 million miles.

The center bar repeats the idea of two and within it is found the series of numbers marked by diamonds 1,4,1,4,1 which when multiplied by 4 is the number 56564. The number is also the square root of 2. ( 2 = 1.4142 x 1.4142) This reminds us that a square of side 4 units has a diagonal of 5.65 units. The number is obtained by multiplying 4 times this pattern 1.4141. The series also creates the sum 11.

The overall layout of the piece is 2 (Baal at the top), 3 (craters and face), 1, 3, 2. This gives again the 23 32 pattern about a central pole. The doubling of the face suggests two such places that are identical or that the pole moved. Perhaps this answers the question “Where?” The comet struck at the original pole which caused it to move.

The number 2 is portrayed everywhere. The meaning of Deus in Latin is god while the meaning of duo is two. The glyph which represents Deus in the Hieroglyphs is a circle divided in two. Two Baal, a symbol split in two, Deus meaning god and duo meaning two all suggests a strong relationship between them. Or perhaps we should use the word ‘bi’ instead for two and confirm there are Bi-Baal at the top and bottom of the image. Each Baal has two tails so that 2,2,2,2 is created top and bottom which sums to 8. The total sum is 16 and the distance Earth travels in a day is 1,600,000 miles.

Across the face portion there are 2 Baal, 1 line (at the ear), 2 eyes, 1 line, 2 Baal which makes 2,1,2,1,2 or exactly the pattern displayed by the Grave Creek Tablet. The sum of 2,1,2,1,2 is 8. Interestingly 21212 x pi is 66637. The velocity of Earth is 66624 mph. However, pi which equals 3.1415 is not represented, or perhaps it is! Those 2’s at the top created 2222. A square of sides 2222 has a diagonal equal to pi x 1000.

The center bar also provides 56. Counting diamonds left to right, count five and stop at the middle and then from the middle to the far side is six. The four dots on the top panel are complemented by four dots on the bottom panel which represent the number 44. Divide the circumference of Earth in miles by 44 and obtain 565.5 once again. The numbers then are consistent from tablet to tablet and were not randomly chosen which reinforces that they are intrinsic to understanding the message and the culture.

What else might these tablets tell us about ourselves and what is missing from the history books?

The Waverly Tablet has the same little man face so we study it next.

Back to very first post on Adena Tablets

Previous Post on The Gaitskill Stone Tablet

Posts on: Allen Tablet,  Grave Creek Tablet,  The Kiefer Tablet,

Wright, Lakin B and Meigs Tablets,  Berlin Tablet,

Metcalf Stone, and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.

The Adena Tablets of Ancient Ohio – The Allen Tablet

© 2014 B. L. Freeborn

There are about a dozen small stones decorated with art that are called the Adena Tablets. They were found in various places throughout Ohio and in neighboring states. Sometimes they were found lying on the surface of the ground, but most often they were associated with mound sites. There are several persons who have published translations such as David W. Penny in the Mid-Continental Journal of Archaeology in 1980, J. Ralston Skinner in the Cincinnati Society of Natural History in 1885, (Note the time span.) and Duncan Caldwell in 1997 in Ohio Archaeologist.

A new way of reading them will be suggested here. So, we begin with the easiest only because it is so obscured by time there is virtually nothing left and ultimately we will be reading such beautiful art as the Ohio Adena Pipe, now a Ohio State symbol, and the Hopewell Shaman – Bear. Check out the links at Ohio History to see these items.

The Allen Tablet, Art from Ancient Ohio

The first reading is of the Allen Tablet as shown in the sketch. (No better image was found.) It is unclear if David Penny drew this or if he took it from Ellis H. Holmes’ 1944 article. Either way, all that can be seen is six circular blurbs. The original is long missing so there is no way to verify its design further. Penny reports it is made of sandstone. It is only 2″ wide and 3 ½” tall so it easily fit within the palm of a hand. These were often covered with red ocher and some suggest they were used in printing or laying on designs. Based on reading Lena Lenape Indian traditions, it is possible the red ocher was used to make them more beautiful and to make the designs leap out.

So, …. how is it this stone just happened to be 2″ by 3 ½” ? Of all the random sizes available how did the artist just happen to use measurements that fall so close to standard English inch sizes? We shall examine this topic closer in the future. Also note it was 3/4 of an inch thick and then observe the numbers as noted in the diagram that can be made from these dimensions: 7, 34 and 23.5.

From the art itself other numbers can be created just by counting the circular blurbs. Find: 23 32, and 56. The most obvious should be noted: three circles and three circles creates 33.

These are seemingly six random meaningless numbers, yet we see 34 + 56 = 90 and there are 90 degrees from the equator to the pole and 90 degrees in each quadrant of direction North to East, East to South, etc. Degrees are composed each of 60 minutes and 23.5 degrees can be written as 23 degrees 30 minutes which looks remarkably like the 23 32 obtained from counting blurbs. The Arctic Circle is defined by this latitude.

Seven we realize is the number of days in a week but there is no way these people also had seven day weeks or perhaps they did. Either way, seven is of great importance throughout a vast number of old world religions.

But we saw this 23 32 before in the Newark Earthworks. And we saw it in the Scottish Pict’s Aberlemno Stone. We also saw 56 in both of those and we found 34 there as well. Could this art lend credence to that strange tale related about the validity of the Newark Decalogue Stone?

Perhaps…. this is more Baalist artwork. But what does it all mean?

The mystery unravels further one stepping stone at a time.


Index to posts on Adena Stones and beginning post:

Metcalf Stone

Next post on Grave Creek Tablet, and pdf article on

Hudson Bay as a comet crater of recent origin.