Diameters, Radii and Other Great Numbers

By B.L. Freeborn © 2013

This study of Newark Earthworks and the Decalogue has created a significant list of numbers. Before we look at the cosmology we need to review the Great Circle and then apply some meaning to this growing list of numbers.

Side view of Great Circle. Newark, Ohio.

The Great Circle can fit entirely inside the Octagon. Its exterior dimension averages 1200 feet (measured with Daftlogic.com). Its shape is not perfectly round which may have been on purpose or a result of creep as described previously. The ditches surrounding its circular shape and neck were very deep. Within its middle is a shape called a bird mound which appears to be composed of four joined ovals. Its span is 200 feet. On the side opposing the neck is a crescent moon shape. Meteoric iron and crescent shapes have been found among recovered artifacts. This is what Feder would call legitimate garbage.

The Great Circle is essentially a series of numbers stated via the radii. A review of the diagram reveals the numbers: 528, 560, 580, 1056, 1200 and 600. The 528 we recognize as a tenth mile. The 1056 is a fifth mile and Hively’s OCD. The 1200 reminds us of the twelve houses in the Zodiac at 30 degrees per house. 600 reminds us of the seconds in an hour and minutes in a degree of latitude. The 560 is the essential part of the mystery. Which leaves only the 580 to explain from this list. Similarly, a study of the neck reveals the numbers 56.25 and 56.5. The neck opening was on an azimuth of 66.6 degrees which also needs to be explained. This brings us to the point of finding meaning for all the remaining numbers.

Detail of Neck of Newark Great CircleThe four inner most mounds of the Octagon are a good place to begin understanding the numbers. We can see in the next diagram these four mounds are so placed as to give us a reminder of the mile’s length and two dimensions that are key to understanding the whole layout. 914 and 945 sum to 1859 which we saw in the Wright Square and the East Fork side dimensions. These two numbers, 91,400,000 and 94,500,000 miles are quoted today by NASA as the closest and furthest distance of Earth to the Sun. The diameter created across Earth’s orbit at these two extremes is 186,000,000 miles. Wright Square had 8 inner mounds inside 1 square or put another way these two numbers, 1 square and 8 mounds, create 18. Further still this 1859 is another form of Millon’s 187′. The 1859 is usually seen rounded up to 1860 or stated as 186.

Octagon Inner MoundsThe largest diameter of the Octagon was 1728 feet or 2 x 864. This number, or its simpler form 86, was found in the square foot area of East Fork, the thickness of the Decalogue Stone, the value of the gematria of Elohim, the diameter of the two great circles at Thornborough in England, the area of Wright Square, the multiplication of the lengths of the sides of the neck of the Octagon-Circle and two times the azimuth angle between Wright Square and the Great Circle. We also find it today in the measurement of time, 86400 seconds in a day, and most importantly, it represents the diameter of the Sun at 864,337 miles (NASA). This is the value calculated by multiplying the 292′ and 296′ of the neck of the Octagon-Circle or 86432.

There were 256 letters on the Decalogue Stone or 16 x 16 letters. The distance Earth travels in any given day is roughly 1600,000 miles. It travels this distance at 66,624 miles and hour. This is the angle Hively could not explain at the Great Circle, 66.6 . It is used in our numbering system still today as shown in the East Fork work. Eight increments of 66 reminds us of 8 furlongs of 660′ equals a mile.

The Great Circle displays a radius of 580. In other places it appeared as 584. This value was found in the width of the Decalogue Stone as 2.9″, the gematria of Noah as 58, the distance between Wright Square and the Great Circle as 2920′, as 584 in the arc of the oil lamp at East Fork, in the distance between Giza and Newark, as 292′ in the throat of the Octagon-Circle, as the average length of the side mounds of the Octagon, and as a reminder in the 50-80-50 triangle. If the Earth continues to travel about the Sun at 66,624 miles per hour every day then each and every year it travels 584,000,000 miles. This is the circumference of Earth’s orbit.

Romain discovered the multiple 7 OCD. Seven multiplies with the azimuth angle, 52.2 degrees, of the Octagon to give us the days in a year. The numbers 76, 760, 77, 770, 2.72, 2.77 suggest such important numbers as the return period of Halley’s Comet.

The number 56 and its variants 56.5, 560 and its other form 32, appears at such distant sites as the much debated 56 Aubrey Holes at Stonehenge. It appears in the gematria of Yahweh and Baal. We found it at Thornborough in the radius 320′. Its appearance at Newark occurs repeatedly. We find it today preserved in our measurement of the acre as 43,560 feet. We will discover it in a few other places before we are done here.

And the last number that we found in the gematria of Moses, 345, was the half of 69. Its other versions are 69.18 and 69.2 and  it is often rounded up to 70. These were not observed as frequently in Newark. This is the distance between lines of longitude at the equator.

The diameter of the Earth represented by 79 and 792 was found at Newark. Each and every time the number 528 is used it also refers to 792. Using cubits of 18″ or 1½ feet, means 528 cubits is 792 feet. It was found in the distance in miles between Grave Creek Mound and Geller Hill. This was the same distance Thornborough lies from Lincoln Cathedral. Twice 792 is 1584. This is the distance Romain used between the Octagon-Circle. This number is always present yet often quite hidden. In Stonehenge it appears as its square root 89 and at Thornborough it was the difference in lengths between the two sides. On the Decalogue Stone it was the two unidentified symbols front and back that sum to 79. At East Fork it appeared boldly as the length of the base. At Newark, although reconstructed too often to confirm, it seems to have been the length of each of the 8 inner mounds of the Octagon.

All in all a masterful blending of these important numbers appears at each and every one of these ancient sites. The proof that they are all interrelated is apparent. There is no question that the Decalogue Stone and the gematria of the Torah are equally related. This then leads us to the important question as to how simple people with no “pertinent garbage” could have measured these celestial values of immense size.

Just when we should be upon a solution the problem grows exponentially! We have arrived back at the debate with even more things to debate!

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  1. Freeborn, B.L., “The Deep Mystery: The Day the Pole Moved,” Tiw & Elddir, 2013.
  2. Hively, Ray, and Horn, Robert, Geometry and Astronomy in Prehistoric Ohio, “Journal for the History of Astronomy, Archaeoastronomy,” Supplement, Vol. 13, p.S1; also Science History Publications, 1982.      See:   http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu
  3. Romain, William F., Ph.D., Newark Earthwork Cosmology: This Island Earth, “Hopewell Archeology: The Newsletter of Hopewell Archeology in the Ohio River Valley,” Vol.6 (2), March 2005.   See:  http://www.nps.gov/mwac/hopewell/v6n2/one.htm
  4. Romain, William F., Ph.D., Design and Layout of the Newark Earthwork Complex, “Hopewell Archeology: The Newsletter of Hopewell Archeology in the Ohio River Valley,” Vol.6 (2), March 2005.  See:   http://www.nps.gov/mwac/hopewell/v6n2/two.htm

Creeping Away with Time

By B.L. Freeborn © 2013

How is that more than one researcher can claim these mounds are precisely laid out yet they are so out of round that they vary in their diameter? The Great Circle varies from 1163 to 1189 feet. The Observatory Circle varies from 1050 to 1058 feet. The Octagon is visibly unsymmetrical. It is wider at the end joining the circle.

Large burial mound overlooking Ohio River. See more images of mounds at http://moundbuilder.blogspot.com/p/27-largest-burial-mounds-in-ohio.html

There are three plausible explanations for these irregularities. The first is the variation was intentional as was suggested in the difference between the sides of Wright Square of 926 and 928 and later numbers will show that this stretching was done to achieve certain distances. The second explanation is that when they were reconstructed by the Ohio National Guard and others (see complete explanation in Hively/Horn) they were altered.

The last explanation is creep. Let us say the mounds are thousands of years old and that the reason they still exist today is that on a regular basis they were maintained. The manner in which this is done can contribute to their movement.

The Miamisburg Mound is burned every other year to keep weeds and trees from overtaking it. Many mounds throughout Ohio are owned by the Ohio Historical Society and they allow massive trees to take root. Over time the roots push out, break down and do their part in returning the mounds to the landscape. In effect the Society is allowing that which they have been charged with preserving to be destroyed. The Newark Octagon is a golf course and is groomed with precision machines. The grass cover keeps the soil in place.

Carbon dating of charcoal at the Alligator Mound tells us it was built about a 1000 BP. Or does this actually tell us the date of a forest fire or a controlled burn to maintain the site?

Trees, erosion and careless reconstruction all contribute to creep but there is another way they creep out of round.  Persons charged with digging the dirt out of the ditch at the Great Circle and putting it back onto the top of the mound year after year work around the circle. Each and every year slight variations are introduced. The change is so incrementally small that it is never noticed until someone comes back a thousand years later and says, “Yo, your circle looks like an oval!” They creep out of shape. What can contribute even faster to creeping is a sloped site. Fortunately, few are on slopes. Numerous reconstructions and rearrangements in areas such as Thornborough indicate that over the centuries different generations have left their mark, so too we must assume this has happened at both Hopewell and Adena sites.

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  1. Hively, Ray, and Horn, Robert, Geometry and Astronomy in Prehistoric Ohio, “Journal for the History of Astronomy, Archaeoastronomy,” Supplement, Vol. 13, p.S1; also Science History Publications, 1982.      See:   http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu
  2. Image of Mound from: http://moundbuilder.blogspot.com/p/27-largest-burial-mounds-in-ohio.html