In the last section the rotation of Earth’s outer crust was discussed and that what we experience as the North and/or South magnetic pole is located in this massive bulk comprising 45% of the Earth. It was suggested that in a large comet impact the outer crust will rotate on the inner core but will move only so far before it ‘locks’ into another stable magnetic position.
In the first image the round magnet sits at the edge of a flat magnet. Notice the tilted angle. The attraction here is so strong that it can pull the large flat magnet. When it is set at the center or pole of the flat magnet, it sits parallel to it as one expects. There it slides easily over its surface until it grabs at the edge as shown. This is its ‘next most stable position’ and definitely where the convergent and divergent magnetism forms the strongest bond.
A round magnet sits at an angle on the edge of a flat magnet.
In the next image of Earth notice that between the outer crust and outer semi-solid core there exists a layer that is considered to be highly viscous. It is proposed that this layer is the interface where the slippage of the outer crust occurs. Notice that it is directly below North 56.5 degrees of latitude. The Earth’s North-South line was severed in the impact as the outer core rotated. The opposite pole developed against the slip layer and it then ‘locked’ with the divergent magnetism of the inner core at North 56.5 degrees. It turned 33.5 degrees. The line of movement was along longitude West 79.2 degrees. The magnetic locking of the outer crust stopped it from rotating further and fortuitously allowed life to continue on Earth by assuring shifts in climatic zones overlapped to some extent.
The Earth’s magnetic poles shift with the outer crust and are realigned overtime by the Earth’s stable inner iron core.
The Magnetic North has moved significantly over the last few decades. It is now very nearly aligned with True North. The Magnetic South Pole is moving as well but at a slower pace.
The Earth is a magnificent structure that is able to absorb an impact from a large comet and minimize the damage. Its outer layers are able to rotate as if on a free axle which absorbs the energy of the impact. It then stops the rotation of its layers as they lock again magnetically.
An internet search of the above question suggests that the Earth appears to be losing its magnetism. And the key word in that statement is ‘appears.’
Approximate current pole positions of layers of Earth today. **See note.
The definitive answer lies in the future. Most of those writing and researching the topic believe that the Earth’s magnetic field is generated by the shifting liquid core. They state that the liquid core is 50 times more magnetic than the surface of the Earth. The view taken here is that the magnetic field resides in the solid central core and solid outer crust which comprises 65% of Earth. The field that we experience and observe as Earth’s magnetism lies predominantly in the outer 45% or the mantle. But it is under the influence of the solid inner core which is the more stable magnetic feature of Earth. Consider that the inner core throws its field through the entire outer layers into space, it is theoretically of dense iron which is the most magnetic of the elements, it lies at the center of a gravitational mass and that magnetism is self-centering. All these factors contribute to its role in influencing the outer crust and outer core. Another way to say it is that it programs the outer mantle over time.
(** Note: North Pole of Earth is actually in the South and South Pole is in the North but to reduce confusion in images North is shown in North.)
Consider also that all magnets exhibit a Bloch Wall (Dielectric Plane) at the center. Adding or subtracting to a magnet instantly shifts this plane to the center. It projects outwards in a plane through the structure into space. The Bloch Wall of Earth is never mentioned or depicted in images of Earth’s magnetic field as if it does not exist. This is most likely because the Earth is a composite of two magnetic fields overlaying each other. The field thrown outwards (and inwards) by the outer mantle has its own Bloch Wall. The plane is contorted because it is a composite of at least two fields and because the north and south pole of Earth are not 180 degrees opposite from each other at this time.
Bloch Wall /Dielectric Plane as seen with Ferrocell (left) and with viewing film (right). Photos by Ken Wheeler, “Uncovering the Missing Secrets of Magnetism.”
One can see in the image below that two magnets in close proximity that are not in a simple configuration such as N-S-N-S display erratic fields as shown in the Ferrocell image here. Shifting the magnets shifts the field.
Magnetic field of two broken magnets seen under Ferrocell. Photo by Ken Wheeler, “Uncovering the Missing Secrets of Magnetism.”
It can also be demonstrated with a Ferrocell that the strength of the field is additive, meaning the more magnets that are stacked in alignment the stronger the field grows and the more clear the image becomes. It is not that the same magnets spread out lose their magnetism, it is just their ability to influence the light in the Ferrocell is not as effective when separated. Consider how men on a rope-pull acting in unison can achieve more than each alone.
Magnetic Field of ring magnet as seen under Ferrocell. Photo by Ken Wheeler, “Uncovering the Missing Secrets of Magnetism.”
What the Earth is experiencing, that is being observed as a weakening of the field, is a reprogramming of the outer crust by the solid inner core. Bit by bit and slowly over time the particles in the outer crust are coming into alignment with the inner core. The old pattern stored in the outer crust is being induced into a new alignment. The rapid shifting of the North Pole towards True North in the last half century is a result of this realignment. The realignment in the rest of the outer structure will follow. This is a vast and large demonstration of the same effect one sees when one magnetizes a needle. The Southern Poles will do the same but it will happen at its own rate. The end result will be the magnetic pole will appear to rotate around the true pole not because it is still shifting but because that is how the pole on all magnets work. (See Ken Wheeler films and book, “Uncovering the Missing Secrets of Magnetism.”)
Layers of Earth exhibit cohesive pole positions prior to impact. Bloch Wall passes through equator.
For clarification we need to take a step back in time to when this condition existed on Earth before. The following theory is predicated on the idea that during large comet impacts the outer 45% of the bulk of Earth is free to rotate around on the inner liquid core and that such an event occurred as recently as 5000 years ago. At that point in time there was one magnetic field exhibited by Earth with both inner core and outer mantle exhibiting a single field locked together magnetically. The field had a notable Bloch Wall (Dielectric Plane) passing through the equator and magnetic poles that rotated around the true poles. The outer crust exhibited a magnetic field oriented as shown in the image. Upon being struck it rotated to the next most stable position between two magnets as seen in the image below. (To be explained in the next post.) The rotated field in the outer layer remained as it had been programmed by the solid inner core for many, many millennia but slowly over time it shifted presumably from the inside to the outside so it was not apparent until very recently. The sum of this changing field that varies over time at any given point is most likely what scientists are measuring without realizing it. Hence, the idea it is weakening.
The new field that develops in the future will be one coherent field as before the strike and a much stronger field than exists now as the bulk of the Earth comes into complete resonance with itself once again. All modern stated theories assume we are at the beginning of a pole shift rather than at the end of a pole shift. In other words, the same data can support a completely different view.
Layers of Earth exhibit separate pole positions just after impact and crust displacement.
If the time period quoted is accurate then it happened in recorded human history. We have heard the reports in ancient texts and dismiss them as nonsense and superstition. Ancient records tell us the Sun changed its orientation in the sky, that the people in the northern latitudes were afraid of the sky falling and that the Earth experienced a deluge that killed almost everything alive. All of these stories recount the apocalypse. This word comes from Greek and it means ‘to uncover, reveal.’ A closer look at the word apocalypse is needed: a-pock-cull-lap-si or… ‘a’ (continuous, source), pock (pit), cull (killing off), lap (area), si (came to be). Perhaps there were continuous comet impacts (pocks) that uncovered and revealed the land by melting the northern ice sheet. The collapse of the ice sheet caused the deluge. Essentially the event has been recorded in both our ancient stories and words. Yet we have become way too intelligent to believe what we have been told by our elders.
The shift was in some ways fortuitous for a few. The creation of this second magnetic pole a considerable distance from true north and finding its location allowed for precise measurement of longitude and latitude without a clock. By knowing the exact location of magnetic north and using spherical trigonometry, longitude could be determined. Furthermore, keeping the location secret empowered those in the know. They could navigate the world’s oceans with confidence while others got lost.
Observed pole positions taken from Newitt et al., “Location of the North Magnetic Pole in April 2007”, Earth Planets Space, 61, 703–710, 2009 Modeled pole positions taken from the National Geophysical Data Center, “Wandering of the Geomagnetic Poles” Map created with GMT. CC BY 4.0 Cavit
Earth’s magnetic poles shift over time whereas the true poles are fixed geographic locations. The magnetic pole is the place where the lines of force are oriented vertically into/out of the planet. Mapping of the Magnetic North Pole shows it was north of Victoria Island, Canada in the 1600’s and south of the island in the 1800’s. Since then it has moved in virtually a straight line towards the Arctic Circle to approximately 160̊ W off the coast of Russia. As indicated in the image, the predicted movement of the north pole is in a clockwise rotation around the true pole.
Similarly, the South Pole was at the Ross Ice Shelf in the 1600’s, then it moved in a northwest direction and now lies off the coast at 64.28°S, 136.59° E (2015). It has shifted from 160̊ E to 137̊ E since the 1600’s and travels six to nine miles a year. It is predicted here that the south pole should behave in the same manner as the north and take up a clockwise rotation (when seen from the south pole) around the true pole. However, it may be sometime before the process completes in the south since it is still 1,780 miles from the true pole. The magnetic pole is not a true dipole at this time since they are some 20̊ apart in latitude.
In accordance with the theory presented in this paper, the rapid shifting of the poles in the north in the last few decades is indicative of the final stages of reprogramming of the mantle by the inner core. The speed with which this process occurs can be easily observed in small magnets as magnetic fields are induced or flipped with more powerful magnets.
Throughout these many pages and articles magnetic north has been quoted as lying in Hudson Bay at 56.5̊ N 79.2̊ W. Charles Hapgood’s best guess through his research was a location of 60̊N 83̊W. These two points are about 280 miles apart. Previous pole locations were the Greenland Sea Pole 72̊N 10̊W about 75,000 years ago and the Yukon Pole 63̊N 135̊W about 120000 years ago. These locations were determined by examining magnetic patterns left in the sedimentary layers and other evidence. (Hapgood, Charles, “Path of the Pole,” Adventures Unlimited Press, Kempton, Illinois, 1999.)
Before leaving this topic it is worthwhile to note that when the North Pole was located more inland the winters were more frigid and ice stayed longer in the Arctic. The south pole has moved just off the Antarctic coast and despite the breaking away of large parts of the ice shelves the sum total of ice on the continent is growing. Remember each snowflake forms around a dust particle and those particles respond to the magnetic pull at each pole. Because the magnetic pull is directed vertically downwards in these regions the tendency should be for the snow to build up there.
When the pole is located in the ocean the ice builds up and its buoyancy pushes it to the ocean surface. This allows more to build up on the upper surface but ocean currents work to pull it away underneath which weakens it as it attempts to build. There is no undercurrent to reduce the ice and particle build up when the pole is on land. This leads one to speculate that the ice should build up and its accompanying cold should be more severe when the poles are on land. So perhaps the location of the poles is another large contributor to global warming. The possibility also exists that the accumulation of particles over long spans of time at the magnetic poles may have contributed to the formation of the continents.
Experts tell us the earth is losing its magnetism. Maybe. Maybe not. So there it still more to come…. in the next section.
As stated in the first post: “The intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field over the Atlantic Ocean has been measured on a number of flights organized by the Department of Mines and Technical Surveys of Canada and also under Project Magnet (U.S. Hydrographic Office). Some of these flights passed over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the magnetic observations show that there are large anomalies associated with the crest of the Ridge in some crossings, but not in all.” – Magnetic Anomalies over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, M. J. Keen, Nature.com
Measurements of intensity and direction of magnetism taken in the above mentioned studies and others have been used as evidence that the Earth’s magnetic poles flip. The cooling lava exuded along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge records the direction of the Earth’s existing magnetic field at the time. Because it is striated in opposing N-S, S-N bands the assumption that it flips has been made.
It is true and proven that the lava acts as a recording medium. The argument here lies with assuming it is found in striated bands solely because the poles flip. These long striated cooled lava flows are ‘weak’ magnets under enormous ocean pressures which suffer breakage from earthquakes and other shifting.
Left image is unbroken magnet seen through viewing film. In center is broken magnet seen on right. Broken magnet does not re-unite properly. Upper half is flipped. (Photo: Ken Wheeler)
This leads one directly to the key question: what happens to a magnet when it breaks? In Image A (below) at the end of the chain is a broken magnet and it behaves the way one expects. A new north and south pole has formed and it obediently lines up. But this is not always the case. Magnets of different shapes will sometimes reverse their physical position entirely to regain an opposite pole attraction as shown in the image of the circular magnet.
Image A is a photo of 4″ long stainless steel magnets of a ‘medium’ strength. The north pole is marked with red tape on each magnet. They ideally line up in a N-S, N-S chain as one expects and so can model these long lava striations well. Over time earthquakes and other local disturbances fracture the hardened lava flows. The well known ‘opposite poles attract model’ (N-S -N-S) is obeyed. However, it would be an oversimplification to assume the solidified lava does not also fracture in long sections paralleling the rifts. What then happens to these weak fields?
Observe the layout in Image B as rows of the long magnets are set beside each other. They form separate magnet chains with parallel N-S poles in line. They suddenly no longer want to pull together but push away in long lines. There is no way to bring them together except by constant and continuous force which presumably the ocean floor can provide in many locations. In other locations, the striated lines would push away from each other in the same manner as the steel magnets. However, if one jiggles the magnets they will line up at the midpoint of the opposite magnet (Image C) but that requires a shift of the entire long chain or shifting after fracturing in smaller sections.
If the chains fail to come back together they will still attract sediments to fill in ‘magnetically’ where the charged lava ‘most desires’ it. Then we may speculate that separated N-S, N-S chains will create either the pattern seen in Image C or a N-S, S-N pattern as we see in Image D.
But what about a weak magnet that fractures in parallel and the strips are forced together?
It is an easy matter to stroke a needle over a magnet and induce magnetism in the needle. It is also an easy matter to create two or three of such magnets in the same needle. One can even create a needle with identical poles at opposite ends and the opposing poles in the middle with a space between them. Inducing magnetism in metals is an easy process so it is not far fetched to suppose that a multi-fractured layer can exhibit flipping (de-magnetization followed by re-magnetization) in parallel strips in the direction of charge. Indeed, fracturing is probably not even necessary if the material itself varies enough in nature to allow bands of magnetized metals to alternate with non-magnetic materials.
And then one also has to consider the possibility that the new lava being exuded has a pole orientation at an angle to that which has cooled. What then happens? In Image E the magnets are set at 90 degrees to the chains. In setting the perpendicular magnets they automatically are drawn to the opposing poles as seen. Jiggle them slightly and they will shift as seen in Image C or D.
Therefore, the conclusion that the poles flip because the lava flows are striated N-S, S-N cannot be made. The exercise does suggests that lava flows will lay down in an orderly fashion. It will either develop into bands that are all N-S or in bands that alternate N-S then S-N. The direction of the magnetism in the exuding fluid lava can be under the influence of the Earth’s poles or under local influence. Regardless, it will prefer to form over time one of the two patterns seen above in Image C or D.
Yet we know the magnetic north pole has traveled recently from south of Victoria Island towards true north, that the south pole has also traveled, that magnetic field strengths are varying and that magnetic fields recorded in sedimentary rock appear to record shifting poles. So, there is certainly much more to discuss and learn.
In the previous posts the magnetic strength of each major layer of Earth was discussed. The next step is to look into the idea that the poles of the earth just flip. This is an idea that has become very popular but is it valid?
There was a video here that depicted the reprogramming of magnetic orientation (if it occurs slowly) or the flipping of poles (if instant). !!
The best way to approach the idea that Earth’s poles can flip is to think about it extensively first. Here are three thought exercises:
Hold a magnet in your hand firmly. Allow this to be the exterior mass of Earth. Now without moving your hand get the poles to flip. How can it be done?
Hold a magnet in your hand firmly. Allow this to be the interior solid core of Earth. Now without moving your hand get the poles to flip. How can it be done?
Hold a magnet in your hand firmly. Allow the magnet to represent a single layer of sedimentary rock that has recorded the current magnetic field. (In reality they are stacked one on the other in different directions recording its movement.) If the outer shell of Earth is rigid and does not move, how can you shift the magnet’s field by 25 degrees in either direction without moving your hand to simulate the direction of the next sedimentary layer? Remember plate tectonics is gradual so that is not an option.
There are only two ways to get the poles to flip without moving your hand:
-Hold onto the magnet until it loses its magnetism (a very long time) and then expose it to a magnet or electric field with an opposing charge. It will reorient itself accordingly. But that can hardly be called flipping. That is reprogramming it.
-Hold onto the magnet and expose it to a much much larger and stronger magnetic field. It will flip instantly. What could in reality supply such a field to the Earth? A near miss by a larger planetary type body with a greater magnetic field would do it but it is not likely to happen since large free moving bodies are more rare than comets.
-There are variations on this but it still requires bringing other very strong magnetic fields into close proximity. So…. essentially it just does not happen.
The poles of the inner core cannot be flipped except as noted in 1. Flipping the interior solid core as a whole is perhaps easier but this is not a flipping of the poles. The solid round core will just rotate within the liquid core. In order to do this, the inner core must be in a magnetically locked position with the outer crust. When the outer crust rotates so does it. Then to flip the pole spinning the planet completely over is required.
-But we might assume it is always magnetically locked to the outer crust. If it were to break the lock, it would be free to rotate. Although it is a large mass that is hurtling through space around the Sun its momentum would not prevent its rotation since it should be free to rotate around its own center of gravity. This case shall be considered in the future and it will be discussed just how far it can rotate until it locks up again. So ….essentially it can happen but probably less often then a partial rotation.
How does one lay down the next magnetic layer in the sedimentary layers without moving the old sedimentary layers? If the crust cannot and does not move then the field must, and this is what fuels experiments today and defines the current understanding of Earth’s magnetism.
There is an underlying unspoken consensus in the scientific community that the crust/mantle system of the Earth always has been in the position it is today with North America and Russia nicely dominating the northern hemisphere. Period. Except during the time of the single Pangaea which is too long ago to explain modern phenomena and then artists still show only the southern continents moving away.
There are only three options then: have a perpetually shifting field, overwhelming influence the field externally or move the magnet itself. Modern models are firmly based in the first. The second cannot happen as often as the rock record suggests which leaves the last. It is anathema to the modern scientist to consider that the planet is a layered structure which responds accordingly. It is also forbidden to suggest that the planet is subject from time to time to extreme impacts which can shift the bulky outer 1800 mile layer in relation to the inner core and the ecliptic plane.
This is not as proposed by Charles Hapgood’s popular theory who only envisioned the outer 60 miles, lithosphere, moving on the 460 mile thick semi-lava layer, the asthenosphere. The difference is like trying to slide a rubber tire directly on the rim vs. moving the tire and rim around on a free axle. Since the viscosity of the outer liquid core is said to be less than that of water, it is essentially a free axle.
So …. in the next post let us look at the rock record that indicates the core flips.
In the previous section the idea that Earth’s magnetic field is solely the result of the moving liquid core was reviewed.
There is another way to view the process. It is proposed that the magnetic properties of Earth are primarily held within the solid core and solid outer shell. The resultant magnetism is the sum of both the properties of the solid materials themselves and the magnetism induced over extensive periods of time into the composite structure by a consistent flow of convective materials in the liquid core. The orientation is held in the solid materials and need not be constantly generated by the randomly moving liquid.
Continuing along this line, the Earth is obviously not a completely coherent object. A single magnet has absolute coherence regardless of size and strength. An arrangement of an infinite number of magnets in any material that does not exhibit magnetic properties as a whole occurs because the magnets are not a coherent system. As coherency develops in the system magnetic properties are exhibited. This is how magnetism is induced in a needle simply by stroking it. Coherency can be induced in more than one way to ‘create’ or ‘induce’ magnetism. The Earth must have enough coherence, although a conglomerate, since it exhibits a dominant dipole system which we call its magnetic poles.
Applying the idea of a quadrupolar field model (see previous section) requires that Earth (a predominately solid 3-D sphere) become so disorganized that it loses a great deal of its coherence. Since the bulk of Earth on the exterior is dense rock, and additionally, it has a large solid core, making it lose its coherence so that it loses its dominant magnetic dipole field becomes literally a shattering of the planet which obviously has not happened in a very long time. In contrast, if we are to believe the Pétrélis article, referenced in the previous section, then the flow within the liquid core is strong enough to create a magnetic dipole at anytime that can overcome the sum magnetic fields laid down over time in the remaining 65% of the solid planet.
Above is a video by magnetism guru Ken Wheeler showing how magnets affect a mixture of iron filings in fluid. Many other videos can be found on youtube.
By maintaining the magnetic orientation in the solid structures the fluctuations caused by the moving liquid core are dampened. The moving liquid core is agitated during large comet impacts which must occur more frequently then modern scientists will allow. The liquid core must also move in response to the attraction/repelling of particles between the two magnetized structures it resides between in addition to convection. (See Ferro-Fluid video above.) The system must run down (become incoherent and stationary) and thus lose its magnetic nature over time without periodic inputs of energy as would be supplied by large comet impacts. Indeed, the interior of the planet itself would cool perhaps solidifying this liquid core without such inputs of energy. As discussed in “A Planet Most Miraculous” the Earth is well suited to absorbing large impacts.
By assuming that the dipole of magnetism we experience as the North and South poles is primarily held in the exterior layer some 1800 miles thick or 45% of the diameter of the planet which can move relatively freely around on the inner liquid core explains several observed phenomena. The core is considered to be solid iron which is one of the most ‘magnetizable materials’ in existence. It comprises 20% of the diameter of the planet. In addition, it is at the center of a large gravitational body and what is gravity but magnetism under a different name. By assuming that this inner core of the planet is another magnetic structure with its own orientation which tends to remain fixed in the True North-True South position explains other observed phenomena. These two structures account for 65% of the diameter and provide ample storage for the Earth’s magnetism.
As explained in “A Planet Most Miraculous: The Mechanics of Earth’s Rotating Crust” the entire outer structure of the planet can be acted upon which will cause the exterior magnetic poles to shift to a different position with respect to the ecliptic plane but remain in the same position with respect to its physical location on Earth. The magnetic dipole field we observe, measure and live by is largely a function of this programmed magnetically coherent conglomerate outer bulk. This is a very important point so it will be explained further.
Let us say that very recently (5000 to 13000 years ago) True North and Magnetic North coincided at the True North Pole. The physical location was in the midst of Hudson Bay at the lowest large arc. But! – Hudson Bay existed not as it is but as a mountainous ice field at the True North Pole. It was many miles high. (The highest mountain in Antarctica is three miles.) A large comet strikes the north pole into this mountainous icy region. It bores a deep hole which gives it a leverage point in which to catch. Combining this with its velocity and mass it is able to transfer its momentum to the structure of Earth. It shifts the outer mantle and crust entirely just like a wheel moves on an inner bearing and it stops at latitude 56.5 degrees north and goes no further. (Why it stops here is discussed in later sections.) The heat of the comet and its velocity allow it to break through the ice. Its fragments ricochet to form the Great Lakes. Large volumes of ice also ricochet to form other structures such as the Carolina Bays. The ice mountains have been transformed into the three arcs of Hudson Bay. This is an area some 400 miles wide and a 1000 miles long once covered by three miles or more of ice or 1.2 million cubic miles of ice. It was instantly melted and so the legend of the Deluge begins.
Afterwards magnetic north lies at 56.5 degrees north. It has shifted 33.5 degrees. In this location it remained for a few thousand years until the magnetic pole gradually shifted northwards. It has moved rapidly over the last 400 years or so to take up its present position. Now it will slowly circle the True North Pole in a clockwise direction. This will be discussed again later in more detail but for the time being understand the following. If the dominant magnetic field of Earth was not essentially within the outer 45% of the planet, it would not have shifted during the impact. There would never have been a two pole (True-Magnetic) system. The stable configuration has now been achieved in the North again and the Southern Poles are slowly moving into realignment. This will hopefully be a good long superchron until the planet is hit again and the process starts all over.
The fact that the magnetic poles are realigning to true north-south suggests that the solid inner core’s magnetic field is the more stable part of this system. This is logical from the standpoint that the very dense core, as an inner spherical magnet made of iron, throws its field entirely through the outer layers especially the liquid outer core. The reverse cannot be said of a hollow sphere magnet (the outer crust which is a conglomerate), nor can it be said of the liquid core. This throwing outwards through the liquid core gives scientists the impression that the liquid core has a substantially stronger field (50 times more powerful) than the solid core or outer crust. But remember, the field of a magnet is thrown outwards, hence the liquid core is substantially under the influence of the solid core.
Recall that a magnet draws material to it and a strong magnet is able to highly compact its ‘atoms’ into a lattice structure. (Chemists successfully use the atomic model to understand the process although it is has its limits.) Two things occur as a magnet becomes more powerful. There is more sharing of electrons and the crystal structure becomes more dense. It is the magnetic properties of the individual atoms (magnetic moment of electron spin) that confers magnetism on the sum of the material. When working in unison the magnetic properties of the individual atoms grows exponentially as resonance develops. (1) With this understanding we realize then that the solid core is 50 times more magnetic than the liquid core. Not the reverse as commonly understood.
Overtime the inner iron core programs the outer crust and they become in-sync. The longer it is stable the more in-sync they become and the magnetic field of Earth appears to become stronger. During a large comet impact this bulk retains its magnetic orientation as it is shifted away and it dominates until the solid inner core reprograms it. (As we are experiencing now). What Pétrélis and others see as a quadrupole is actually a ‘broken magnet.’ (To be discussed in a later section.)
Other observed phenomena will be discussed going forward.
Understanding what happens during large comet impacts requires some knowledge of Earth’s magnetic nature and magnetism in general. Two problems present immediately. The first is magnetism is poorly understood in and of itself. The second is that a closer look at the ‘facts’ we are being told about Earth’s magnetic field suggests that they may not be facts. The purpose of the next series of articles is to examine some of these existing beliefs and propose new theories.
The basic understanding today of the earth’s magnetic field is as follows:
“Earth’s polarity is not a constant. Unlike a classic bar magnet, or the decorative magnets on your refrigerator, the matter governing Earth’s magnetic field moves around. Geophysicists are pretty sure that the reason Earth has a magnetic field is because its solid iron core is surrounded by a fluid ocean of hot, liquid metal. This process can also be modeled with supercomputers. Ours is, without hyperbole, a dynamic planet. The flow of liquid iron in Earth’s core creates electric currents, which in turn create the magnetic field.” – NASA, Nov. 2011
We are also told that the direction and strength of Earth’s previous magnetic fields are recorded in the lava that flows out from below the crust as the ocean floor spreads at the mid-Atlantic rift. It forms measurable bands that reverse direction periodically. Research ships have detected and recorded this data for later compilation. Both computer and actual modeling has filled in the blanks in understanding. This is how theories such as we see above about Earth’s magnetic field were developed.
Magnetic stripes on ocean floor.
(Caption for the above reads: “A survey of the Earth’s magnetic field in the vicinity of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge south of Iceland shows magnetic anomalies aligned as paired stripes in the direction of the ridge. The youngest material is found at the ridge axis. A change in color indicates a reversal of polarity in the magnetic field. Different color indicates different age since rock formation, age increasing away from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The 100 m and 1000 m depth contours are also shown.” http://www.incois.gov.in/Tutor/science+society/lectures0
There are however many scientists with dissenting opinions as we see in the two quotes here:
(1) “The intensity of the Earth’s magnetic field over the Atlantic Ocean has been measured on a number of flights organized by the Department of Mines and Technical Surveys of Canada and also under Project Magnet (U.S. Hydrographic Office). Some of these flights passed over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and the magnetic observations show that there are large anomalies associated with the crest of the Ridge in some crossings, but not in all.” – Magnetic Anomalies over the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, M. J. Keen, Nature.com
(2) “I would claim that the models are very far from being realistic, and therefore the inferences we draw from them about the Earth are going to be questionable,” says geophysics professor Bruce Buffett of UC Berkeley’s Department of Earth and Planetary Science. Planetary magnetic fields: The hunt for better models, November 25, 2010 by Monica Friedlander, ScienceMatters@Berkeley
Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2010-11-planetary-magnetic-fields.html#jCp
There are other scientists whose research supports NASA’s statement:
(3a) “The quadrupolar field (it is likely to be a quadrupole but another structure could be possible) is also generated by the flow of the liquid core of the Earth, exactly like the dipolar field,” explained the researchers. “Most of the time, we observe a dipolar field because it is more easily generated by the flow, but in other conditions a quadrupolar field could be maintained, and this occurs in a temporary manner during a reversal.” Reversals of Earth’s Magnetic Field Explained by Small Core Fluctuations, April 23, 2009 by Lisa Zyga who quotes from Pétrélis, François; Fauve, Stéphan; Dormy, Emmanuel; and Valet, Jean-Pierre. “Simple Mechanism for Reversals of Earth’s Magnetic Field.” Physical Review Letters, 102, 144503 (2009).
Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2009-04-reversals-earth-magnetic-field-small.html#jCp
The authors (Pétrélis et al.) above speak of fields. For clarity, there is no such thing as a quadrupolar magnet. A magnet will always have just two opposite ends on its one pole (a dipole), and that magnet will always exhibit at the midpoint a Bloch Wall or Dielectric Plane. One can arrange individual magnets in an infinite number of ways to create anything from quadrupoles to infinite-poles but one still has individual magnets so arranged. The reference to a quadrupolar field presumably suggests the intersection of two magnetic fields which are not always acting coherently so as to reinforce each other, may be of unequal strength, and may act to cancel each other out in certain areas to the extent no magnetic properties are observed.
Pétrélis et al. (quote 3a) suggest the liquid core forms the quadrupolar field presumably as it shifts about via convection then the orientation of the poles flip and it regenerates itself as the opposing dipole dominates. The system can then become harmonious again until it just isn’t and the cycle repeats. Or, the opposing pole vanishes and the process is aborted until it begins again somehow.
One finds this additional statement at the end of the Pétrélis article:
(3b) “Although little is known about the actual flow inside the Earth’s core, recent observations have shown that the ends of superchrons are often followed by major flood basalt eruptions, which are likely to produce equatorial symmetry breaking of convection at the core-mantle boundary, in support of the scientists’ model.”
This statement is a loop. The end is followed by the cause which drives the system. The flood basalt (large cooled volcanic) eruptions result in disturbances in the core-mantle boundary which drive the quadrupolar process. Are they proposing the process described is a mechanism in true perpetual motion? Where does the energy come from? Or is there a clue in the statement “superchrons are often followed by major flood basalt eruptions”?
If Earth’s magnetism is solely the result of the fluid core’s movement, eventually it must wind down to a near standstill which would result in the dissipation of the magnetic field. But this is not what is seen recorded in the rock. Something is required to get it moving again and keep it moving especially after superchrons (long stable periods). That something must supply a large quantity of energy yet not destroy the system which brings us back to the idea of comet impacts.
Lines of Force around a magnet. Wikipedia.
There are other ridiculous constructs we just have to let go of if we are to move forward and really understand the Earth and magnetism. Observe these often repeated images.
Earth’s Magnetic Field
What is wrong with these images? Think about your experience with magnets. Both images show lines pointing inwards on one end and outwards on the other end. Are magnets little motor boats motoring though the universe? Is the Earth sucking in at the top and shooting out at the bottom some force?
So perhaps there is more to think about and discuss.
Recall that sometime ago the paper “A Planet Most Miraculous: The Mechanics of Earth’s Rotating Crust” was published here. In the last post we saw what the Mayan Calendar might be trying to show us by turning it over. In the same way we will overturn the world view of magnetism and learn how it played a role in saving the Earth. Each section below will be uploaded as separate pages as they become ready. So enjoy as you view the world differently.