Newark Decalogue Stone is Fake because there is No Garbage!

Front Face of Newark Decalogue Stone

Front Face of Newark Decalogue Stone

By B.L. Freeborn © 2013 (update Nov. 2018)

From Kenneth L. Feder, Ph.D. we hear, “Applying these post-Columbian historical models, most archaeologists deduce that if travelers from the Old World visited the New before Columbus they can be expected to have left similar, mundane material evidence of their presence in the form of artifacts culturally distinguishable from those of indigenous people.” 1

He means garbage. We all leave garbage lying about. They should have left more stuff with inscriptions lying about. They should have left more Old World origin stuff in their garbage piles. One can both agree and disagree.

Point in fact: David Wyrick found stones with inscriptions in 1860. Because he did, he lost his reputation and ultimately committed suicide. Suppose another intelligent person in 1860 had also found something, would he come forward to be lamb-basted? Not likely. So we might conjecture that any other ancient artifacts found in the 1800’s went into the garbage and fast.

Have things changed? If one found an artifact today would one come forward? Many would at the risk of their reputation. The artifact might also be confiscated never to be seen again. Things disappear even on legitimate archaeological digs. Is it worth impugning the reputation of the researchers over something out-of-place?

As far as other “garbage” in Newark2 we note there was:

  • a quartz ball found with the Keystone,
  • numerous other round balls were found at other mound sites,
  • the Keystone was found in a tough ball of clay,
  • “two beautiful plumb bobs but instead of being either round or oval they are eight square” were found with the Decalogue Stone,
  • the Decalogue stone was in an oval, round case which creates a large “rock” when closed and it was found with a small stone bowl,
  • the Johnson-Bradner stone found at the same location as the Decalogue was in a skull.

In fact, the other “garbage” these people left behind was monstrous earthworks that greatly resemble in detail earthworks in England and Ireland.

This does not mean the native people of the time period did not make these monuments. Of course they did! It does not mean today’s Indians are not descended from the original builders. Unless they all died off from disease or were killed off, of course they are descended from them! The mounds are enormous complexes that did not appear overnight nor were they built by a small group of people. (Nor were they built by Mormons, or lost tribes.)

What Dr. Feder wants to see to believe the stones are real is “a convincingly authentic, archaeological site with its complex of artifacts and features with all their spatial associations and stratigraphic contexts.”

In other words, he wants to see a typical community layout with an area of houses, a cemetery, and the always present garbage heap which in this case must contain relics similar to the Decalogue Stone or something from the Old World like a belt buckle.

What we do have is a site that has enormous spatial associations (the number stuff that is to come).  William Romain, Hively, Horn and James Marshall have begun to show us already that these sites were formally laid out geometrically. James Q. Jacobs and Joseph Knapp are hard at work showing the astronomical correlations. These mounds were not randomly built. In order to place these sites with the precision other authors demonstrate (and will be shown here later) they must have had either astronomy or surveying skills, or acquired the skills by association with another party. Today we hire engineering services. Today we are even persuaded by outside parties to build engineered monstrosities we do not want like Wheelabrator’s Incinerators. In other words, a small outside party amongst the population cannot be ruled out by the lack of their specific garbage. Their presence may be deduced by the results left behind, ie. a monstrous Wheelabrator Trash plant means “they were here.”

Someone engineered these sites. Who? How about the chap they unearthed where the plumb-bobs were found? Plumb-bobs are used in surveying. They found the Johnson-Bradner stone within a skull. That is a nice gruesome touch if it was forged. Two other interesting facts about this burial. The “crypt” was a coffin made from a hollowed tree trunk surrounded by and encased in fine white clay. Fine white clay is not found everywhere in Ohio. Its presence must indicate this person was special enough for his mourners to go to the trouble to get it. Over the clay was placed a layer of stones and wood bracing. Upon these were copper rings. Indeed, on top of this site was a mound of stones described as being 180 feet in diameter and 40+ feet high. This mound of stones was so large it took 75 wagon teams to remove the stones to make the dam to create Buckeye Lake in 1831-1832. This is an estimated 10 to 15,000 wagon loads. We may assume that each stone placed on that cairn was to show respect for those buried there. They were extraordinarily special in some way. They were so revered that people left so many tokens of respect that a great mound of stone was formed. For all we know the deceased was a visiting dignitary from the Old World. More likely he/they were the engineers who laid out the great Newark site and other vast mound systems. A plumb-bob was found after all. Would they not be laid to rest with their favorite tools?

We might ask where they learned their trade? Mesoamerica, Cahokia, or were they buried with something they brought from their homeland? Like a “Jewish looking” stone? There is another piece of forgotten history that will shed light on who might have been buried on that hill under that massive mound of stones.

“Another group of people also lived among the Cherokee. They were called the Ani’-Kuta’ni. Prior to Mooney there were other much older sources that stated these people were…

“…the priestly clan, having hereditary supervision of all religious ceremonies among the Cherokee, until, in consequence of having abused their sacred privileges, they were attacked and completely exterminated by the rest of the tribe, leaving the priestly functions to be assumed thereafter by individual doctors and conjurers.”3

“The Mound Builders are addressed in Mooney’s book. There are two versions to this story. One group said the mounds were built by another people with no association to the Cherokee while another story said they were built by the ancestors of the Priests Ani’-Kuta’ni.”

This report is from “The 19th and 7th Annual Reports Bureau American Ethnology,” 1897-1898. It gives us an unexpected picture of very early American history and may explain some parts of this story while still leaving us wondering about who the Ani’-Kuta’ni might have been.

We might also ask did they teach anyone else their trade and pass along their knowledge? There is evidence they did.4 The quick argument is that Native Americans did not own land and so surveyors were not required. The thoughtful answer is surveyors are required if you take the placement of your monuments very, very seriously. Were they placed precisely? They were, just as Romain concluded, but more than he could have imagined. This will lead to more numbers to be looked at!

Next we look at Lepper’s leap into oh-ohh.

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Footnotes/References

  1. Feder, Kenneth, Coming to America: Investigating Claims of Precolumbian Forays to the New World, “Newark “Holy Stones”: Context for Controversy,” Johnson-Humrickhouse Museum, 1999.
  2.  Alrutz, Robert W., “Newark Holy Stones: The History of an Archaeological Tragedy,” Coshocton, Ohio: The Johnson-Humrickhouse Museum, 2010.
  3. Mooney, James, “Myths of the Cherokee and Sacred Formulas of the Cherokees, From the 19th and 7th Annual Reports Bureau American Ethnology,” 1897-1898.
  4. Brennan, Tom PE, Civil Engineer and Surveyor, “Land Surveying Long Ago,” 2013 Spring Conference Presentation NEARA.

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153 Years and the Debate Still Rages: Newark Mounds and Decalogue Stone

Front Face of Newark Decalogue Stone

Newark Decalogue Stone, photo by J. Huston McCulloch

By B.L. Freeborn © 2013 (updated Nov 2018)

If the Newark Indian Mounds of Newark, Ohio were not large enough to contain a golf course (which they do) they would have been declared a fraud and a hoax. The Decalogue Stone and Keystone, two stones with Hebrew inscriptions found at and near the site have been declared both a fake and real. The debate over the stones has raged 153 years.

Today’s greatest anti-stone debaters are: Kenneth L. Feder, Ph.D., Professor of Anthropology at Central Connecticut State University and Bradley T. Lepper, Ph.D., Affiliated Scholar at Denison University in Granville, Ohio and Archeology Education Coordinator at the Ohio Historical Society.  They are joined by others who parrot their words such as Keith Fitzpatrick-Matthews, Archaeology Officer at North Hertfordshire District Council, England, educated at University of Lancaster and Letchworth Grammar School and is a former nightclub DJ who writes “Badarcheaology.”

They are opposed by J. Huston McCulloch, Ph.D., Professor of Economics and Finance at Ohio State University; Rochelle I. Altman, Ph. D. Medieval English Literature, Scotland, a specialist in ancient phonetic-based writing systems; Suzanne O. Carlson, architect and NEARA Board member, James Guthrie, retired industrial chemist and avocational epigrapher, and others.

Some of their arguments are logical. Some of them are not.

Keystone found near Octagon in Newark, Ohio

Keystone found near Octagon in Newark, Ohio,
Photo by J. Huston McCulloch

There is considerably less written on the Newark Mounds since there is just not as much to debate. They exist. They existed prior to European settlement so they are not forged. They have been altered but that work was either done in the interest of preserving them or removing them from existence, which is why three large portions of the mounds are in viewable park-like condition today and the rest has made way for progress. There is serious academic work being done on them with some pretty cool new instruments like LiDAR. William F. Romain, Ph.D. Archaeoastronomy, Research Associate for Newark Earthworks Center, Ohio State University leads in this field by far. He picked up where Ray Hively and Robert Horn of Earlham College, Richmond, Indiana left off in 1982. Joseph M. Knapp has written web-articles “Hopewell Lunar Astronomy: The Octagon Earthworks” and “On the Great Hopewell Road” which begins in Newark. He introduces us to James A. Marshall who has spent many hours actually surveying the mounds and has studied the geometry used in building them. This lovely image of the mounds is from James Q. Jacobs extensive site on the archaeoastronomy of ancient sites.

Newark Earthworks, Link to James Q. Jacobs Site and Photos.

Newark Earthworks, Link to James Q. Jacobs Site and Photos.

No one can say academic archaeologists are ignoring this topic. It is a mainstream debate and the arguments are becoming increasingly scientific … well…. except for Lepper’s and the Dj’s. To add to the topic at this point either good tools and/or observations are required.

There are a few gaffs in the arguments on the Stones on both sides. Perhaps the only way to really resolve the issue is to look at the Mounds themselves. Instead of debating endless rounds of “who is/is not guilty of faking them” perhaps we should change the question entirely. To do so we might have to throw out a lot of what we presume is actual fact. We need to see if there are any circumstances under which it would be appropriate for a “Jewish looking” stone to be found at the mounds pre-Columbus. In my mind their presence can only be logical and legitimate if they can be associated to the mounds themselves.

So we begin looking at the Stones by looking at some of the arguments of the current debaters and then there is a good deal of mathematical information about the mounds to share. The legitimacy of the stones aside, the geometric study proves a great intelligence lies behind the design and layout of the mounds. When done you will have a solid opinion …of some sort.

So we will pick up next with………… “They left no garbage!”

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Footnotes

  1. Newark Decalogue Stone and Keystone photos by J. Huston McCulloch.  http://economics.sbs.ohio-state.edu/jhm/arch/decalog.html
  2. Knapp, Joseph M., “Hopewell Lunar Astronomy: The Octagon Earthworks,” 1998.  http://www.copperas.com/octagon/oindex.html
  3. Knapp, Joseph M., “On the Great Hopewell Road,” 1998.  http://coolohio.com/octagon/onroad.htm
  4. More photos and archaeoastronomy information by J. Q. Jacobs.  http://www.jqjacobs.net/archaeo/octagon.html

Newark Decalogue Stone and Earthworks: An Unraveling Mystery

The following twenty-five posts were a pleasure to write and even more so to share with you. 

Newark Decalogue Stone and Earthworks: An Unraveling Mystery  … Full document as pdf.

B.L. Freeborn   © July 2013

“As a rule, innovation is welcome only when it is confined to surface details and does not modify the structure as a whole.” – Cyrus Gordon

Table of Contents

  1. Lepper’s One-Way Leap into Oh-Oh

    Front Face of Newark Decalogue Stone

    Front Face of Newark Decalogue Stone

  2. The Remains according to Romain

    Keystone found near Octagon in Newark, Ohio

    Keystone found near Octagon in Newark, Ohio

  3. Ohh… Let It Not be True

    Newark Earthworks, Link to James Q. Jacobs Site and Photos.

    Newark Earthworks, Link to James Q. Jacobs Site and Photos.

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See another example of Ohio Hebrew here.

The Mystery Stone of New Hampshire, Part I

– B.L. Freeborn, July 2012

– We are the descendants of the vulgar masses of old. We yearn for gnosis but run from it like frightened, silly children when it presents itself.

This small artifact is on display in the New Hampshire Historical Society in Concord. Found in 1872 near Lake Winnipesaukee, its origin remains unclear. Its meaning alludes traditional translation. The only explanation for its symbols and purpose that I have found is that it represented a treaty between two tribes. The first time I saw it, this explanation was satisfactory. Sometime ago I had another look at it and I had the same impression. It was the ear of corn and the indiscernible shapes in the circle beneath it that kept making me think this must be a relatively recent tribal object. I now think this is incredibly old and an object once owned by a High Priest, King, or Queen of great importance. It was that same simple ear of corn that finally made me exclaim in awe as it yielded up the stone’s secret.

A study of this artifact proves it to be a truly magnificent and complicated work of art. It contains information privy to only a few persons in the Old World. This small harmless looking stone is of a noble nature and its message is vastly important. I call it a Lamentation Stone.

It is a mere 4 inches in height and has a diameter of only 2 ½ inches. Onto this small surface ten images are carefully carved. The stone is made of quartzite or mylonite. The surface is smooth and polished. If it was a naturally occurring stone that was utilized by the artist, then he was fortunate in his find and with his skill. The art is flawless except for a chip near the forehead of more recent appearance. The work is intricate and detailed. The proportions are perfect for the message, so if the artist had faltered he would have had to find another stone of equal ellipsoid perfection. This suggests the stone was turned and then polished to the desired proportions.

The fact that it was probably turned leads most experts to quickly conclude it is of 19th century origin. This would be thinking only within the known context of our accepted knowledge of history. Consider that we cannot explain the construction methods of some of the oldest sites to be found in the world. The debate as to how the Great Pyramids were built still rages. The explanation as to how stones can be cut and fit as perfectly as they are at Machu-Picchu alludes us. Into this class falls this perfectly cut stone. We have two options open. It is either 19th century or extremely, extremely old.

The idea that it is 19th century is problematic to start. This was first machined before it was decorated. The symbolism is of tents, corn and arrows. Hence, we quickly conclude it was not colonial in nature but tribal. How many tribes had lathes or turning equipment? So then we conclude it is early American art of a unique nature. But that does not seem either satisfactory or logical. If the symbolism could be understood, then we might understand its origin.

On the front panel a large face is cut. On its left side are 2 small symbols, on its rear are 3 and on its right are 2. This comprises 7 small images. On its top is a circle with 8 triangles and a 1/8 th inch bore hole. On the bottom is a circle with 8 triangles tacked on. There is a 3/8 inch bore hole in the bottom. This then creates 10 images upon the stone. Its circumference calculates to 7.9 inches. The layout appears in the sketch.

We shall look at each image individually in separate posts. (Afterwards, the entire ten posts will be repeated as one complete document.) Before we begin, we look at it overall and see there is in this array of images the following number sequence. The face = 1, then 2 images, then 3 images, then 2 images, and then the face = 1.  Or 1, 2, 3, 2, 1

12321

The square root of 12321 is?

111   exactly.

And 111 can be said to represent God.

Consider that there are 7 images in the back grouping which reaffirms the special number 7. Add to this the two images on top/bottom and obtain 9. And then the face makes ten or we have these numbers in series 7, 9, 10 or  7910. The circumference of the object is 7.9 inches. We know this number today as the diameter of the Earth at 7920 miles. This object is an oblate sphere. The Earth is an oblate sphere. This object has circular areas on the top and the bottom just as Earth has circular areas on the top and bottom called the polar ice caps.

The array of seven scenes if read as rows becomes a series of numbers: 3, 3, 1 or we might say 33.1. This number represents an important concept I explain in numerous posts in the future. It represents an extremely significant idea portrayed repeatedly in the Ancient World.

It is easy to imagine the person depicted lived in a cold climate since it appears he is wearing a hood. This is emphasized by two small etched lines as if there are shoulders shown below the face. So the place from which this came was likely cold. The face is serene and silent, almost sad. It is beautiful and perfect in its proportions. Is this not a statement that says, “We were a beautiful and contemplative people” ?

So, I leave you to contemplate the truth and the possibilities….

More to follow…………….next the top and bottom images are examined as we decipher the Mystery Stone.

(updated Nov 2018)

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The Mystery Stone of New Hampshire, Part II

– B. L. Freeborn, July 2012

– The clock is ticking, ticking, ticking……

This continues the detailed look at the Mystery Stone of New Hampshire.

The images on the top and bottom are circles with 8 triangles each. They appear as shown in the cropped images. 8 is an interesting number. It can be said to be 2³ and this always make me think of infinity: doubling, doubling, doubling in all directions. When the 8 triangles from the top and bottom are added together it sums to 16. The Earth moves at the rate of 66,624 miles per hour and so in any given day it moves nearly 1600,000 miles around the sun. The world tirelessly turns and turns rotating the heavens around us. It turns like two enmeshed gears. If the two images are put together a gear assembly is created.

Recall, in the prior post we had discussed the group of seven images plus the two on top/bottom creating the number 79. They can just as easily be arranged as 7 and 2 to create the number 72. The rate at which the pole star precesses is one degree per 72 years.

The overall length of the stone is 4 inches and its width is 2 ½ inches. 4 / 2.5 = 1.6. Here appears the 16 again. The distance Earth moves in a day is 1600,000 miles.

And continuing the idea that the oblate sphere represents the Earth, is there not a large white polar ice cap at each pole? A line through the pole points to the pole star. This stone had a hole in its top and bottom so that a staff/pole can be inserted in the bottom and another thin pole can be inserted out of the top. This creates a planet with two ice caps, a pole, and a reminder of the rate of precession of the pole star.

Summing up so far, our stone tells us we have a contemplative people who lived on a planet 7910 miles in diameter that turned at a fixed rate.

So far so good.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Next we look at the Tent / Tepee ….        More to come as we decipher the Mystery Stone…

(updated Nov. 2018)

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The Mystery Stone of New Hampshire, Part III

-B. L. Freeborn, July 2012

-Gilgamish, Let not the Waters of Death touch thy hand. Take thou a pole. And thrust forward..

We have been discussing the images on the Mystery Stone of New Hampshire. In prior posts we have studied the Face and the Top/Bottom Gears.

There is a grouping of seven images on the back and sides of the stone. I suggest the images are supposed to be read top to bottom, left to right. So we begin with the first image on the left of the face which is the Tepee or tent. Upon visiting the museum and seeing the Mystery Stone, we were told by the staff that it probably came from out west because the Plain’s Indians lived in tepees of the style depicted. This is difficult to argue except that does not preclude other people at other times living in the same style of structures. In fact, the style of tent is not exactly all that unique. It appears in Egypt both historically and presently. It is a style that gives an economy of form and materials. To limit it to one single group of people in a particular time period is excessively restrictive. In fact, the Cherokee tribe is originally from the St. Lawrence and South Carolina areas which means it is not solely a style found in the plains but just as common as the idea of a house with four walls.

We let the argument linger as to when and where, and continue on with the study.

We shall call the image a home because that is more meaningful. Home is where we all live. This home has three panels shown so we might assume it is made of six panels. 6 reminds us of the number of minutes that create an hour and seconds in an hour. From the top projects four stakes. We could say they represent the four corners of the world, or 4 x 6 equals 24 hours in a day. Between the three panels lies 2 distinct lines. So, we have a series of numbers again: 4 3 2 shown by one half of the home. We might take a leap and say two halves would give us 864 and 864000 is the diameter of the Sun and exactly the number of seconds in a day is 86400.

We might also say this home represents the measurement of the world from the pole. If a line fixed at the pole sweeps out we obtain lines of longitude, just as portrayed by the tent. The tent measures 90 degrees. Each panel measures 30 degrees. Thirty degrees is what is called a double hour in longitude. We call every 15 degrees a different time zone.

Summing up so far: we have a contemplative people who lived on a planet 7910 miles in diameter that turned at a fixed rate around a Sun of diameter 864,000 miles. And this place they called home and they measured it by rays of longitude.

So far so good.

Next we look at the Circle…More posts to come as we decipher the Mystery Stone….

(updated Nov 2018)

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The Mystery Stone of New Hampshire, Part IV

Mystery Stone, photo by New Hampshire Historical Society

-B. L. Freeborn, August 2012

-Ah…… Eden.

We have been discussing the images on the Mystery Stone of New Hampshire. The Face, the Top/Bottom Gears, and the Tepee /Home have been discussed in previous posts. Now we look for the symbolism in the circle.

At first I had attached negative connotations to it such as hole or abyss but then I considered its position beneath the tent. Looking only at the positive we find it can mean: wholeness, completeness, and perfection of form. The Moon is a perfect globe as is the Sun. The Earth is perfection. The planets move in circular orbits. In fact, they move in orbits similar to the ellipsoid form of the stone. Perhaps it then means life was perfect. Life was harmonious.

So, I add to the translation thus far: “We were a contemplative people who lived on a planet 7910 miles in diameter that turned at a fixed rate around a Sun of diameter 864,000 miles. And this place we called home. We measured our world with rays of longitude. It was perfection. Our lives were complete.”

Still, so far so good.

Next we look at the Arrows…………..More posts to come as we decipher the Mystery Stone…

(updated Nov. 2018)

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The Mystery Stone of New Hampshire, Part V

-B. L. Freeborn, August 2012

– The eye cannot see what the mind cannot conceive.

Two faces of Mystery Stone, photo New Hampshire Historical Society.

We have been discussing the images on the Mystery Stone of New Hampshire. The Face, the Top/Bottom Gears, the Tepee/Home and the Circle have been discussed in previous posts. Now we decipher the arrows.

I like the phrase: the eye cannot see what the mind cannot conceive. That explains why we cannot understand what appears in this image. If it is arrows, they are arrows that have bounced because only two of them have heads.

I suggest they are two images in one. They are first a set of dividers. Dividers are used to measure on maps, to inscribe circles and to measure the heavens. They represent the measurement of the Earth and Heavens. As a set of dividers, one must ask at what angle are they positioned? What angle did they want to preserve for posterity? It seems that they record an angle of 56 degrees at the main top and bottom intersection. The smaller angles (very difficult to measure from photos) at the bottom appear to be 35 left and 30 degrees on the right. The sum of 30 + 56 = 86 which reiterates the diameter of the sun at 86400 miles. The sum of 35 + 56 = 91 and 91 represents the Earth’s closest approach to the Sun at 91.4 million miles. The number 56 can be found four times in this small image by considering all the angles displayed.

56 – We discussed this number previously in the post about the 56 Aubrey Post Holes (June 2012) which have been found at Stonehenge in England. It is mysteriously always present yet not a word is ever said about it. It appears in the spelling of Yahweh. It appears and reappears over and over.

Before we leave the pattern formed by the crossing lines, notice that there are two large triangles created. This is another version of an often seen symbol. You have seen it most of your life in two forms. The symbolism appears as the Vesica Pisces which is created by the intersection of two circles. In this case the Vesica is split in two halves. The offsetting of the circles is shown by the two identical triangles. Placing a circle in a vesica creates the all seeing eye on a dollar bill, and the basic form was borrowed by the Christians to represent Christ in the symbol of the fish. The original meaning behind these symbols is of great importance and is explained in future posts.

The second idea recorded here is very, very difficult for us to understand. Perhaps this image represents meteorites, or hard rain, as the ancients put it. A rain of pelting meteorites came. Sometimes ancient texts describe it as arrows falling. Arrows from heaven came.

So far so good for the translation but the story has taken an odd turn.

So our translation thus far reads: “We were a contemplative people who lived on a planet 7910 miles in diameter that turned at a fixed rate around a Sun of diameter 864,000 miles. And this place we called home. We measured our world and the heavens with rays of longitude. It was perfection. Our lives were complete until the day the meteorites came.”

Next we look at the Two Spears and Shield………………………More posts to come as we decipher the Mystery Stone…

(updated Nov. 2018)

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